# Homeostasis Worksheet

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1 Biology Ms. Ye Name Date Block Homeostasis Worksheet Homeostasis is a dynamic process of regulating and maintaining stable internal conditions MODEL 1: Maintaining a Car Speed. The process of homeostasis can be compared to driving a car at the speed limit. 1. What is the set point for driving a car in this example? 2. If you detect that the speed of the car is above the set point, what response would you make to get the speed back to the set point? 3. If you detect the speed of the car is below the set point, what response would you make to get the speed back to the set point?

2 MODEL 2: Maintaining the Temperature in a House. This model shows a heating system for maintaining home temperature in cold weather. Most people consider a value around 23 degrees Celsius to be comfortable. QUESTIONS: 4. What is the temperature range within the house over the time period shown? 5. What two values are used by the thermostat in its functioning? 6. At what temperature does the furnace turn on? At what temperature does it turn off? 7. In this scenario, what is the most likely value of the target temperature? Explain your reasoning. 8. The homeowner has Northern Australian orchids growing in the house, which only grow in temperatures above 22 degrees Celsius. If the thermostat, or the wire from the thermostat to the furnace, breaks, what will happen to the temperature in the house? What will happen to the Orchids? 9. In the summer, how could this loop be modified (settings or components) to keep the house around the same target temperature?

3 MODEL 3: General Feedback Loop Homeostasis is an important ability associated with living organisms. It is typically carried out through a process using a negative feedback loop, similar to the loop that controls the temperature in a house. The diagram below shows the generic components of the loop. Variable Sensor Measures the variable Effector Works to change the variable back toward normal Information flow Information flow Integrator Makes the decision as to whether or not the variable is at an appropriate value. It does so by comparing it to a set point and by taking into account other information. Other information Feedback Loops: 10. Fill in the missing components for the following feedback loops. These are all common examples of how your body maintains homeostasis. Word Bank: Body temperature slowly returns to normal (x2) Body sugar levels return to normal Conditions cause body temperature to decrease Conditions cause body temperature to increase Blood sugar levels rise after eating food Muscles Shiver; Blood vessels constrict Sweat glands secrete sweat; Blood vessels dilate Insulin is released to help remove glucose (sugar) from the blood and store it in your body

4 Application Questions: The graph below shows evidence of disease in the human body. Base your answer to the following questions on the information in the graph. 11. A disruption in homeostasis is indicated by a temperature change that occurs between points a. A and B Justify your answer! b. B and C c. C and D d. E and F 12. The action of a homeostatic feedback mechanism is indicated by a temperature change that occurs between points a. A and B Justify your answer! b. B and C c. C and D d. D and E

5 Taxonomy LEAST SPECIFIC MOST SPECIFIC 1. Use the Linnaean taxonomic groupings described in the paragraph above to complete the blank column of the table ( taxa ).

6 2. Which two of the three cats listed in the table are most closely related? Explain your answer. 3. At which taxonomic level (kingdom, phylum, etc ) do the two cats you identified in the question above separate? 4. What is the most specific taxonomic grouping (kingdom, phylum, etc ) in which all three cats are the same? 5. The genus and species names are collectively referred to as the scientific name. It is written in a form known as binomial nomenclature, a two-term Latin naming system. There are three rules for writing a scientific name using this system. Analyze the information in Model 2 to complete the rules below: Rule 1: The scientific name is always written in parts, with the genus name written and the species name. (fill in blanks with 2, first or last) Rule 2: The scientific name is always written in italics. If it is handwritten, it is written in cursive or underlined. Rule 3: The first letter of the genus name is a letter. (fill in blank with capital or lowercase) 6. Using this system, would it be possible for two different species to have the same name? Explain.

7 Classification of Living Things Reference Table I. Vocabulary: Fill in the basic definitions to the following terms. Unicellular Organism Multicellular Organism Prokaryotic Cell Autotroph Eukaryotic Cell Heterotroph II. Kingdoms: All living organisms are classified into 3 groups known as domains. These can be further classified into increasingly more specific groups: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species. Fill in the characteristics for each of the 6 kingdoms in the table below. Domain Kingdom Cellular Organization Type of Cells Energy Source Example (Unicellular or Multicellular) (Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic) (Autotroph or Heterotroph) Eukarya Animalia Plantae Fungi Protista Archaea Archaebacteria Bacteria Eubacteria

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