3 CHAPTER 6 & 7 VOCABULARY 1. Biome- large region characterized by a specific type of climate and certain types of plant and animal communities. 2. Climate- the average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time. 3. Latitude- the distance north or south from the equator, expressed in degrees. 4. Altitude- the height of an object above a reference point, such as sea level or the Earth s surface. 5. Emergent layer- the top foliage layer in a forest where the trees extend above the surrounding trees. 6. Epiphyte- a plant that uses another plant for support, but not for nourishment. 7. Understory- a foliage layer that is beneath and shaded by the main canopy of a forest. 8. Permafrost- in artic regions, the permanently frozen layer of soil or subsoil. 9. Wetland- an area of land that is periodically underwater or whose soil contains a great deal of moisture. 10.Plankton- the mass of mostly microscopic organisms that float or drift freely in the waters of aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments.
4 CHAPTER 6 & 7 VOCABULARY 11. Nekton- all organisms that swim in open water, independent of currents. 12. Benthos- organisms that live at the bottom of oceans or bodies of fresh water. 13.Littoral zone- a shallow zone in a freshwater habitat where light reaches the bottom and nurtures plants. 14. Benthic zone- the bottom region of oceans and bodies of fresh water. 15.Eutrophication- an increase in the amount of nutrients, such as nitrates, in a marine or aquatic ecosystem. 16.Estuary- an area where fresh water from rivers mixes with salt water from the ocean. 17. Salt marsh- a maritime habitat characterized by grasses, sedges, and other plants that have adapted to continual, periodic flooding. 18.Mangrove swamp- a tropical or subtropical marine swamp that is characterized by the abundance of low to tall trees, especially mangrove trees. 19.Barrier island- a long ridge of sand or narrow island that lies parallel to the shore. 20.Coral reef- a limestone ridge found in tropical climates and composed of coral fragments that are deposited around organic remains.
5 BIOMES 1. ANIMALS IN THE DESERT NORMALLY COME OUT AT WHAT TIME? 2.WHAT ARE SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TUNDRA? 3.WHAT PLANTS CAN BE FOUND IN THE TAIGA? 4.THE DISTANCE NORTH OR SOUTH OF THE EQUATOR IS MEASURED IN DEGREES CALLED WHAT? 5.WHAT DETERMINES THE TYPE OF PLANTS THAT GROW IN A BIOME?
6 VEGETATION IN BIOMES 6.BIOMES WITH HIGH TEMPERATURES AND LOW PRECIPITATION WOULD HAVE WHAT TYPE OF VEGETATION? 7. WHAT IS THREATENING TROPICAL RAIN FORESTS? 8.WHAT CAN HAPPEN AFTER STORMS AS FORESTS ARE REMOVED BY DEFORESTATION? 9.WHAT ARE WETLANDS USEFUL FOR? 10.WHERE DO ESTUARIES RECEIVE THEIR NUTRIENTS (WHAT WATER SOURCES)?
7 POLLUTION 11.WHAT CAUSES COASTAL POLLUTION IN THE U.S.? 12.WHERE ARE SWAMPS TYPICALLY FOUND? 13.WHERE DO YOU FIND MOST MARINE ORGANISMS? 14.AS RIVERS FLOW FROM A MOUNTAIN TO FLATTER GROUND, WHAT DO THEY DO? 15.WHAT ARE SOME THREATS TO OCEAN ECOSYSTEMS?
8 AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS 16. THE TYPES OF ORGANISMS THAT ARE FOUND IN LAKES AND PONDS DEPENDS ON WHAT? 17.WHAT ZONE IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS HAS DIVERSE AND ABUNDANT LIFE? 18.WHAT ZONE IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS IS THE WATER COOL AND DARK? 19.WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE IN NEKTON AND BENTHOS?
9 AQUATIC ORGANISMS 20.WHICH ORGANISMS PRODUCE MOST OF THE FOOD IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS? 21. WHAT DETERMINES THE ARRANGEMENT OF ORGANISMS IN THE OPEN OCEAN? 22.WHAT ARE SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF WETLANDS?
10 AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS 23.WHY IS AN ESTUARY CONSIDERED A MINERAL TRAP (TRAPS MINERALS)? 24.HOW ARE CORAL REEFS FORMED? 25.WHAT ARE THE TWO MAIN FRESH WATER WETLANDS? 26.WHAT ECOSYSTEM HAS THE HIGHEST LEVEL OF SALINITY?
11 OCEAN 27.WHAT ARE SOME THREATS TO CORAL REEFS? 28.WHY DOESN T PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCUR IN THE DEEP OCEAN? 29.WHAT BIOME HAS PLANTS THAT ARE LOW-LYING EVERGREEN SHRUBS AND TREES WITH SMALL, LEATHERY LEAVES? 30.WHAT IS THE AMOUNT OF DISSOLVED SALTS IN WATER CALLED? 31.WHERE DO YOU FIND CORAL REEFS?
12 WHERE S THAT BIOME? 32.WHAT BIOME RECEIVES CM OF RAIN PER YEAR? 33.WHAT BIOME RECEIVES LESS THAN 25 CM OF RAIN PER YEAR? 34.WHAT ARE SOME ANIMALS YOU WOULD EXPECT TO SEE IN A SAVANNA? 35.AS YOU TRAVEL FROM THE NORTH POLE TO THE EQUATOR, WHAT BIOMES WOULD YOU PASS THROUGH?
13 WHAT S IN IT? 36.WHAT ARE SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF A TEMPERATE RAIN FOREST? 37.WHICH BIOME IS LOCATED PRIMARILY IN COASTAL AREAS THAT HAVE MEDITERRANEAN-STYLE CLIMATES WITH WARM, DRY SUMMERS AND MILD, WET WINTERS? 38.WHAT IS AN ADAPTATION OF DESERT ANIMALS THAT HELP THEM SURVIVE IN THE HOT, DRY DESERT?