# 7 th Grade Science DO NOW. OBJECTIVES: By the end of today s lesson, you will be able to

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1 7 th Grade Science Unit: Earth, Sun, and Moon Lesson: ESM 4_Rotation and Revolution Name: Date: Monday, October 24, 2016 Homeroom: DO NOW SWBAT define and identify lines of latitude and longitude. SWBAT contrast rotation and revolution SWBAT describe why the Earth has seasons OBJECTIVES: By the end of today s lesson, you will be able to 1. Solar Eclipse 2. Partial Eclipse 3. Lunar Eclipse 4. Annular Eclipse 5. Umbra 6. Penumbra 7. Total Eclipse A. The darkest part of a shadow. B. Occurs when the moon blocks out the sun. C. When the Moon does not cover the entire Sun during a solar eclipse. D. Occurs when the earth blocks out the light shining on the moon. E. The part of a shadow where some of the light sources is still visible. F. A type of solar eclipse when the entire sun is blocked out by the moon. G. A type of solar eclipse when the moon appears to be smaller in the sun. During the eclipse, the sun looks like a shining ring.

2 Class Notes We use lines of and to locate a place on a map. Latitude Longitude Prime Meridian Equator 1. Draw lines of LATITUDE below 1. Draw lines of LONGITUDE below 2. Identify the Equator 2. Identify the Prime Meridian 2

3 ROTATION: REVOLUTION: CONSTANT: AXIS: Earth has a rotation rate of Earth has a revolution rate of The further away an object is from the the longer it takes to around the. Putting it all together: What is Most Responsible for the Seasons? The Earth is not actually straight up and down, but is rather. The imaginary line that the earth around is the The axis goes straight through the and poles Earth s axis is tilted at 0 3

4 Guided Practice: We Do Talk it out Tilt your Earth towards the Sun. When the Northern Hemisphere (the top part) is pointed towards the sun, which hemisphere receives more or less sunlight? Which hemisphere receives less sunlight? Now, imagine the Earth has revolved around the Sun for 6 months. It is now on the other side of the Sun, and the Southern hemisphere points at the Sun. Which hemisphere receives more sunlight? Which hemisphere receives less sunlight? What do you predict When one hemisphere is pointed at the Sun, and receives more direct sunlight, what season do you think it would be? What season would it be on the other hemisphere then? 4

5 Hemispheres and Seasons Using what you learned earlier about the hemispheres (everywhere in the north hemisphere has the same season as the same time, but the opposite season of everywhere in the southern hemisphere). You should consult the map below. 1. When it is summer in Johannesburg, South Africa, what season is it in Auckland, New Zealand? (Remember, the seasons are the same for all locations in the southern or northern hemisphere.) 2. When it is spring in Mexico City, Mexico, what seasons is it in Dublin, Ireland? 3. When it is winter in Tokyo, Japan, what season is it in Buenos Aires, Brazil? Mexico Ireland Japan Brazil South Africa New Zealand Take a look at the diagram below and see if you can use your knowledge of Earth s rotation and the tilt of its axis to figure out why some days are longer than others. 1. What season is it in the Northern Hemisphere? 2. What season is it in the Southern Hemisphere? 3. Where do you think the daylight hours would be shortest? 4. Where do you think they would be longest? 5. Can you guess where day and night would be equal? As you can see in the picture above, the southern continent of Antarctica is found where the axis of the Earth creates the South Pole. 5

6 Independent Practice What causes the change from day to night? When it s day time in your part of the world, are you facing toward or away from the sun? One full orbit of the Earth around the sun is called d. a rotation. e. an axis. f. a revolution. The Earth rotates on an imaginary line called an Earth makes one full rotation around its axis once each a. week. b. day. c. year. We have day and night on Earth because g. the moon revolves around the Earth. h. the Earth rotates on its axis. i. the Earth tilts on its axis. Which lines of latitude are usually the warmest? a. Latitude lines near the equator b. Latitude lines near the South Pole c. All latitude lines are the same temperature Explain the difference between a rotation and a revolution * Use a complete sentence Explain the relationship between the distance away from the sun and the time it takes for the planet to revolve around the sun. Planets that are closer to the sun have a Which planet has a longer revolution around the Sun? Earth or Jupiter? Explain using complete sentences 6

7 8.7A: Rotation and R Earth a Challenge Yo Self! 5 The axis on which Earth now rotates is tilted at an angle. 1) The axis on which Earth now rotates is tilted at an angle. If the axis was to be changed so that it was perfectly upright, which change would be expected on Earth? a. There would no longer be periods of light and darkness. b. It would always be winter in the Southern Hemisphere. c. For every season, the length of the day would be shorter. d. There would not be the same pattern of seasonal changes in weather. If the axis was to be changed so that it was perfectly upright, which change would be expected on Earth? 2) An illustration is provided showing the relative motions of Earth and the Sun. A There would no longer be periods of light and darkness. B It would always be winter in the Southern Hemisphere. C For every season, the length of the day would be shorter. Seasonal variations on Earth would be significantly changed if which of the following were changed D There would not be the same pattern of seasonal changes in weather. a. The speed of rotation of Earth b. The direction of orbit of Earth c. The speed of rotation of the Sun d. The angle of tilt of Earth s axis 3 3) The Southern Hemisphere experiences the coldest seasonal weather during what portion of the Earth s orbit? a. When the orbital speed of the Earth is the fastest b. During the time when the Earth passes Jupiter c. When the South Pole tilts away from the Sun d. During the time when both hemispheres have a full moon 7

8 4) The speed of the rotation of Earth has the greatest effect on which of the following? a. Length of day and night b. Path of the Moon s orbit c. Length of a year d. Path of orbit around the Sun 5) Students are modeling the Earth, the Sun, and their relative motions. A basketball is used to represent the Sun, and a tennis ball is used to represent Earth. In order to accurately model the cause of day and night on the Earth, the students must do what with the tennis ball? Answer in a complete sentence below: 8

9 7 th Grade Science Name: Date: October 24, 2016 Unit: Earth, Sun, and Moon Lesson: ESM 4 _ Rotation and Revolution Homeroom: /5 = % DNG? Strive Due Date: A B C D F 1. If the Earth s axis were straight up and down instead of tilted, what would the seasons be like? a. The northern part of Earth would always have winter. b. The southern part of Earth would always have winter. c. Both the northern part and southern part would always have summer. d. The seasons would be the same all year. 2. Why do we have different seasons? In other words, what causes summer and winter? 3. Draw a picture of the Earth on its tilt. Also, label the EQUATOR, the NORTHERN HEMISPHERE, and the SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 4. Draw a picture of the Earth and the Sun while the Northern Hemisphere is experiencing Winter. 9

10 5. Draw a picture of the Earth and the Sun while the Northern Hemisphere is experiencing Summer. 6. How often does the earth rotate? 7. How often does the earth revolve around the sun? 10

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