A Warm Up Exercise. The Motion of the Sun. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "A Warm Up Exercise. The Motion of the Sun. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise"

Transcription

1 A Warm Up Exercise The Motion of the Sun Which of the following is NOT true of a circumpolar star? a) It rises and sets from my latitude b) Its direction can be far North c) Its direction can be far South d) At sunset it appears in the sky e) You can see it all night A Warm Up Exercise Which of the following is NOT true of a circumpolar star? a) It rises and sets from my latitude b) Its direction can be far North c) Its direction can be far South d) At sunset it appears in the sky e) You can see it all night A Warm Up Exercise If a star rises in the Southeast, it will set in the a) West b) Northeast c) Southeast d) Northwest e) Southwest A Warm Up Exercise If a star rises in the Southeast, it will set in the a) West b) Northeast c) Southeast d) Northwest e) Southwest The Motion of the Sun The Sun moves Eastward by about 1º per day This apparent motion is the reflection of the Earth s annual orbit around the sun 360º in 365 days During the year we see a sequence of 12 ancient constellations known as the Zodiac. Many date from Babylonian times Familiar from astrological lore. These define an astronomical calendar: See which Zodiacal constellation is on your celestial meridian at midnight. The Sun is in the opposite constellation. The Ecliptic plane defined by the position of the Sun is tilted by 23.5º 1

2 March 1999: Sun in Pisces Pisces Aquarius June 1999: Sun in Pisces Aquarius What is a Day? The apparent SOLAR DAY is the period from one local noon until the next (noon = when the sun crosses the local meridian) September 1999: Sun in Pisces Aquarius December 1999: Sun in Pisces Aquarius This varies a little bit during year because of the Earth s orbit around the sun The Earth s orbit is not a perfect circle The plane of the Earth s orbit is tilted relative to the equator The mean SOLAR DAY, which averages over these small variations, defines our standard 24 hour day. NO. And don t forget it this will be on a test! Is the 24 hour mean solar day how long it takes the Earth to spin around on its axis once? You have to remember that the Earth is moving on its orbit around the Sun too! In one day, the Earth moves =(360 o )(1day/365days) 1degree along its orbit So from noon to noon the Earth has to rotate not 360 o but 361 o That extra degree takes (24hours)/360=4minutes T=24 h (Solar day) T=23 h 56 m 04 s (Sidereal Day) The Sidereal Day The Mean Solar Day = average time from noon to noon = 24 hours The Sidereal Day = rotation period of the Earth = 23 hours, 56 minutes, seconds The sidereal day is also the time it takes a star to cross a meridian from one night to the next Noon T=0 h Not to Scale 2

3 The Orbit of the Earth About the Sun The Earth goes around the sun in days The Earth s equator is tilted by 23.5 degrees from the ecliptic plane defined by the Earth s orbit s and Equinoxes I Because of the 23.5 degree tilt (the obliquity of the ecliptic ) between the celestial equator and the ecliptic plane, the latitude of the sun relative to the equator changes during the year. North Celestial Pole Celestial Equator =23.5degrees s NCP s occur when the Sun is at its maximum northern or southern declination along the Ecliptic. From Latin sol sistit = sun stands. Occur twice a year in June and December: Summer : Maximum northern declination of the Sun. Winter : Maximum southern declination of the Sun Winter Summer CEq SCP NCP Equinoxes Equinoxes occur when the Sun crosses the Celestial Equator. From Latin equi noctis = equal night Occur twice a year in March and September: Vernal Equinox: Sun crosses the Celestial Equator moving North Autumnal Equinox: Sun crosses the Celestial Equator moving South Winter Autumnal Equinox Vernal Equinox Summer CEq SCP 3

4 Summer Vernal & Autumnal Equinoxes Z NCP Winter S W N E CEq s and Equinoxes II Summer (June 21 or 22) the sun reaches its maximum latitude above the equator of 23.5 degrees At the winter solstice It is dark 24 hours per day above the arctic circle (latitude= =66.5 deg) It is light 24 hours per day below the antarctic circle (latitude= = 66.5deg) The sun is directly overhead at noon on the Tropic of (latitude=-23.5deg) Winter (December 21 or 22) the sun reaches its maximum latitude below the equator of 23.5 degrees Vernal (Spring) Equinox (March 20 or 21) the sun crosses the celestial equator Autumnul (Fall) Equinox (September 21 or 22) the sun crosses the celestial equator We use the location of the sun at the vernal equinox as the prime meridian for defining celestial longitude. Analemmas Summer Stonehenge: Ancient observatory in England (c BC) Analemma photographs show the position of the sun at the same clock time during the course of the year. Winter solstice Sunrise at the Summer 4

5 The Year The day year we use as our standard is the tropical year which is the time between vernal equinoxes as measured on the Tropic of (+23.5degrees latitude). The sidereal year, the time it takes the Earth to go around the sun, is about 20 minutes longer than the tropical year. This is due to the precession of the equinoxes (which we ll come back to). Summary of Solar Annual Motions Annual Motions reflect the Earth s orbit around the Sun: The Ecliptic: Sun s path relative to the stars. The Obliquity of the Ecliptic: 23.5º Constellations of the Zodiac along the Ecliptic. Equinoxes: Sun crosses the Celestial Equator. s: Sun at maximum declination N & S. Length of the day depends on where this Sun is along the Ecliptic. Precession Because the Earth is not perfectly spherical (the circumference around the poles is 0.3% smaller than around the equator), the Moon s gravity (primarily) makes the Earth precess Precession of the Equinoxes Wobble of the Earth s rotation axis about the Ecliptic Pole. Slow westward drift of the rotation axis Takes ~26,000 years to complete 1 circuit Amounts to ~50"/year, or 1º in 72 years. Discovered by Hipparchus of Nicaea (~150BC), but may have been known to the Babylonians. Caused by tidal torques from the Moon & Sun The Age of Aquarius Precession causes the Equinoxes & s to drift westward over time. Vernal Equinox: Now in Pisces, will enter Aquarius in 2597 AD 1 AD: in Aries Summer : Now leaving & entering Taurus 1 AD: in The North Star Precession also changes which star is the northern pole star over time: 2000 AD: Polaris is 0.75º from the North Celestial Pole. Gets closest to the NCP in BC: NCP was near the star Thuban in Draco. Pole star of the Old Kingdom of Egypt. 5

6 Polestar Celestial Coordinates (Redux) This is simply a means of describing where things are, like longitude and latitude on the Earth Latitude=Declination the angle from the celestial equator along a meridian N. Ecliptic pole 23.5 o Longitude=Right Ascension angle from the Vernal equinox (where the sun lies on the equator in the spring) to the object Right Ascension 6

Appearance of the Sky Orientation Motion of sky Seasons Precession (?)

Appearance of the Sky Orientation Motion of sky Seasons Precession (?) Today Appearance of the Sky Orientation Motion of sky Seasons Precession (?) The Celestial Sphere Stars at different distances all appear to lie on the celestial sphere. The ecliptic is the Sun s apparent

More information

Summary Sheet #1 for Astronomy Main Lesson

Summary Sheet #1 for Astronomy Main Lesson Summary Sheet #1 for Astronomy Main Lesson From our perspective on earth The earth appears flat. We can see half the celestial sphere at any time. The earth s axis is always perpendicular to the equator.

More information

Appearance of the Sky Orientation Motion of sky Seasons Precession (?)

Appearance of the Sky Orientation Motion of sky Seasons Precession (?) Today Appearance of the Sky Orientation Motion of sky Seasons Precession (?) The Celestial Sphere Stars at different distances all appear to lie on the celestial sphere. The ecliptic is the Sun s apparent

More information

Daily & Annual Motions

Daily & Annual Motions Daily & Annual Motions Key Ideas: Daily Motions Reflection of the Earth's Daily Rotation Circumpolar Stars Annual Motions Reflection of the Earth's Orbital Motion Ecliptic: The Path of the Sun Zodiacal

More information

Aileen A. O Donoghue Priest Associate Professor of Physics

Aileen A. O Donoghue Priest Associate Professor of Physics SOAR: The Sky in Motion Life on the Tilted Teacup Ride The Year Aileen A. O Donoghue Priest Associate Professor of Physics Celestial Coordinates Right Ascension RA or From prime meridian (0 h ) to 23 h

More information

Discovering the Night Sky

Discovering the Night Sky Discovering the Night Sky Guiding Questions 1. What role did astronomy play in ancient civilizations? 2. Are the stars that make up a constellation actually close to one another? 3. Are the same stars

More information

Discovering the Night Sky

Discovering the Night Sky Guiding Questions Discovering the Night Sky 1. What role did astronomy play in ancient civilizations? 2. Are the stars that make up a constellation actually close to one another? 3. Are the same stars

More information

Knowing the Heavens. Chapter Two. Guiding Questions. Naked-eye (unaided-eye) astronomy had an important place in ancient civilizations

Knowing the Heavens. Chapter Two. Guiding Questions. Naked-eye (unaided-eye) astronomy had an important place in ancient civilizations Knowing the Heavens Chapter Two Guiding Questions 1. What role did astronomy play in ancient civilizations? 2. Are the stars that make up a constellation actually close to one another? 3. Are the same

More information

Observing the Universe for Yourself

Observing the Universe for Yourself Observing the Universe for Yourself Figure 6-20 Solar-System Formation What does the universe look like from Earth? With the naked eye, we can see more than 2,000 stars as well as the Milky Way. A constellation

More information

Astronomy 122 Section 1 TR Outline. The Earth is Rotating. Question Digital Computer Laboratory

Astronomy 122 Section 1 TR Outline. The Earth is Rotating. Question Digital Computer Laboratory Astronomy 122 Section 1 TR 1300-1350 Outline 1320 Digital Computer Laboratory Leslie Looney Phone: 244-3615 Email: lwlw@wuiucw. wedu Office: Astro Building #218 Office Hours: T 10:30-11:30 a.m. or by appointment

More information

Introduction to the sky

Introduction to the sky Introduction to the sky On a clear, moonless night, far from city lights, the night sky is magnificent. Roughly 2000 stars are visible to the unaided eye. If you know where to look, you can see Mercury,

More information

Seasons. What causes the seasons?

Seasons. What causes the seasons? Questions: Seasons What causes the seasons? How do we mark the progression of the seasons? What is the seasonal motion of the sun in the sky? What could cause the seasonal motion of the sun to change over

More information

Reminder: Seasonal Motion

Reminder: Seasonal Motion Seasonal Motion Reminder: Seasonal Motion If you observe the sky at the same time, say midnight, but on a different date, you find that the celestial sphere has turned: different constellations are high

More information

Knowing the Heavens. Goals: Constellations in the Sky

Knowing the Heavens. Goals: Constellations in the Sky Goals: Knowing the Heavens To see how the sky changes during a night and from night to night. To measure the positions of stars in celestial coordinates. To understand the cause of the seasons. Constellations

More information

Motions of the Earth

Motions of the Earth Motions of the Earth Our goals for learning: What are the main motions of the Earth in space? How do we see these motions on the ground? How does it affect our lives? How does the orientation of Earth's

More information

Knowing the Heavens. Goals: Constellations in the Sky

Knowing the Heavens. Goals: Constellations in the Sky Goals: Knowing the Heavens To see how the sky changes during a night and from night to night. To measure the positions of stars in celestial coordinates. To understand the cause of the seasons. Constellations

More information

Chapter 1: Discovering the Night Sky. The sky is divided into 88 unequal areas that we call constellations.

Chapter 1: Discovering the Night Sky. The sky is divided into 88 unequal areas that we call constellations. Chapter 1: Discovering the Night Sky Constellations: Recognizable patterns of the brighter stars that have been derived from ancient legends. Different cultures have associated the patterns with their

More information

James T. Shipman Jerry D. Wilson Charles A. Higgins, Jr. Chapter 15 Place and Time

James T. Shipman Jerry D. Wilson Charles A. Higgins, Jr. Chapter 15 Place and Time James T. Shipman Jerry D. Wilson Charles A. Higgins, Jr. Chapter 15 Place and Time Place & Time Read sections 15.5 and 15.6, but ignore the math. Concentrate on those sections that help explain the slides.

More information

Astronomy 291. Professor Bradley M. Peterson

Astronomy 291. Professor Bradley M. Peterson Astronomy 291 Professor Bradley M. Peterson The Sky As a first step, we need to understand the appearance of the sky. Important points (to be explained): The relative positions of stars remain the same

More information

Chapter 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself 1 2.1 Patterns in the Night Sky Our goals for learning: What does the universe look like from Earth? Why do stars rise and set? Why do the constellations

More information

Seasons ASTR 101 2/12/2018

Seasons ASTR 101 2/12/2018 Seasons ASTR 101 2/12/2018 1 What causes the seasons? Perihelion: closest to Sun around January 4 th Northern Summer Southern Winter 147 million km 152 million km Aphelion (farthest to Sun) around July

More information

Introduction To Modern Astronomy I: Solar System

Introduction To Modern Astronomy I: Solar System ASTR 111 003 Fall 2007 Lecture 02 Sep. 10, 2007 Introduction To Modern Astronomy I: Solar System Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-15) Chap. 16: Our Sun Chap. 28: Search for

More information

Chapter 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself

Chapter 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself Chapter 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself 2.1 Patterns in the Night Sky Our goals for learning: What does the universe look like from Earth? Why do stars rise and set? Why do the constellations we

More information

Chapter 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself

Chapter 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself Chapter 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself 2.1 Patterns in the Night Sky Our goals for learning: What does the universe look like from Earth? Why do stars rise and set? Why do the constellations we

More information

Chapter 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself. What does the universe look like from Earth? Constellations. 2.1 Patterns in the Night Sky

Chapter 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself. What does the universe look like from Earth? Constellations. 2.1 Patterns in the Night Sky Chapter 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself 2.1 Patterns in the Night Sky Our goals for learning: What does the universe look like from Earth? Why do stars rise and set? Why do the constellations we

More information

Question 1. What motion is responsible for the apparent motion of the constellations (east to west) across the sky?

Question 1. What motion is responsible for the apparent motion of the constellations (east to west) across the sky? What motion is responsible for the apparent motion of the constellations (east to west) across the sky? Question 1 1) the motion of Earth around the Sun 2) the motion of the Moon around Earth 3) the motion

More information

Daily Motions. Daily Motions. Solar and Sidereal Days. Annual Motions of the Sun. Coordinate system on Earth. Annual Motion of the Stars.

Daily Motions. Daily Motions. Solar and Sidereal Days. Annual Motions of the Sun. Coordinate system on Earth. Annual Motion of the Stars. Sun: rises in the east sets in the west travels on an arc across the sky 24 hours Daily Motions Solar Day = 24 hours Stars: stars travel on arcs in the sky moving from east to west. some stars rise and

More information

Lecture 2: Motions of the Earth and Moon. Astronomy 111 Wednesday August 30, 2017

Lecture 2: Motions of the Earth and Moon. Astronomy 111 Wednesday August 30, 2017 Lecture 2: Motions of the Earth and Moon Astronomy 111 Wednesday August 30, 2017 Reminders Online homework #1 due Monday at 3pm Labs start next week Motions of the Earth ASTR111 Lecture 2 Observation:

More information

2. Knowing the Heavens

2. Knowing the Heavens 2. Knowing the Heavens Ancient naked-eye astronomy Eighty-eight constellations The sky s ever-changing appearance The celestial sphere Celestial coordinates Seasons: Earth s axial tilt Precession of Earth

More information

Chapter S1 Celestial Timekeeping and Navigation. How do we define the day, month, year, and planetary time periods?

Chapter S1 Celestial Timekeeping and Navigation. How do we define the day, month, year, and planetary time periods? Chapter S1 Celestial Timekeeping and Navigation S1.1 Astronomical Time Periods Our goals for learning:! How do we define the day, month, year, and planetary time periods?! How do we tell the time of day?!

More information

The celestial sphere, the coordinates system, seasons, phases of the moon and eclipses. Chapters 2 and S1

The celestial sphere, the coordinates system, seasons, phases of the moon and eclipses. Chapters 2 and S1 The celestial sphere, the coordinates system, seasons, phases of the moon and eclipses Chapters 2 and S1 The celestial sphere and the coordinates system Chapter S1 How to find our way in the sky? Let s

More information

A2 Principi di Astrofisica. Coordinate Celesti

A2 Principi di Astrofisica. Coordinate Celesti A2 Principi di Astrofisica Coordinate Celesti ESO La Silla Tel. 3.6m Celestial Sphere Our lack of depth perception when we look into space creates the illusion that Earth is surrounded by a celestial sphere.

More information

The Ecliptic on the Celestial. Sphere. The Celestial Sphere. Astronomy 210. Section 1 MWF Astronomy Building. celestial equator are not

The Ecliptic on the Celestial. Sphere. The Celestial Sphere. Astronomy 210. Section 1 MWF Astronomy Building. celestial equator are not Astronomy 210 Section 1 MWF 1500-1550 134 Astronomy Building This Class (Lecture 3): Lunar Phases Check Planetarium Schedule Next Class: HW1 Due Friday! Early Cosmology Music: We only Come out at Night

More information

Name: Date: 5. The bright stars Vega, Deneb, and Altair form A) the summer triangle. B) the winter triangle. C) the Big Dipper. D) Orion, the Hunter.

Name: Date: 5. The bright stars Vega, Deneb, and Altair form A) the summer triangle. B) the winter triangle. C) the Big Dipper. D) Orion, the Hunter. Name: Date: 1. If there are about 6000 stars in the entire sky that can be seen by the unaided human eye, about how many stars would be seen at a particular instant on a given dark night from a single

More information

10/17/2012. Observing the Sky. Lecture 8. Chapter 2 Opener

10/17/2012. Observing the Sky. Lecture 8. Chapter 2 Opener Observing the Sky Lecture 8 Chapter 2 Opener 1 Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 2 Figure 2.6 Figure 2.4 Annotated 3 The Celestial Sphere The celestial sphere is the vast hollow sphere on which the stars appear fixed.

More information

Astronomy 101: 9/18/2008

Astronomy 101: 9/18/2008 Astronomy 101: 9/18/2008 Announcements Pick up a golf ball at the front of the class or get one from Alex; you will need it for an in-class activity today. You will also need the question sheet from Alex.

More information

Cartesian Coordinates Need two dimensional system 2 number lines perpendicular to each other X-axis is horizontal Y-axis is vertical Position relative

Cartesian Coordinates Need two dimensional system 2 number lines perpendicular to each other X-axis is horizontal Y-axis is vertical Position relative General Physical Science Chapter 15 Place and Time Space and Time Einstein Space and time related Single entity Time is the 4 th dimension! Cartesian Coordinates Need some system to tell us where something

More information

Astronomy 100 Section 2 MWF Greg Hall

Astronomy 100 Section 2 MWF Greg Hall Astronomy 100 Section 2 MWF 1200-1300 100 Greg Hall Leslie Looney Phone: 217-244-3615 Email: lwl @ uiuc. edu Office: Astro Building #218 Office Hours: MTF 10:30-11:30 a.m. or by appointment Class Web Page

More information

Oberth: Energy vs. Momentum

Oberth: Energy vs. Momentum 1 2 The Oberth Effect 3 Oberth: Energy vs. Momentum 4 The Celestial Sphere From our perspective on Earth the stars appear embedded on a distant 2-dimensional surface the Celestial Sphere. 5 The Celestial

More information

Before you Sit. Please Pick-up: Blue Information Sheet for Evening Observing. 1 Red and 1 Blue ticket for Observing/ Planetarium

Before you Sit. Please Pick-up: Blue Information Sheet for Evening Observing. 1 Red and 1 Blue ticket for Observing/ Planetarium Before you Sit Please Pick-up: Blue Information Sheet for Evening Observing. 1 Red and 1 Blue ticket for Observing/ Planetarium Evening Observing Observing at the Brooks Observatory: Three different weeks

More information

The Earth-Moon-Sun System

The Earth-Moon-Sun System chapter 7 The Earth-Moon-Sun System section 2 Time and Seasons What You ll Learn how to calculate time and date in different time zones how to distinguish rotation and revolution what causes seasons Before

More information

Chapter 2 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Discovering the Universe for Yourself Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 2 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Discovering the Universe for Yourself Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Discovering the Universe for Yourself Discovering the Universe for Yourself 2.1 Patterns in the Night Sky Our goals for learning: What does the

More information

Time, coordinates and how the Sun and Moon move in the sky

Time, coordinates and how the Sun and Moon move in the sky Time, coordinates and how the Sun and Moon move in the sky Using the colors and magnitudes of quasars drawn from the SDSS Catalog Archive Server to distinguish quasars from stars using the light they emit

More information

Astronomy 103: First Exam

Astronomy 103: First Exam Name: Astronomy 103: First Exam Stephen Lepp September 21, 2010 Each question is worth 2 points. Write your name on this exam and on the scantron. Short Answer Mercury What is the closest Planet to the

More information

PHAS 1511: Foundations of Astronomy

PHAS 1511: Foundations of Astronomy PHAS 1511: Foundations of Astronomy Dr Roger Wesson Research interests: deaths of stars. Planetary nebulae, novae and supernovae. Astronomy: some maths You can see that distances in astronomy are huge.

More information

Exercise 7.0 THE CHANGING DIURNAL CIRCLES OF THE SUN

Exercise 7.0 THE CHANGING DIURNAL CIRCLES OF THE SUN Exercise 7.0 THE CHANGING DIURNAL CIRCLES OF THE SUN I. The Apparent Annual Motion of the Sun A star always rises and sets at the same place on the horizon and, hence, it is above the horizon for the same

More information

Chapter S1 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Celestial Timekeeping and Navigation Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter S1 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Celestial Timekeeping and Navigation Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter S1 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Celestial Timekeeping and Navigation 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Celestial Timekeeping and Navigation 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. S1.1 Astronomical

More information

Earth-Sun Relationships. The Reasons for the Seasons

Earth-Sun Relationships. The Reasons for the Seasons Earth-Sun Relationships The Reasons for the Seasons Solar Radiation The earth intercepts less than one two-billionth of the energy given off by the sun. However, the radiation is sufficient to provide

More information

Lecture #03. January 20, 2010, Wednesday

Lecture #03. January 20, 2010, Wednesday Lecture #03 January 20, 2010, Wednesday Causes of Earth s Seasons Earth-Sun geometry Day length Solar angle (beam spread) Atmospheric beam depletion Shape and Size of the Earth North Pole E Geoid: not

More information

Astronomical coordinate systems. ASTR320 Monday January 22, 2018

Astronomical coordinate systems. ASTR320 Monday January 22, 2018 Astronomical coordinate systems ASTR320 Monday January 22, 2018 Special public talk this week: Mike Brown, Pluto Killer Wednesday at 7:30pm in MPHY204 Other news Munnerlyn lab is hiring student engineers

More information

Practice Questions: Seasons #1

Practice Questions: Seasons #1 1. Seasonal changes on Earth are primarily caused by the A) parallelism of the Sun's axis as the Sun revolves around Earth B) changes in distance between Earth and the Sun C) elliptical shape of Earth's

More information

What causes the seasons? 2/11/09

What causes the seasons? 2/11/09 2/11/09 We can recognize solstices and equinoxes by Sun s path across sky: Summer solstice: Highest path, rise and set at most extreme north of due east. Winter solstice: Lowest path, rise and set at most

More information

2. Descriptive Astronomy ( Astronomy Without a Telescope )

2. Descriptive Astronomy ( Astronomy Without a Telescope ) How do we locate stars in the heavens? 2. Descriptive Astronomy ( Astronomy Without a Telescope ) What stars are visible from a given location? Where is the sun in the sky at any given time? Where are

More information

Celestial Sphere & Solar Motion Lab (Norton s Star Atlas pages 1-4)

Celestial Sphere & Solar Motion Lab (Norton s Star Atlas pages 1-4) Name: Date: Celestial Sphere & Solar Motion Lab (Norton s Star Atlas pages 1-4) Italicized topics below will be covered only at the instructor s discretion. 1.0 Purpose: To understand a) the celestial

More information

Chapter 2 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Discovering the Universe for Yourself

Chapter 2 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Discovering the Universe for Yourself Chapter 2 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Discovering the Universe for Yourself Discovering the Universe for Yourself 2.1 Patterns in the Night Sky Our goals for learning: What does the

More information

Topic Guide: The Celestial Sphere. GCSE (9-1) Astronomy. Pearson Edexcel Level 1/Level 2 GCSE (9-1) in Astronomy (1AS0)

Topic Guide: The Celestial Sphere. GCSE (9-1) Astronomy. Pearson Edexcel Level 1/Level 2 GCSE (9-1) in Astronomy (1AS0) Topic Guide: The Celestial Sphere GCSE (9-1) Astronomy Pearson Edexcel Level 1/Level 2 GCSE (9-1) in Astronomy (1AS0) The Celestial Sphere Contents Specification Points 1 The Astronomy 2 Equatorial coordinates

More information

Time, Seasons, and Tides

Time, Seasons, and Tides Time, Seasons, and Tides Celestial Sphere Imagine the sky as a great, hollow, sphere surrounding the Earth. The stars are attached to this sphere--- some bigger and brighter than others--- which rotates

More information

Celestial Sphere Spectroscopy (Something interesting; e.g., advanced data analyses with IDL)

Celestial Sphere Spectroscopy (Something interesting; e.g., advanced data analyses with IDL) AST326, 2010 Winter Semester Celestial Sphere Spectroscopy (Something interesting; e.g., advanced data analyses with IDL) Practical Assignment: analyses of Keck spectroscopic data from the instructor (can

More information

Phys Lab #1: The Sun and the Constellations

Phys Lab #1: The Sun and the Constellations Phys 10293 Lab #1: The Sun and the Constellations Introduction Astronomers use a coordinate system that is fixed to Earth s latitude and longitude. This way, the coordinates of a star or planet are the

More information

Chapter 1 Image Slides. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Chapter 1 Image Slides. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 1 Image Slides Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. CH. 1: CYCLES OF THE SKY CO a 1.1 The Celestial Sphere CO b The nearest star to us is about

More information

It s Full of Stars! Outline. A Sky Full of Stars. Astronomy 210. lights), about how many stars can we see with

It s Full of Stars! Outline. A Sky Full of Stars. Astronomy 210. lights), about how many stars can we see with Astronomy 210 Section 1 MWF 1500-1550 134 Astronomy Building Leslie Looney Phone: 244-3615 Email: lwlw@wuiucw. wedu Office: Astro Building #218 Office Hours: MTF 10:30-11:30 a.m. or by appointment This

More information

2. Modern: A constellation is a region in the sky. Every object in the sky, whether we can see it or not, is part of a constellation.

2. Modern: A constellation is a region in the sky. Every object in the sky, whether we can see it or not, is part of a constellation. 6/14 10. Star Cluster size about 10 14 to 10 17 m importance: where stars are born composed of stars. 11. Galaxy size about 10 21 m importance: provide a stable environment for stars. Composed of stars.

More information

The Earth is a Rotating Sphere

The Earth is a Rotating Sphere The Earth is a Rotating Sphere The Shape of the Earth Earth s Rotation ( and relative movement of the Sun and Moon) The Geographic Grid Map Projections Global Time The Earth s Revolution around the Sun

More information

Lecture 2 Motions in the Sky September 10, 2018

Lecture 2 Motions in the Sky September 10, 2018 1 Lecture 2 Motions in the Sky September 10, 2018 2 What is your year in school? A. New freshman B. Returning freshman C. Sophomore D. Junior E. Senior F. I ve been here, like, forever 3 What is your major?

More information

CELESTIAL COORDINATES

CELESTIAL COORDINATES ASTR 1030 Astronomy Lab 27 Celestial Coordinates CELESTIAL COORDINATES GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATES The Earth's geographic coordinate system is familiar to everyone - the north and south poles are defined by

More information

Astronomy. The Seasons

Astronomy. The Seasons Astronomy The Seasons The seasons are caused by the inclination of the Earth s axis: when a hemisphere is tipped toward the Sun, the Sun is more directly above it. At the Summer Solstice the tilt is most

More information

UNIT 6 CELESTIAL SPHERE AND EQUINOCTIAL SYSTEM OF COORDINATES

UNIT 6 CELESTIAL SPHERE AND EQUINOCTIAL SYSTEM OF COORDINATES UNIT 6 CELESTIAL SPHERE AND EQUINOCTIAL SYSTEM OF COORDINATES Structure 6.1 Introduction Objectives 6.2 References 6.3 Apparent Annual Motion of the Sun and the Concept of the Ecliptic and the Obliquity

More information

The sky and the celestial sphere

The sky and the celestial sphere Chapter 1 The sky and the celestial sphere The Sun, and sometimes the Moon are, by and large, the only astronomical objects visible in the day sky. Traditionally, astronomy has been a nocturnal activity.

More information

Planet Earth. Part 2

Planet Earth. Part 2 Planet Earth Part 2 Sun, Earth and Moon Motions The Solar System revolves around the Milky Way galaxy center. The Sun rotates on its own axis. Earth revolves around the Sun (1 year) and rotates on its

More information

The following terms are some of the vocabulary that students should be familiar with in order to fully master this lesson.

The following terms are some of the vocabulary that students should be familiar with in order to fully master this lesson. Lesson 211: EARTH'S SEASONS Students learn the complex geometry and planetary motions that cause Earth to have four distinct seasons. Fundamental Questions Attempting to give thorough and reasonable answers

More information

Today in Space News: Earth s oldest rock found on the Moon.

Today in Space News: Earth s oldest rock found on the Moon. Today in Space News: Earth s oldest rock found on the Moon https://www.lpi.usra.edu/features/012419/oldest-rock/ Study Points Predict the approximate time of day/night you should look for first quarter

More information

LOCATING CELESTIAL OBJECTS: COORDINATES AND TIME. a. understand the basic concepts needed for any astronomical coordinate system.

LOCATING CELESTIAL OBJECTS: COORDINATES AND TIME. a. understand the basic concepts needed for any astronomical coordinate system. UNIT 2 UNIT 2 LOCATING CELESTIAL OBJECTS: COORDINATES AND TIME Goals After mastery of this unit, you should: a. understand the basic concepts needed for any astronomical coordinate system. b. understand

More information

Chapter 3: Coordinates & time; much of this chapter is based on earlier work by Katherine Bracher

Chapter 3: Coordinates & time; much of this chapter is based on earlier work by Katherine Bracher Intro Astro - Andrea K Dobson - Chapter 3 - August 2018 1! /! 12 Chapter 3: Coordinates & time; much of this chapter is based on earlier work by Katherine Bracher celestial sphere and celestial coordinates

More information

1-2. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.) Equinox b.) Celestial equator c.) Solstice d.) Ecliptic

1-2. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.) Equinox b.) Celestial equator c.) Solstice d.) Ecliptic Chapter 1 1-1. How long does it take the Earth to orbit the Sun? a.) one sidereal day b.) one month c.) one year d.) one hour 1-2. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.)

More information

PHYS 160 Astronomy Test #1 Fall 2017 Version B

PHYS 160 Astronomy Test #1 Fall 2017 Version B PHYS 160 Astronomy Test #1 Fall 2017 Version B 1 I. True/False (1 point each) Circle the T if the statement is true, or F if the statement is false on your answer sheet. 1. An object has the same weight,

More information

Local Coordinates. These are centered upon you, the observer.

Local Coordinates. These are centered upon you, the observer. Astronomy 30, Observing #3 Name: Lab Partners: Date: Materials: This lab, with the star chart completed from the pre-lab. Some sheets of paper for sketches. A pencil with eraser. A small flashlight, ideally

More information

HNRS 227 Fall 2007 Chapter 14. Earth in Space presented by Prof. Geller 25 October 2007

HNRS 227 Fall 2007 Chapter 14. Earth in Space presented by Prof. Geller 25 October 2007 HNRS 227 Fall 2007 Chapter 14 Earth in Space presented by Prof. Geller 25 October 2007 Key Points of Chapter 14 Shape, Size and Motions of the Earth Rotation and Revolution Precession Coordinate Systems

More information

Brock University. Test 1, October 2017 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P01, Section 1 Number of Students: 470 Date of Examination: October 3, 2017

Brock University. Test 1, October 2017 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P01, Section 1 Number of Students: 470 Date of Examination: October 3, 2017 Brock University Test 1, October 2017 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P01, Section 1 Number of Students: 470 Date of Examination: October 3, 2017 Number of hours: 50 min Time of Examination: 17:00 17:50

More information

Today. Tropics & Arctics Precession Phases of the Moon Eclipses. Ancient Astronomy. Lunar, Solar FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME

Today. Tropics & Arctics Precession Phases of the Moon Eclipses. Ancient Astronomy. Lunar, Solar FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME Today Tropics & Arctics Precession Phases of the Moon Eclipses Lunar, Solar Ancient Astronomy FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME Tropic: Latitude where the sun [just] reaches the zenith at noon on the summer

More information

ASTR-1010: Astronomy I Course Notes Section II

ASTR-1010: Astronomy I Course Notes Section II ASTR-1010: Astronomy I Course Notes Section II Dr. Donald G. Luttermoser Department of Physics and Astronomy East Tennessee State University Edition 2.0 Abstract These class notes are designed for use

More information

6/17. Universe from Smallest to Largest:

6/17. Universe from Smallest to Largest: 6/17 Universe from Smallest to Largest: 1. Quarks and Leptons fundamental building blocks of the universe size about 0 (?) importance: quarks combine together to form neutrons and protons. One of the leptons

More information

Name: Class: Date: ID: A

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Name: Class: _ Date: _ Astro Quiz 2 (ch2) Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Star A has an apparent visual magnitude of 13.4 and star B has

More information

CHAPTER 2 A USER'S GUIDE TO THE SKY

CHAPTER 2 A USER'S GUIDE TO THE SKY CHAPTER 2 A USER'S GUIDE TO THE SKY MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. In one way of naming stars, a letter indicates its brightness relative to the other stars in the constellation. a. English b. Arabic c. Greek d. Cyrillic

More information

The Celestial Sphere. Chapter 1. Constellations. Models and Science. Constellations. Diurnal vs. Annular Motion 9/16/2010

The Celestial Sphere. Chapter 1. Constellations. Models and Science. Constellations. Diurnal vs. Annular Motion 9/16/2010 The Celestial Sphere Chapter 1 Cycles of the Sky Vast distances to stars prevent us from sensing their true 3-D arrangement Naked eye observations treat all stars at the same distance, on a giant celestial

More information

The Celestial Sphere. GEK1506 Heavenly Mathematics: Cultural Astronomy

The Celestial Sphere. GEK1506 Heavenly Mathematics: Cultural Astronomy The Celestial Sphere GEK1506 Heavenly Mathematics: Cultural Astronomy Helmer Aslaksen Department of Mathematics National University of Singapore aslaksen@math.nus.edu.sg www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/ The

More information

UNIT 3: EARTH S MOTIONS

UNIT 3: EARTH S MOTIONS UNIT 3: EARTH S MOTIONS After Unit 3 you should be able to: o Differentiate between rotation and revolution of the Earth o Apply the rates of rotation and revolution to basic problems o Recall the evidence

More information

Chapter 0 2/19/2014. Lecture Outline. 0.1 The Obvious View. Charting the Heavens. 0.1 The Obvious View. 0.1 The Obvious View. Units of Chapter 0

Chapter 0 2/19/2014. Lecture Outline. 0.1 The Obvious View. Charting the Heavens. 0.1 The Obvious View. 0.1 The Obvious View. Units of Chapter 0 Lecture Outline Chapter 0 Charting the Heavens Earth is average we don t occupy any special place in the universe Universe: Totality of all space, time, matter, and energy Astronomy: Study of the universe

More information

TAKEN FROM HORIZONS 7TH EDITION CHAPTER 3 TUTORIAL QUIZ

TAKEN FROM HORIZONS 7TH EDITION CHAPTER 3 TUTORIAL QUIZ TAKEN FROM HORIZONS 7TH EDITION CHAPTER 3 TUTORIAL QUIZ 1. When Neap tides are occurring, a. a person experiences the lowest tides close to sunset and sunrise. b. the Sun and the Moon are separated by

More information

Yr1 Lesson 1. The Great Circles of Astrology, the Angles, Precession,

Yr1 Lesson 1. The Great Circles of Astrology, the Angles, Precession, Yr1 Lesson 1 The Great Circles of Astrology, the Angles, Precession, Cosmic Intelligence Agency 2015 Astro Lesson 1! Signs, Symbols, Glyphs and Charts! The Celestial Sphere Great Circles of Astrology -

More information

Orbital Mechanics. CTLA Earth & Environmental Science

Orbital Mechanics. CTLA Earth & Environmental Science Orbital Mechanics CTLA Earth & Environmental Science The Earth Spherical body that is flattened near the poles due to centrifugal force (rotation of the Earth) 40,074 KM across at the Equator 40,0007 KM

More information

Discovering the Universe for Yourself

Discovering the Universe for Yourself Constellations: region in the sky with well defined borders; the familiar patterns of stars merely help us locate these constellations. 88 names were chosen by the International Astronomical Union. Every

More information

Earth s Orbit. Sun Earth Relationships Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D. ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology

Earth s Orbit. Sun Earth Relationships Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D. ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology 1 ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology Sun Earth Relationships Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D. Spring (sun aims directly at equator) Winter (northern hemisphere 23.5 tilts away from sun) 2 Solar radiation

More information

Astronomy A BEGINNER S GUIDE TO THE UNIVERSE EIGHTH EDITION

Astronomy A BEGINNER S GUIDE TO THE UNIVERSE EIGHTH EDITION Astronomy A BEGINNER S GUIDE TO THE UNIVERSE EIGHTH EDITION CHAPTER 0 Charting the Heavens Lecture Presentation 0.0 Astronmy a why is that subject! Q. What rare astronomical event happened in late summer

More information

Syllabus, Semester Project, Scales/Scale Models. Questions? One comment

Syllabus, Semester Project, Scales/Scale Models. Questions? One comment Syllabus, Semester Project, Scales/Scale Models Questions? One comment Patterns in the Sky: Traxoline Cardinal Directions (N, S, E, W) Positions in the Sky ( high, low ) Meridian, Zenith, Horizon Noon

More information

The. Astronomy is full of cycles. Like the day, the month, & the year In this section we will try to understand these cycles.

The. Astronomy is full of cycles. Like the day, the month, & the year In this section we will try to understand these cycles. Understanding The Sky Astronomy is full of cycles Like the day, the month, & the year In this section we will try to understand these cycles. For Example Why do we think of stars as nighttime objects?

More information

5 - Seasons. Figure 1 shows two pictures of the Sun taken six months apart with the same camera, at the same time of the day, from the same location.

5 - Seasons. Figure 1 shows two pictures of the Sun taken six months apart with the same camera, at the same time of the day, from the same location. ASTR 110L 5 - Seasons Purpose: To plot the distance of the Earth from the Sun over one year and to use the celestial sphere to understand the cause of the seasons. What do you think? Write answers to questions

More information

Dr. Tariq Al-Abdullah

Dr. Tariq Al-Abdullah 1 Chapter 1 Charting the Heavens The Foundations of Astronomy 2 Learning Goals: 1. Our Place in Space 2. The Obvious view 3. Earth s Orbital Motion 4. The Motion of the Moon 5. The Measurement of Distance

More information

A. The Ecliptic. A. The Ecliptic. Ecliptic and Annual Motion. A1. The Zodiac. II. Ecliptic and Annual Motion. A. The Ecliptic, (Path of the Sun)

A. The Ecliptic. A. The Ecliptic. Ecliptic and Annual Motion. A1. The Zodiac. II. Ecliptic and Annual Motion. A. The Ecliptic, (Path of the Sun) Ecliptic and Annual Motion II. Ecliptic and Annual Motion 2 Dr. Bill Pezzaglia A. The Ecliptic, (Path of the Sun) B. Annual Motion, the Calendar Topic 02 Updated 8/22/2006 C. Daily Path of Sun & Archeoastronomy

More information

Astr 1050 Mon. Jan. 31, 2017

Astr 1050 Mon. Jan. 31, 2017 Astr 1050 Mon. Jan. 31, 2017 Finish Ch. 2: Eclipses & Planetary Motion Seasons Angular Size formula Eclipses Planetary Motion Reading: For Today: Finish Chapter 2 For Monday: Start Chapter 3 Homework on

More information

Physics 312 Introduction to Astrophysics Lecture 3

Physics 312 Introduction to Astrophysics Lecture 3 Physics 312 Introduction to Astrophysics Lecture 3 James Buckley buckley@wuphys.wustl.edu Lecture 3 Celestial Coordinates the Planets and more History Reason for the Seasons Summer Solstice: Northern Hemisphere

More information