1 7.2 CELL STRUCTURE The student will investigate and understand that all living things are composed of cells. Key concepts include a. cell structure and organelles b. similarities and differences between plant and animal cells c. development of cell theory d. cell division CELL STRUCTURE The structure of a cell organelle is suited to the function carried out by that organelle. Division of labor within a cell is essential to the overall successful function of the cell. Similarities and differences in plants and animals are evident at the cellular level. Plant and animal cells contain some of the same organelles and some that differ. distinguish among the following: cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, cell wall, vacuole, mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum, and chloroplast. Using images from a light microscope, identify plant and animal cells. CELL THEORY Cell theory includes the following components: all living things are composed of cells; cells are the smallest unit (structure) of living things that can perform the processes (functions) necessary for life; living cells come only from other living cells. know the three components of the cell theory The development of cell theory can be attributed to the major discoveries of many notable scientists. The development of cell theory has been dependent upon improvements in the microscope technologies and microscopic techniques throughout the last four centuries. Continuing advances in microscopes and instrumentation have increased the understanding of cell organelles and their functions. Many of these organelles can now be observed with a microscope (light, electron). CELL CYCLE Cells go through a life cycle known as the cell cycle. The phases of the cell cycle are interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis. know the steps in the cell cycle, including the phases of mitosis The purpose of mitosis is to produce new cells for growth and repair that are identical to the parent cell. The purpose of meiosis is to produce reproductive (sex) cells that carry half the genetic material of the parent. Know the purpose of and difference between mitosis and of meiosis.
2 7.3 CELLULAR STRUCTURE a. cells, tissues, organs, and systems b. patterns of cellular organization and their relationship to life processes in living things. CELLULAR ORGANIZATION Cells that have the same function group together to form tissues. Tissues that have the same function group together to form organs. Organs with similar functions group to work together in an organ system. UNICELLULAR & MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS Unicellular organisms are made of only one cell. Multicellular organisms are made of many cells. Multicellular organisms exhibit a hierarchy of cellular organization. They are complex in that there is a division of labor among the levels of this hierarchy for carrying out necessary life processes. LIFE PROCESSES Living things carry out life processes including ingestion, digestion and removal of waste stimulus response growth and repair gas exchange reproduction Numerous factors can strongly influence the life processes of organisms. CELL FUNCTIONS Cells perform numerous functions and processes including cellular respiration waste breakdown and removal growth and division cellular transport PASSIVE TRANSPORT Osmosis is the passive transport of water molecules across a cell membrane. Diffusion is the passive transport of substances other than water across a cell membrane. Cell membranes are selectively permeable to various substances. Understand and diagram how materials move into and out of cells in the processes of osmosis, diffusion, and selective permeability
3 LS.4 HEIRARCHY AND CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS a. the distinguishing characteristics of domains of organisms; b. the distinguishing characteristics of kingdoms of organisms; c. the distinguishing characteristics of major animal phyla and plant divisions; and d. the characteristics that define a species. HIERARCHY Information about physical features and activities is arranged in a hierarchy of increasing specificity. The levels in the accepted hierarchy include domain kingdom phylum class order family genus species As living things are constantly being investigated, new attributes (physical and chemical) are revealed that affect how organisms are placed in a standard classification system. This system is the basis for scientific binomial nomenclature. THREE DOMAINS 3 DOMAINS - Current classification systems now generally recognize the categorization of organisms into three domains, Archaea Bacteria Eukarya Any grouping of organisms into domains or kingdoms is based on several factors, including the presence or absence of cellular structures, such as the nucleus, mitochondria, or a cell wall; whether the organisms exist as single cells or are multicellular; how the organisms get their food. ARCHAEA - For example, simple, single-celled organisms that are able to survive in extreme environments are believed to be fundamentally different from other organisms and may be classified in their own domain (Archaea). EUKARYA - Four different kingdoms of the Eukarya domain of organisms are generally recognized by scientists today Protista Fungi Plants Animals
4 ANIMAL PHYLA & PLANT DIVISIONS PHYLA - Some important animal groups (phyla) are the cnidarians mollusks annelids arthropods echinoderms chordates DIVISIONS - Four important plant groups (divisions)are the mosses ferns conifers flowering plants SPECIES - A group of similar-looking organisms that can interbreed under natural conditions and produce offspring that are capable of reproduction defines a species.
5 LS.5 PHOTOSYNTHESIS a. energy transfer between sunlight and chlorophyll b. transformation of water and carbon dioxide into sugar and oxygen c. photosynthesis as the foundation of virtually all food webs PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis is the necessary life process that transforms light energy into chemical energy. It involves a series of chemical reactions in which the light energy is used to change raw materials (carbon dioxide and water) into products (sugar and oxygen). The energy is stored in the chemical bonds of the glucose (sugar) molecules. Chlorophyll is a chemical in chloroplasts that can absorb or trap light energy. Plants convert the sugars they produce into other raw materials that are used by plants and animals for growth, repair, and energy needs. Energy is a basic need of all living things. Photosynthesizing organisms obtain their energy from the sun and are often called producersbecause of their ability to produce glucose (sugar). Photosynthesizing organisms are the foundation of virtually all food webs. Plants perform cellular respiration as well as photosynthesis. Students should know the following about photosynthesis: the raw materials used and products generated. the cellular organelles involved how energy from photosynthesis is used how photosynthesis relates to producers and their role in food webs that cellular respiration is the reverse of photosynthesis
6 LS.6 CYCLES AND SYSTEMS a. the carbon, water, and nitrogen cycles; b. interactions resulting in a flow of energy and matter throughout the system; c. complex relationships within terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems; and d. energy flow in food webs and energy pyramids. CYCLES Many important elements and compounds cycle through the living and nonliving components of the environment as a chain of events that continuously repeats. Materials are recycled and made available through the action of decomposers. understand water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles and the roles of organisms from bacteria and fungi to third-order consumers in these cycles. SYSTEMS In order to understand how an ecosystem functions, one must understand the concept of a system and be able to envision models of systems. To analyze the interactions resulting in a flow of energy and matter throughout the ecosystem, one must identify the elements of the system and interpret how energy and matter are used by each organism. understand terrestrial (land), freshwater, and marine (ocean/ saltwater) ecosystems. Energy enters an ecosystem through the process of photosynthesis and is passed through the system as one organism eats and is, in turn, eaten. This energy flow can be modeled through relationships expressed in food webs. The amount of energy available to each successive trophic level (producer, firstorder consumer, second-order consumer, third-order consumer) decreases. This can be modeled through an energy pyramid, in which the producers provide the broad base that supports the other interactions in the system. understand producers or first-, second-, or third-order consumers. relationship between a population s position in a food web and its size (smaller eaten by larger). understand food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids to analyze how energy and matter flow through an ecosystem. (the shape of an energy pyramid shows that only about 10% of energy is available at the higher level.)
7 LS.7 INTERACTIONS WITHIN POPULATIONS a. competition, cooperation, social hierarchy, territorial imperative b. influence of behavior on a population. KINDS OF INTERACTIONS Individual members of a population interact with each other. These interactions include competing with each other for basic resources, mates, territory, and cooperating with each other to meet basic needs. The establishment of a social order in a population may ensure that labor and resources are adequately shared. The establishment of a territory ensures that members of a population have adequate habitat to provide for basic resources. Individual behaviors and group behaviors can influence a population. Animals exhibit needs for food, water, gases, shelter and space for which they compete. These needs may often be met in a range of conditions. Too much may be as harmful as too little (e.g., too much food or too little water). categorize behaviors as examples of competition, cooperation, social hierarchy, or territorial imperative.
8 LS.7 INTERACTIONS WITHIN POPULATIONS The student will investigate and understand interactions among populations in a biological community. Key concepts include a. the relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in food webs b. the relationship between predators and prey c. competition and cooperation d. symbiotic relationships e. niches SHARING BASIC NEEDS Organisms or populations that rely on each other for basic needs form interdependent communities. Energy resources of a community are shared through the interactions of producers, consumers, and decomposers. The interaction between a consumer that hunts for another consumer for food is the predator-prey relationship. In a community, populations interact with other populations by exhibiting a variety of behaviors that aid in the survival of the population. Organisms may exist as members of a population; populations interact with other populations in a community. Populations of one species may compete with populations of other species for resources. Populations of one species may also cooperate with populations of other species for resources. A symbiotic relationship may exist between two or more organisms of different species when they live and work together. Symbiotic relationships include mutualism (in which both organisms benefit), commensalism (in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected), and parasitism (in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed). Each organism fills a specific role or niche in its community.
9 LS.9 BIOMES, ECOSYSTEMS, ADAPTATIONS a. differences between ecosystems and biomes b. characteristics of land, marine, and freshwater ecosystems c. adaptations that enable organisms to survive within a specific ecosystem ECOSYSTEMS AND BIOMES The living organisms within a specific area and their physical environment define an ecosystem. Characteristics of land, marine, and freshwater ecosystems vary with respect to biotic and abiotic factors. The major terrestrial ecosystems are classified into units called biomes large regions characterized by certain conditions, including a range of climate and ecological communities adapted to those conditions. know the difference between ecosystems and biomes. understand major biomes: desert, forest, grassland, and tundra. know biotic and abiotic characteristics of land, marine, and freshwater ecosystems. ADAPTATIONS Organisms have specific structures, functions, and behaviors that enable them to survive the biotic and abiotic conditions of the particular ecosystem in which they live. Organisms possess adaptations to both biotic and abiotic factors in their ecosystem that increase their chance of survival. understand how specific adaptations enable organisms to survive in a particular ecosystem.
10 LS. 10 DAILY, SEASONAL, AND LONG-TERM CHANGES The student will investigate and understand that ecosystems, communities, populations, and organisms are dynamic, change over time, and respond to daily, seasonal, and long-term changes in their environment. Key concepts include a. phototropism, hibernation, and dormancy b. factors that increase or decrease population size c. eutrophication, climate changes, and catastrophic disturbances. RESPONSES TO CHANGES IN THE ENVIRONMENT Organisms may exist as members of a population; populations interact with other populations in a community; and communities together with the physical environment form ecosystems. differentiate between ecosystems, communities, populations, and organisms. Changes that affect organisms over time may be daily, seasonal, or long term. classify the various types of changes as long term, short term, or seasonal. Plants may respond to light by growing toward it or away from it, a behavior known as phototropism. Animals may respond to cold conditions with a period of lowered metabolism, a behavior known as hibernation. Organisms may respond to adverse conditions with a period of lowered or suspended metabolism, a behavior known as dormancy. A variety of environmental factors may cause the size of a population to increase or decrease. (This requires students to brainstorm examples of factors and predict the possible effects.) compare and contrast the factors that increase or decrease population size. LONG TERM CHANGES Long-term changes may affect entire communities and ecosystems. Such large-scale changes include the addition of excess nutrients to the system (eutrophication), which alters environmental balance; dramatic changes in climate; and catastrophic events, such as fire, drought, flood, and earthquakes. predict the effect of climate change and the effect of eutrophication on ecosystems, communities, populations, and organisms.
11 LS.11 HUMAN IMPACT ON ECOSYSTEMS The student will investigate and understand the relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity. Key concepts include a. food production and harvest b. change in habitat size, quality, or structure c. change in species competition d. population disturbances and factors that threaten or enhance species survival e. environmental issues HUMAN IMPACT ON DYNAMIC ECOSYSTEMS Ecosystems are dynamic systems. Humans are a natural part of the ecosystem. Humans use the ecosystem to meet their basic needs, such as to obtain food. Human interaction can directly alter habitat size, the quality of available resources in a habitat, and the structure of habitat components. Such interactions can be positive and/or negative. Human input can disturb the balance of populations that occur in a stable ecosystem. These disturbances may lead to a decrease or increase in a population. Since populations in an ecosystem are interdependent, these disturbances have a ripple effect throughout the ecosystem. The interaction of humans with the dynamic ecosystem may lead to issues of concern for continued ecosystem health in areas such as water supply, air quality, energy production, and waste management. In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will identify examples of ecosystem dynamics. describe the relationship between human food harvest and the ecosystem. debate the pros and cons of human land use versus ecosystem stability. compare and contrast population disturbances that threaten and those that enhance species survival. describe ways that human interaction has altered habitats positively and negatively.
12 LS. 12 GENETICS LS.12 The student will investigate and understand that organisms reproduce and transmit genetic information to new generations. Key concepts include a. the structure and role of DNA b. the function of genes and chromosomes c. genotypes and phenotypes d. characteristics that can and cannot be inherited e. genetic engineering and its applications f. historical contributions and significance of discoveries related to genetics DNA DNA is a double helix molecule. DNA is a molecule that includes different components sugars, nitrogenous bases, and phosphates. The arrangement of the nitrogenous bases within the double helix forms a chemical code. Chromosomes are strands of tightly wound DNA. Genes are sections of a chromosome that carry the code for a particular trait. An allele is an alternate form of a gene. recognize the appearance of DNA as double helix in shape. explain that DNA contains coded instructions that store and pass on genetic information from one generation to the next. explain the necessity of DNA replication for the continuity of life. explain the relationship among genes, chromosomes, and alleles. GENETIC INHERITANCE The basic laws of Mendelian genetics explain the transmission of most traits that can be inherited from generation to generation. A Punnett square is a model used to predict the possible combinations of inherited factors resulting from single trait crosses. demonstrate variation within a single genetic trait. distinguish between dominant and recessive traits. use Punnett squares to predict the possible combinations of inherited factors resulting from single trait crosses. Dominant traits mask the expression (phenotype) of recessive traits. Genotype is the specific combination of dominant and recessive gene forms. Traits that are expressed through genes can be inherited. distinguish between genotype and phenotype. differentiate between characteristics that can be inherited and those that cannot be inherited. Characteristics that are acquired through environmental influences, such as injuries or practiced skills, cannot be inherited. In genetic engineering, the genetic code is manipulated to obtain a desired product. Genetic engineering has numerous practical applications in medicine, agriculture, and biology. identify aspects of genetic engineering and supply examples of applications. Evaluate the examples for possible controversial aspects. describe the contributions of Mendel, Franklin, Watson, and Crick to our basic understanding of genetics.
13 LS. 13 EVOLUTION The student will investigate and understand that populations of organisms change over time. Key concepts include a. the relationships of mutation, adaptation, natural selection, and extinction b. evidence of evolution of different species in the fossil record c. how environmental influences, as well as genetic variation, can lead to diversity of organisms. CAUSES OF EVOLUTIONARY CHANGES The mechanisms through which evolution takes place are a related set of processes that include mutation, adaptation, natural selection, and extinction. This results in changes in populations of organisms over time. Mutations are inheritable changes because a mutation is a change in the DNA code. Adaptations are structures, functions, or behaviors that enable a species to survive. Natural selection is the survival and reproduction of the individuals in a population that exhibit the traits that best enable them to survive in their environment. A mutation may result in a favorable change or adaptation in genetic information that improves a species ability to exist in its environment, or a mutation may result in an unfavorable change that does not improve or impedes a species ability to exist in its environment. Individuals of a population each exhibit a range of variations in a trait as a result of the variations in their genetic codes. These variations may or may not help them survive and reproduce in their environment. If a species does not include traits that enable it to survive in its environment or to survive changes in the environment, then the species may become extinct. EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION The evidence for evolution is drawn from a variety of sources of data, including the fossil record, radiometric dating, genetic information, the distribution of organisms, and anatomical and developmental similarities across species. describe and explain how fossils are records of organisms and events in Earth s history.
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