# Geometry. Circles. Name Period

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1 Geometry Circles Name Period 1

2 Date: Section 10 1 & 10 2: Circumference, Arcs, and Angles Notes Circle a set of equidistant from a given point called the of the circle Circumference: Example #1: a.) Find C if r = 13 inches. b.) Find C if d = 6 millimeters. c.) Find d and r to the nearest hundredth if C = 65.4 feet. Central Angle an angle that has the center of the circle as its vertex, and its sides contain two radii of the circle Minor Arc arc degree measure equals the measure of the angle and is less than 180 degrees Major Arc arc degree measure equals 360 minus the measure of the arc and is greater than 180 degrees 2

3 Semicircle arc degree measure equals Example #1: Refer to circle T. a.) Find mrts. b.) Find mqtr. Example #2: In circle P, mnpm 46, PL bisects KPM, and OP KN. Find each measure. a.) m OK b.) m LM c.) m JKO 3

4 10-1 NAME DATE PERIOD Practice Circles and Circumference For Exercises 15, refer to the circle. S 1. Name the circle. 2. Name a radius. R L 3. Name a chord. 4. Name a diameter. W T 5. Name a radius not drawn as part of a diameter. 6. Suppose the radius of the circle is 3.5 yards. Find the diameter. 7. If RT 19 meters, find LW. The diameters of L and M are 20 and 13 units, respectively. Find each measure if QR LQ 9. RM P L Q R M S The radius, diameter, or circumference of a circle is given. Find the missing measures to the nearest hundredth. 10. r 7.5 mm 11. C yd d, C d, r Find the exact circumference of each circle cm R 24 cm K 40 mi 42 mi SUNDIALS For Exercises 14 and 15, use the following information. Herman purchased a sundial to use as the centerpiece for a garden. The diameter of the sundial is 9.5 inches. 14. Find the radius of the sundial. 15. Find the circumference of the sundial to the nearest hundredth. Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Glencoe Geometry 4

5 NAME Period Date Today you will be INSCRIBING polygons. Follow the directions carefully. Mark all points clearly and answer questions asked. Part 1 Draw O in the area below. Draw ABC inscribed in O with BC as a diameter. What is the m BC What is m BAC What type of triangle is Is m BAC = m BC How do the measures of ABC? BAC and BC compare? Write a conjecture that compares the inscribed angle and the arc it intercepts: 5

6 Part 2 You will draw a regular pentagon (called PENTA) by following the directions: How big is one central angle of a pentagon? (Remember we did total circle divided by number of sides) Draw an angle PKE that is the measure of one central angle using the protractor. Using the same vertex point (K), draw an adjacent angle to PKE also the same measure using the protractor. Repeat this for all 5 angles of the Pentagon Draw a new circle called K using the point K of the angles you drew as the center using the compass. Complete the Pentagons by connecting the points (chords) where the circle and the angle sides intersect. Call these points PENTA. How big is each central angle of Pentagon PENTA? How big is each vertex angle of Pentagon PENTA? - What is the measure of each of the congruent arcs? Complete the measures below: m APE m PE m ENA m PEN m EN m NTP m ENT m NT m TAE m NTA m TA m APN m TAP m AP m PET APE forms which arc? APE PEN forms which arc? APE TAP forms which arc? How does the inscribed angle compare to the arc it forms? 6

7 10-2 NAME DATE PERIOD Practice Angles and Arcs ALGEBRA In Q, AC and BD are diameters. Find each measure. E (5x 3) D 1. maqe 2. mdqe 3. mcqd 4. mbqc A (6x 5) (8x 1) Q C 5. mcqe 6. maqd B In P, mgph 38. Find each measure. 7. mef 8. mde 9. mfg 10. mdhg E D F P H G 11. mdfg 12. mdge The radius of Z is 13.5 units long. Find the length of each arc for the given angle measure. 13. QPT if mqzt QR if mqzr 60 T P S Z Q R 15. PQR if mpzr QPS if mqzs 160 HOMEWORK For Exercises 17 and 18, refer to the table, which shows the number of hours students at Leland High School say they spend on homework each night. 17. If you were to construct a circle graph of the data, how many degrees would be allotted to each category? Homework Less than 1 hour 8% 1 2 hours 29% 2 3 hours 58% 3 4 hours 3% Over 4 hours 2% 18. Describe the arcs associated with each category. Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Glencoe Geometry 7

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9 10-1 NAME DATE PERIOD Enrichment The Four Color Problem Mapmakers have long believed that only four colors are necessary to distinguish among any number of different countries on a plane map. Countries that meet only at a point may have the same color provided they do not have an actual border. The conjecture that four colors are sufficient for every conceivable plane map eventually attracted the attention of mathematicians and became known as the four-color problem. Despite extraordinary efforts over many years to solve the problem, no definite answer was obtained until the 1980s. Four colors are indeed sufficient, and the proof was accomplished by making ingenious use of computers. The following problems will help you appreciate some of the complexities of the four-color problem. For these maps, assume that each closed region is a different country. 1. What is the minimum number of colors necessary for each map? a. b. c. d. e. 2. Draw some plane maps on separate sheets. Show how each can be colored using four colors. Then determine whether fewer colors would be enough. Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Glencoe Geometry 9

10 10-2 NAME DATE PERIOD Enrichment Curves of Constant Width A circle is called a curve of constant width because no matter how you turn it, the greatest distance across it is always the same. However, the circle is not the only figure with this property. The figure at the right is called a Reuleaux triangle. 1. Use a metric ruler to find the distance from P to any point on the opposite side. 2. Find the distance from Q to the opposite side. 3. What is the distance from R to the opposite side? P Q The Reuleaux triangle is made of three arcs. In the example shown, PQ has center R, QR has center P, and PR has center Q. 4. Trace the Reuleaux triangle above on a piece of paper and cut it out. Make a square with sides the length you found in Exercise 1. Show that you can turn the triangle inside the square while keeping its sides in contact with the sides of the square. 5. Make a different curve of constant width by starting with the five points below and following the steps given. Step 1: Place he point of your compass on D with opening DA. Make an arc with endpoints A and B. Step 2: Make another arc from B to C that has center E. Step 3: Continue this process until you have five arcs drawn. E A R B C D Some countries use shapes like this for coins. They are useful because they can be distinguished by touch, yet they will work in vending machines because of their constant width. 6. Measure the width of the figure you made in Exercise 5. Draw two parallel lines with the distance between them equal to the width you found. On a piece of paper, trace the five-sided figure and cut it out. Show that it will roll between the lines drawn. Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Glencoe Geometry 10

11 Date: Arcs and Chords Section 10 3: Arcs and Chords Notes The of a chord are also endpoints of an. Theorem 10.2: In a circle, two arcs are congruent if and only if their corresponding are congruent. Ex: Inscribed and Circumscribed The chords of arcs can form a. Quadrilateral ABCD is an polygon because all of its lie on the circle. Circle E is about the polygon because it contains all of the vertices of the. Theorem 10.3: In a circle, if the diameter (or radius) is to a chord, then it the chord and its arc. Ex: 11

12 Example #1: Circle W has a radius of 10 centimeters. Radius WL is perpendicular to chord HK, which is 16 centimeters long. a.) If mhl = 53, find mmk. b.) Find JL. Theorem 10.4: In a circle, two are congruent if and only if they are from the center. Example #2: Chords EF and GH are equidistant from the center. If the radius of circle P is 15 and EF 24, find PR and RH. 12

13 Name Period Date For this exercise you will need a ruler and a piece of string. Use the ruler to draw the straight lines and measure them. Use the string to measure the arcs and then use the ruler to measure the string length you found for the arc measure. In the circle given ( H), 1. Draw a chord AB 2. Draw another chord the same size as AB and call it CD 3. How far is AB from the center H? 4. How far is CD from the center H? 5. Draw a diameter FG that is to AB at a point you call P 6. What is the length of AP? 7. What is the length of BP? 8. Use the string to find the length of AB 9. Use the string to find the length of AP 10. Use the string to find the length of BP 11. Use the string to find the length of CD 13

14 10-3 NAME DATE PERIOD Practice Arcs and Chords In E, mhq 48, HI JK, and JR 7.5. Find each measure. 1. mhi 2. mqi 3. mjk 4. HI H Q P E I J R K S 5. PI 6. JK The radius of N is 18, NK 9, and mde 120. Find each measure. 7. mge 8. mhne X D K Y N H E 9. mhen 10. HN G The radius of O 32, PQ RS, and PQ 56. Find each measure. 11. PB 14. BQ R P A B O Q S 12. OB 16. RS 13. MANDALAS The base figure in a mandala design is a nine-pointed star. Find the measure of each arc of the circle circumscribed about the star. Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Glencoe Geometry 14

15 10-3 NAME DATE PERIOD Enrichment Patterns from Chords Some beautiful and interesting patterns result if you draw chords to connect evenly spaced points on a circle. On the circle shown below, 24 points have been marked to divide the circle into 24 equal parts. Numbers from 1 to 48 have been placed beside the points. Study the diagram to see exactly how this was done Use your ruler and pencil to draw chords to connect numbered points as follows: 1 to 2, 2 to 4, 3 to 6, 4 to 8, and so on. Keep doubling until you have gone all the way around the circle. What kind of pattern do you get? 2. Copy the original circle, points, and numbers. Try other patterns for connecting points. For example, you might try tripling the first number to get the number for the second endpoint of each chord. Keep special patterns for a possible class display. Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Glencoe Geometry 15

16 Date: Inscribed Angles Section 10 4: Inscribed Angles Notes If an angle is in a circle, then the measure of the angle equals the measure of its intercepted arc (or the measure of the arc is the measure of the inscribed angle). Ex: Example #1: In circle O, mab = 140, mbc = 100, and mad = mdc. Find the measures of the numbered angles. 16

17 Angles of Inscribed Polygons Theorem 10.7: If an inscribed angle intercepts a semicircle, the angle is a angle. Ex: Example #2: Triangles TVU and TSU are inscribed in circle P, with measure of each numbered angle if m2 x 9 and m4 2x 6. VU SU. Find the Example #3: Quadrilateral ABCD is inscribed in circle P. If mb 80 and mc 40, find ma and m D. 17

18 10-4 NAME DATE PERIOD Practice Inscribed Angles In B, mwx 104, mwz 88, and mzwy 26. Find the measure of each angle. 1. m1 2. m2 3. m3 4. m4 Y Z B W X 5. m5 6. m6 ALGEBRA Find the measure of each numbered angle. 7. m1 5x 2, m2 2x 3 8. m1 4x 7, m2 2x 11, m3 7y 1, m4 2y 10 m3 5y 14, m4 3y 8 G A U 2 4 J H 1 3 I D 4 1 R 3 C 2 B Quadrilateral EFGH is inscribed in N such that mfg 97, mgh 117, and mehg 164. Find each measure. 9. me 10. mf H E N F 11. mg 12. mh G 13. PROBABILITY In V, point C is randomly located so that it does not coincide with points R or S. If mrs 140, what is the probability that mrcs 70? C 70 R V 140 S Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Glencoe Geometry 18

19 10-4 NAME DATE PERIOD Enrichment Formulas for Regular Polygons Suppose a regular polygon of n sides is inscribed in a circle of radius r. The figure shows one of the isosceles triangles formed by joining the endpoints of one side of the polygon to the center C of the circle. In the figure, s is the length of each side of the regular polygon, and a is the length of the segment from C perpendicular to AB. C x x r a r A s 2 s 2 B s Use your knowledge of triangles and trigonometry to solve the following problems. 1. Find a formula for x in terms of the number of sides n of the polygon. 2. Find a formula for s in terms of the number of n and r. Use trigonometry. 3. Find a formula for a in terms of n and r. Use trigonometry. 4. Find a formula for the perimeter of the regular polygon in terms of n and r. Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Glencoe Geometry 19

20 Date: Tangents Section 10 5: Tangents Notes Tangent a line in the plane of a that intersects the circle in exactly one. The point of intersection is called the. Ex: Theorem 10.9: If a line is to a circle, then it is to the drawn to the point of. Ex: Example #1: RS is tangent to circle Q at point R. Find y. 20

21 Theorem 10.10: If a is perpendicular to a radius of a circle at its on the circle, then the line is to the circle. Ex: Example #2: circles. a.) BC Determine whether the given segments are tangent to the given b.) WE Theorem 10.11: If two from the same exterior point are to a circle, then they are. Ex: 21

22 Example #3: tangent. Find x. Assume that segments that appear tangent to circles are Example #4: Triangle HJK is circumscribed about circle G. Find the perimeter of HJK if NK = JL

23 10-5 NAME DATE PERIOD Practice Tangents Determine whether each segment is tangent to the given circle. 1. MP 2. QR M Q L P R P 14 Find x. Assume that segments that appear to be tangent are tangent. 3. T 4. 7x 3 L S 5x 1 U T x S P Find the perimeter of each polygon for the given information. Assume that segments that appear to be tangent are tangent. 5. CD 52, CU 18, TB KG 32, HG 56 C T B V U D L H K G CLOCKS For Exercises 7 and 8, use the following information. The design shown in the figure is that of a circular clock face inscribed in a triangular base. AF and FC are equal. 7. Find AB. A D B 2 in. E F 7.5 in. C 8. Find the perimeter of the clock. Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Glencoe Geometry 23

24 10-5 NAME DATE PERIOD Enrichment Tangent Circles Two circles in the same plane are tangent circles if they have exactly one point in common. Tangent circles with no common interior points are externally tangent. If tangent circles have common interior points, then they are internally tangent. Three or more circles are mutually tangent if each pair of them are tangent. Externally Tangent Circles Internally Tangent Circles 1. Make sketches to show all possible positions of three mutually tangent circles. 2. Make sketches to show all possible positions of four mutually tangent circles. 3. Make sketches to show all possible positions of five mutually tangent circles. 4. Write a conjecture about the number of possible positions for n mutually tangent circles if n is a whole number greater than four. Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Glencoe Geometry 24

25 Date: Section 10 6: Secants, Tangents, and Angle Measures Notes Secant a line that intersects a circle in exactly points Ex: Theorem 10.12: (Secant-Secant Angle) Theorem 10.13: Ex: Ex: (Secant-Tangent Angle) Theorem 10.14: Two Secants Secant-Tangent Two Tangents Example #1: Find m3 and m4 if mfg = 88 and meh =

26 Example #2: Find mrps if mpt = 144 and mts = 136. Example #3: Find x. Example #4: Use the figure to find the measure of the bottom arc. Example #5: Find x. 26

27 10-6 NAME DATE PERIOD Practice Secants, Tangents, and Angle Measures Find each measure. 1. m1 2. m2 3. m Find x. Assume that any segment that appears to be tangent is tangent x x x x 63 x 5x x 9. RECREATION In a game of kickball, Rickie has to kick the ball through a semicircular goal to score. If mxz 58 and the mxy 122, at what angle must Rickie kick the ball to score? Explain. B (ball) Z X goal Y Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Glencoe Geometry 27

28 10-6 NAME DATE PERIOD Enrichment Orbiting Bodies The path of the Earth s orbit around the sun is elliptical. However, it is often viewed as circular. B C A D J H E G F Use the drawing above of the Earth orbiting the sun to name the line or segment described. Then identify it as a radius, diameter, chord, tangent, or secant of the orbit. 1. the path of an asteroid 2. the distance between the Earth s position in July and the Earth s position in October 3. the distance between the Earth s position in December and the Earth s position in June 4. the path of a rocket shot toward Saturn 5. the path of a sunbeam 6. If a planet has a moon, the moon circles the planet as the planet circles the sun. To visualize the path of the moon, cut two circles from a piece of cardboard, one with a diameter of 4 inches and one with a diameter of 1 inch. Tape the larger circle firmly to a piece of paper. Poke a pencil point through the smaller circle, close to the edge. Roll the small circle around the outside of the large one. The pencil will trace out the path of a moon circling its planet. This kind of curve is called an epicycloid. To see the path of the planet around the sun, poke the pencil through the center of the small circle (the planet), and roll the small circle around the large one (the sun). Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Glencoe Geometry 28

29 10-7 NAME DATE PERIOD Practice Special Segments in a Circle Find x to the nearest tenth. Assume that segments that appear to be tangent are tangent x 8 4 x 9 21 x x 3 x x x x x 20 x x CONSTRUCTION An arch over an apartment entrance is 3 feet high and 9 feet wide. Find the radius of the circle containing the arc of the arch. 9 ft 3 ft Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 0 Glencoe Geometry 29

30 10-7 NAME DATE PERIOD Enrichment The Nine-Point Circle The figure below illustrates a surprising fact about triangles and circles. Given any ABC, there is a circle that contains all of the following nine points: (1) the midpoints K, L, and M of the sides of ABC (2) the points X, Y, and Z, where AX, BY, and CZ are the altitudes of ABC (3) the points R, S, and T which are the midpoints of the segments AH, BH, and CH that join the vertices of ABC to the point H where the lines containing the altitudes intersect. B S X Z M K H O R T A Y L C 1. On a separate sheet of paper, draw an obtuse triangle ABC. Use your straightedge and compass to construct the circle passing through the midpoints of the sides. Be careful to make your construction as accurate as possible. Does your circle contain the other six points described above? 2. In the figure you constructed for Exercise 1, draw RK, SL, and TM. What do you observe? Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Glencoe Geometry 30

31 10-8 NAME DATE PERIOD Practice Equations of Circles Write an equation for each circle. 1. center at origin, r 7 2. center at (0, 0), d center at (7, 11), r 8 4. center at (12, 9), d center at (6, 4), r 5 6. center at (3, 0), d a circle with center at (5, 3) and a radius with endpoint (2, 3) 8. a circle whose diameter has endpoints (4, 6) and (2, 6) Graph each equation. 9. x 2 y (x 3) 2 ( y 3) 2 9 y y O x O x 11. EARTHQUAKES When an earthquake strikes, it releases seismic waves that travel in concentric circles from the epicenter of the earthquake. Seismograph stations monitor seismic activity and record the intensity and duration of earthquakes. Suppose a station determines that the epicenter of an earthquake is located about 50 kilometers from the station. If the station is located at the origin, write an equation for the circle that represents a possible epicenter of the earthquake. Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Glencoe Geometry 31

32 10-8 NAME DATE PERIOD Enrichment Equations of Circles and Tangents Recall that the circle whose radius is r and whose center has coordinates (h, k) is the graph of (x h) 2 (y k) 2 r 2. You can use this idea and what you know about circles and tangents to find an equation of the circle that has a given center and is tangent to a given line. C(2, 3) O y P y 2x 3 x Use the following steps to find an equation for the circle that has center C(2, 3) and is tangent to the graph y 2x 3. Refer to the figure. 1. State the slope of the line that has equation y 2x Suppose C with center C(2, 3) is tangent to line at point P. What is the slope of radius CP? 3. Find an equation for the line that contains CP. 4. Use your equation from Exercise 3 and the equation y 2x 3. At what point do the lines for these equations intersect? What are its coordinates? 5. Find the measure of radius CP. 6. Use the coordinate pair C(2, 3) and your answer for Exercise 5 to write an equation for C. Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Glencoe Geometry 32

33 Geometry vocabulary circles NAME Period Date Name the following from the drawing with circle W. B F A W C G E J D H 1. the center of the circle 2. a radius 3. a diameter 4. a chord 5. a secant segment 6. a tangent segment 7. a minor arc 8. a major arc 9. a semi-circle 10. a central angle 11. an inscribed angle 12. a 90 angle 13. a point of tangency 33

34 Geometry Name: Date: Instructions: Complete the word search puzzle. Use the clues to help you identify the words. Clues 1. An arc that measures The distance around a circle. 3. In a circle, any segment with endpoints that are the center of the circle and a point on the circle. 4. In a circle, a chord that passes through the center of the circle. 5. A polygon is in a circle if each of its vertices lie on the circle. 6. A line in the plane of a circle that intersects the circle in exactly one point. 7. An irrational number represented by the ratio of the circumference of a circle to the diameter of the circle. 8. The locus of all points in a plane equidistant from a given point called the center. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 34

35 Geometry 9. arcs Arcs of the same circle or congruent circles that have the same measure. 10. Any line that intersects a circle in exactly two points. 11. For a given circle, a segment with endpoints that are on the circle. 12. An arc with a measure less than An angle has its vertex on the circle and its sides go through the interior of the circle 14. A circle is about a polygon if the circle contains all the vertices of the polygon. 15. An arc with a measure greater than A part of a circle that is defined by two endpoints. 17. point of For a line that intersects a circle in only one point, the point at which they intersect. 18. angle An angle that intersects a circle in two points and has its vertex at the center of the circle. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 35

36 Graphic Organizer by Dale Graham and Linda Meyer Thomas County Central High School Thomasville, Ga. 36

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