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3 Table of Contents LIFE SCIENCE Lesson 1: Cells Lesson 2: Genetics Lesson 3: The Structure of Living Things Lesson 4: Ecosystems Lesson 5: Food Chains and Food Webs EARTH SCIENCE Lesson 6: The Structure of Earth Lesson 7: Earth s Surface Lesson 8: Earth s Water and Atmosphere Lesson 9: The Motion of Earth and the Moon Lesson 10: The Solar System and Beyond PHYSICAL SCIENCE Lesson 11: Properties of Matter Lesson 12: The Structure of Matter Lesson 13: Forces and Motion Lesson 14: Simple Machines Lesson 15: Forms of Energy My Science Vocabulary Root Words Prefixes and Suffixes Glossary

4 LESSON 9 revolution Earth and its moon are always in motion in the sky. Read this selection to find out how the movements of these two bodies affect life on Earth. The Motion of Earth and the Moon Earth in Motion Earth moves in two different ways. Every year, Earth makes one revolution around the sun. A revolution is the movement of one object in space around another object. Every 24 hours, Earth makes one. Rotation is the spinning of an object in space on its. An is an imaginary line around which an object turns. Earth s passes through the North Pole and the South Pole. Earth s causes day and night. In the part of Earth that is turned toward the sun, it is day. Earth s has a, or slant. As Earth moves around the sun, one part of Earth is always ed toward the sun while the other part is ed away from the sun. Earth s Tilt and Seasons When the North Pole is ed toward the sun, it is summer in the northern half of Earth. When the South Pole is ed toward the sun, it is summer Sun in the southern half of Earth. The half of Earth that is ed toward June the sun receives more direct sunlight and has longer days than the half that is ed away from the sun. December When the North Pole is ed toward the sun, it is summer in the northern half of Earth and winter in the southern half. 52 Earth Science

5 Earth s Moon Earth s moon is a. A is an object that moves around a larger object in space. The moon makes one revolution around Earth every month. The moon s path around Earth is an oval. For this reason, sometimes the moon is closer to Earth and Eclipses An eclipse is a blocking of light. A occurs when Earth blocks the sun s light from reaching the moon. When Earth comes between the sun and the moon, the moon is darkened for a short time. sometimes it is farther away. Perigee is the point in the moon s path where it is closest to Earth. Apogee is the point in the moon s path where it is farthest from Earth. Lunar Eclipse Earth s shadow The Moon s Path Around Earth Sun Earth Moon Apogee A occurs when the moon Orbit of Moon Earth Perigee blocks the light of the sun from reaching places on Earth. The moon passes between the sun and Earth. The places on Earth that fall in the moon s shadow experience a The pull of the moon s gravity on Earth causes. Tides are the daily rise and fall of the level of the ocean. High. Solar Eclipse occur on the sides of Earth facing the moon and facing away from the moon. Low occur on the two other sides of Earth. Sun Moon s shadow Moon Earth High Tide and Low Tide Low tide High tide High tide Moon Earth Low tide The pull of the moon s gravity causes the ocean to bulge in two directions. My Science Vocabulary Go to page 96 to list other words you have learned about the motion of Earth and the moon. Earth Science 53

6 revolution A. Match each word with its meaning. Write the letter of the correct meaning on the line in front of each word revolution a. the blocking of the sun s light from the moon by Earth b. an imaginary line around which an object turns c. the spinning of an object in space on its d. a slant e. an object that moves around a larger object in space f. the point in the moon s path where it is farthest from Earth g. the blocking of the sun s light from places on Earth by the moon h. the daily rise and fall of the level of the ocean i. the movement of one object in space around another object j. the point in the moon s path where it is closest to Earth 54 Earth Science

7 revolution B. Circle the word that makes sense in each sentence. Then write the word. 1. When the moon is at (, ), it is closest to Earth. 2. Earth makes one full (revolution, ) every 24 hours. 3. The pull of the moon s gravity on Earth causes high and low (, ) every day. 4. During a (, ) the moon comes between the sun and Earth. 5. Seasons on Earth are the result of Earth s (, ). 6. An object that revolves around a larger object in space is a (, ). 7. During a (, ), the sun s light is blocked from the moon by Earth. 8. An imaginary line running from the North Pole to the South Pole is Earth s (, ). 9. Every year, Earth makes one (, revolution) around the sun. 10. The moon is at (, ) when it is farthest from Earth. WORD ROOT The word lunar comes from the Latin word luna, meaning moon. Earth Science 55

8 revolution C. Write the vocabulary word that best completes each pair of sentences. 1. The daily rise and fall of the ocean level are. The moon s gravity pulling on Earth causes. 2. The moon is Earth s only natural. An object that moves around a larger object in space is a. 3. When it is the farthest from Earth, the moon is at. Once a month, the moon reaches, the farthest point from Earth. 4. During a, the moon becomes dark for a short time. When Earth passes between the sun and the moon, a occurs. 5. The spinning of an object on its is called. Earth makes one every 24 hours. 6. Because of Earth s, one half of Earth is always closer to the sun that the other half. Earth s is what causes the seasons. 7. The moon is at when it is closest to Earth. The moon reaches once a month. 8. The Earth s passes through the North and South poles. Earth rotates on its. 9. Every year, Earth makes one complete around the sun. The moon makes one around Earth every month. 10. When the moon blocks the sun s light from Earth, a occurs. Places on Earth that fall in the moon s shadow experience a. 56 Earth Science

9 revolution D. Use each pair of words in a sentence. 1., 2., 3., 4., 5., revolution Write! Write your response to the prompt on a separate sheet of paper. Use as many vocabulary words as you can in your writing. Suppose that you could spend a month on the moon. Describe some of the things you would notice as the moon revolved around Earth. Earth Science 57

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