# The Sky. Day sky: the Sun, occasionally the Moon. Night Sky: stars, and sometimes the Moon

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1 The Sky Day sky: the Sun, occasionally the Moon Night Sky: stars, and sometimes the Moon

2 So MANY objects.how Do We Make Sense of it ALL??

3 Goal How to describe the locations of objects in the sky To understand the daily and annual motions of the Sun and stars.

4 W S N E Celestial sphere is an imaginary sphere on which the stars, sun and moon appear to reside. It is not real!

5 W S N E The position of a star on the sky is specified by: direction of the star, and the angle of the star above the horizon

6 Angular distance Astronomers measure distance across the sky as angles: in degrees

7 Angular size Angle diameter (in radians) = diameter/distance Full circle = 2π (in radians)=360 degrees=360 o 1 o =60 arcminutes = 60 1 = 60 arcseconds = 60

8 Which one appears bigger in the sky, the Sun or the Moon? The Sun is physically 400 times larger than the Moon. Why is their angular size is the same?

9 Angular Size Some Examples: Horizon to zenith (point overhead) 90 o Your fist at arm's length 10 o Your fingernail at arm's length 1 o = 60' Sun or Moon seen from Earth 0.5 o = 30' Smallest detail visible to naked eye 1' = 60'' Smallest detail visible by a single telescope from Earth's surface: 1'' Angular size of Pluto: 0.15 Betelgeuse (largest star) seen from Earth 0.004'' Thus, stars cannot be resolved

10 Some objects are brighter than others

11 Magnitude scales of brightness Sun: -27 magnitude Full moon: -12 magnitude Venus at brightest: -4 magnitude Polaris +2 magnitude Naked eye limit: +5.5 magnitude Hubble Space Telescope: +28 magnitude

12 Patterns in the sky Orion Constellations: apparent associations of bright stars in the sky They were named by ancient cultures with some imaginations

13

14 This 12 constellations are better known; they are located in the zodiac, the annual path of the sun in the celestial sphere

15 Constellations 88 official constellations divide the sky into areas with clear boundaries. The names of constellations are in Latin. But the names of the most bright stars are derived from ancient Arabic. The original constellations were invented by farmers over 5000 years ago. Remember that the constellations are not real associations!

16 Projection

17 Daily Motion of the Night Sky North pole Polaris Apparent motion of the sky: There are two ways to think about the motion of the sky: - the C.S. rotates - or the Earth rotates while the sky sits still. The real reason is the Earth is rotating about its polar axis

18

19 How long to go all the way around? 1 day b. 1 week c. 1 month d. 1 year

20 Are there stars in the sky during the daytime?

21

22

23 The Daily Cycle of the Sun

24 Day and night are different at different places on the globe Latitude and longitude make a convenient coordinate system for locating objects on the Earth. Equator separates the globe into north and south hemispheres The cycle in the sky directly above the equator is the celestial equator, which separates the celestial sphere into north sky and south sky

25 Polaris The rotation of the earth North pole The earth rotates once a day about its polar axis from west to east. The rotation axis almost always points toward the same direction, the Polaris, but not exactly!

26 The altitude of Polaris above the horizon is approximately the same as the observer's latitude in the Northern Hemisphere.

27 Time Zones and Universal Time

28

29 Time The time for many astronomical events is given in Universal Time (UT), which is (approximately) the local time for Greenwich, England --- the Greenwich Mean Time or GMT.

30 Daily Cycles of the Sky Earth's rotation from west to east causes the sun and stars to rise in the east and set in the west daily. But not everywhere! Near the poles, the sun rises and sets every half year, and circumpolar constellations such as Ursa Major, never set.

31 Annual Cycle of the Sun

32 The PRESESSION of the Earth s axis has a 26,000 year Period.

33 Annual cycle of the night sky The constellations along the ecliptic are called the zodiac

34 1) Libra 2) Pisces 3) Gemini 4) Capricorn

35 What do I want to learn? The origin, structure, evolution and fate of the universe How astronomers measure distances, ages and masses Black holes Structure and evolution of galaxies and stars ETs Constellations

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