# Circle geometry investigation: Student worksheet

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1 Circle geometry investigation: Student worksheet About these activities In each of these activities you will learn something about circle geometry. Start by drawing the required items in the given circle. Repeat this a few times, either in the same circle or other circles, as appropriate. You will then be asked if you can form a hypothesis. You can write simply, perhaps by annotating a diagram. Then you will investigate in GeoGebra, using your diagrams as a basis for what you will create within the software. Using length or angle measurements, as appropriate, you can then see whether your hypothesis is true. When asked to write a conclusion, you should create a diagram that demonstrates what you have found, and write words that explain your theorem clearly. Try to write formally, being specific. Do not just write the angle. Explain clearly which angle you are referring to. After all these are completed, you may be asked to explain one of your conclusions to the class. The activities proceed more or less in order of difficulty, but do not let yourself get stuck. If you cannot form a hypothesis, you can still investigate in GeoGebra. If you cannot work out how to do something in GeoGebra and timely help is not available, move on to the next activity and come back later. The most important aspect of all this is the drawing and investigations. Even if you never form a hypothesis or reach a conclusion, you will gain a lot of benefit from the investigations Education Services Australia Ltd, except where indicated otherwise. This document may be used, reproduced, published, communicated and adapted free of charge for non-commercial educational purposes provided all acknowledgements associated with the material are retained. page 1 of 17

2 Introduction Use the three circles below to display the following parts of a circle: radius diameter tangent chord arc sector major segment minor segment. Complete the diagram below. The chord CD subtends an angle at the circumference of θ. Describe this diagram in a similar way. page 2 of 17

3 Activity 1 In the first circle, draw a chord. The chord subtends three angles at the circumference (on the same side of the chord); draw them. Repeat in the other circles with a different chord. Investigate in GeoGebra. Name your file Activity1.ggb. page 3 of 17

4 Activity 2 For a given chord, there is a relationship between: the angle at the circumference on one side; and the angle at the circumference on the other side. Investigate with different chords in the circles below. Investigate in GeoGebra. Name your file Activity2.ggb. page 4 of 17

5 Activity 3 Draw a diameter in each of these circles. Draw some triangles inside each semicircle (the diameter is the base; a point on the circle completes the triangle.) Investigate in GeoGebra. Name your file Activity3.ggb. page 5 of 17

6 Activity 4 For a given chord, there is a relationship between: the angle subtended at the centre; and the angle subtended at the circumference. Investigate in the circles below. Investigate in GeoGebra. Name your file Activity4.ggb. page 6 of 17

7 Question 1 Find the values of all pronumerals. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) page 7 of 17

8 Activity 5 Draw a chord. Join the midpoint of the chord to the centre. Do this a few times. Investigate in GeoGebra. Name your file Activity5.ggb. Activity 6 Draw two 2.5 cm chords in the first circle and two 1.5 cm chords in the second circle. Investigate in GeoGebra. Name your file Activity6.ggb. page 8 of 17

9 Activity 7 In each circle, draw two chords AB and CD that intersect at E. There is a relationship between the four shorter lengths created (called the intercepts). It would be very difficult to observe this in a static diagram, so you may skip the hypothesis and investigate in GeoGebra. Name your file Activity7.ggb. Activity 8 In triangle ABC below, draw the perpendicular bisectors of AB, AC and BC. What do you notice? What is significant about this point? (It is called the circumcentre of the triangle.) Investigate in GeoGebra. Name your file Activity8.ggb. page 9 of 17

10 Activity 9 Draw a cyclic quadrilateral in each of the circles below. (A cyclic quadrilateral is a quadrilateral all of whose vertices lie on the same circle.) Investigate in GeoGebra. Name your file Activity9.ggb. page 10 of 17

11 Question 2 Find the values of all pronumerals. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) page 11 of 17

12 Activity 10 Draw some radii. For each radius, draw a tangent at the point of contact. Investigate in GeoGebra. Name your file Activity10.ggb. page 12 of 17

13 Activity 11 Draw two tangents from an external point of your choice. Do this a few times. Investigate in GeoGebra. Name your file Activity11.ggb. page 13 of 17

14 Activity 12 For each circle below: draw a tangent draw a chord that touches the tangent draw a triangle using this chord as the base (of course, the third point must be on the circle). Investigate in GeoGebra. Name your file Activity12.ggb. page 14 of 17

15 Activity 13 For each circle below: draw a tangent (call the point of contact P) choose a point on the tangent (call it Q) join Q to a point S on the far side of the circle; call the other point of intersection R. There are several lengths in your diagram. Name them: Investigate in GeoGebra (Activity13.ggb) and see if you can find a relationship between three of the lengths. Activity 14 Given a circle and an external point, GeoGebra can create the two tangents from the point to the circle. In this activity, you will construct the tangents from first principles. Create a circle (centre O) and an external point P. Create a circle whose diameter is OP. This cannot be done directly; you need to think about it. You now have two circles. Place a point at their two points of intersection. These are the points of contact for the tangents. Use the ray tool to create the two tangents. Move the various points around to confirm that you really have constructed the tangents. Name your file Activity14.ggb. page 15 of 17

16 Question 3 Find the values of all pronumerals. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) Prove that ΔABC ΔBDC. page 16 of 17

17 Answers Question 1 (a) α = 76 (b) θ = 11 (c) α = 19 (d) α = 105, β = 35 (e) α = 9 (f) β = 101 Question 2 (a) y = 16 (b) x = 0.8 (c) y = 6 2 (d) d = 8 (e) x = 98, y = 122 (f) x = 56, y = 28 Question 3 (a) β = 61 (b) α = 15.4 (c) α = 31.5, β = 31.5 (d) m = 36, p = 54 (e) a = 92, b = 23 (f) x = 7.2, y = 5.4 (g) θ = 77, α = 154 (h) Proof: In ΔABC and ΔBCD 1. C is common 2. BAC = BCD (angle in the alternate segment) ΔABC and ΔBDC (AAA) page 17 of 17

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