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4 axis rotation revolution Earth s axis is an imaginary line that runs through the center of Earth from North Pole to South Pole.
5 Rotation is the spinning of Earth on its axis. It takes Earth 24 hours to rotate once. A revolution is the movement of Earth around the sun. It takes one year for Earth to make one revolution around the sun.
6 The main idea is what the text is mostly about. Details tell more about the main idea. Look for details about how Earth moves. Earth moves in two different ways. One way is that it spins around like a top. Earth spins on its axis. The axis is an imaginary line through Earth. It goes from North Pole to South Pole. Earth s axis is tilted. You cannot see the axis. The spinning of Earth on its axis is called rotation.
7 Earth also moves around the sun. A revolution is one trip around the sun. Each revolution takes about 365 days. We use Earth s revolution to measure time. One revolution of Earth takes one year. Tell the two ways that Earth moves.
8 Many places have four seasons during one year. These seasons are winter, spring, summer, and fall. Each season has a different temperature. That is because the part of Earth that is tilted toward the sun changes as Earth moves around the sun. This causes the same part of Earth to be tilted toward the sun for part of the year and away from the sun for part of the year.
9 When the part of Earth where we live is tilted toward the sun, we have summer. Sunlight hits that part of Earth directly. This makes it warmer. When the part of Earth where we live is tilted away from the sun, we have winter. Sunlight hits that part of Earth at a slant. This makes it cooler. Tell what causes the seasons to change.
10 Earth takes one year to move around the sun. But Earth takes only one day to rotate all the way around. As Earth rotates, one side faces the sun. This side has day. The other side of Earth faces away from the sun. This side has night.
11 Some places have day while other places have night. This means that it cannot be the same time everywhere. When it is day in Columbus, Ohio, it may be night in Paris, France. What causes day and night? 1. Earth moves in different ways. 2. Earth s causes day and night. 3. It takes one for Earth to revolve around the sun. 4. The of Earth s axis causes the seasons.
12 moon phases lunar cycle lunar eclipse solar eclipse Moon phases are the different shapes that the moon seems to have. The moon s shapes follow a pattern that repeats about every 29 days. This pattern is called a lunar cycle.
13 A lunar eclipse happens when Earth blocks sunlight from reaching the moon. The moon gets darker when this happens. A solar eclipse happens when the moon blocks sunlight from reaching Earth, and the moon s shadow falls on Earth.
14 A sequence is the order in which things happen. Look for the sequences of the moon s phases and eclipses. The moon does not always look the same. From Earth, its shape seems to change. The different shapes we see are called moon phases.
15 In fact, the moon s shape does not change. It is the moon s movement around Earth that makes the moon s shape seem to change. The shape of the moon you see each night depends on how much of the moon s sunlit side faces Earth. The moon s shape changes in the same order every 29 days. This pattern of changes is called the lunar cycle. Tell what phase comes after the new moon phase.
16 Sometimes the moon moves into Earth s shadow. This causes a lunar eclipse. A lunar eclipse happens when Earth blocks sunlight from reaching the moon. During a lunar eclipse, the moon first gets dark. This happens when the moon moves into Earth s shadow. Then the moon gets bright again. This happens when the moon moves out of Earth s shadow. Tell how a lunar eclipse happens.
17 The moon can block sunlight from reaching Earth. This causes a solar eclipse. A solar eclipse happens when the moon s shadow falls on Earth. During a solar eclipse, the moon moves between the sun and Earth. This makes the sky get dark. As the moon moves on, daylight returns. Tell how a solar eclipse happens. 1. A happens when Earth blocks sunlight from reaching the moon. 2. A happens when the moon blocks sunlight from reaching Earth.
18 stars planet orbit solar system constellation Stars are hot balls of gases that give off energy. Our sun is a star. A planet is a large body of rock or gases in space. An orbit is a path that each planet travels around the sun.
19 Sun Mercury Venus Earth Mars Neptune Saturn Uranus Jupiter The solar system is made up of the sun, the planets and their moons, and other small objects. A constellation is a group of stars that forms a shape. The shape could be of a person, animal, or thing.
20 When you compare and contrast, you tell how things are alike and different. Look for ways to compare and contrast planets in the solar system. The sun is a star. A star is a ball of burning gases. These gases give off energy. The sun s energy helps plants grow. It keeps Earth warm. Sun Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter
21 Earth moves around the sun. The other planets do this, too. A planet is a large body of rock or gases. Each planet travels in an orbit, or path, around the sun. The solar system is made up of the sun, the planets, and other small things that orbit the sun. Tell how all planets are alike.
22 The four planets that are closest to the sun are called the inner planets. These planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. You can sometimes see Venus and Mars at night. They look like stars. But they do not twinkle.
23 All the inner planets have rocky surfaces. They are smaller than the other planets. The inner planets are warmer than the other planets, too. This is because they are closer to the sun. How are the inner planets different from the other planets?
24 There are four outer planets. They are farthest from the sun. The outer planets are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The outer planets are made mostly of frozen gases. Most are large and have many moons. Tell how most outer planets are alike.
25 How do people tell one star from another? One way is to use constellations. A constellation is a group of stars. The stars appear to make a picture in the sky. Compare how people group stars with how they group planets.
26 In spring and summer, you can see some constellations that you cannot see in fall and winter. You can see other constellations all year long.
27 In winter, you can see one set of stars. As Earth orbits the sun, the season changes. In summer at the same place on Earth, some of the stars you can see will be different from those you saw in winter. The stars you see in winter are on the other side of the sun in summer. How would the night sky be different in summer and in winter?
28 You know that the sun appears to move across the sky during the day. At night, the stars appear to move, too. The rotation of Earth causes stars to seem to move in the nighttime sky. Like the sun and the moon, most stars seem to rise in the east and set in the west. Stars in the sky near the poles seem to move in a circle.
29 The shapes of the constellations we see in the sky do not change. The Big Dipper is part of a constellation called Ursa Major, or Big Bear. It always looks like the Big Dipper, even though it isn't always in the same place in the sky. How are the moon, the sun, and the stars alike? 1. All of the planets in the solar system the sun. 2. The four inner planets are smaller than most of the. 3. Most of the outer planets have many more than the inner planets. 4. All of the outer planets are farther from the than the inner planets.
30 GLOSSARY axis (AK sis) an imaginary line through the center of the Earth constellation (kahn stuh LAY shuhn) a group of stars that appear to form the shape of an animal, a person, or an object lunar cycle (LOON er CY kuhl) the pattern of phases of the moon lunar eclipse (LOON er ih KLIPS) an event in which Earth blocks sunlight from reaching the moon moon phases (MOON FAYZ uhz) the different shapes that the moon seems to have in the sky when the moon is observed from Earth orbit (AWR bit) the path that a planet takes as it revolves around the sun planet (PLAN it) a large body of rock or gas in space revolution (rev uh LOO shuhn) the movement of Earth around the sun rotation (roh TAY shuhn) the spinning of Earth on its axis solar eclipse (SOH ler ih KLIPS) an event in which the moon blocks sunlight from reaching Earth and the moon s shadow falls on Earth solar system (SOH ler SIS tuhm) the sun, the planets and their moons, and the small objects that orbit the sun star (STAR) a hot ball of glowing gases that gives off energy
31 1. Explain how Earth s tilt and movement cause the seasons, and day and night. 2. Describe the phases of the moon. Explain why the moon appears to change shape during a lunar cycle. Use clay to make a model of the planets in the solar system. 1. Label the planets and put them in order from the sun. 2. Use your model to show how Earth revolves and how it orbits the sun. Observe the night sky with a family member for several evenings. Look for the moon and constellations and draw your observations. Discuss why the moon appears to change shape.
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