# Earth & Space. Learning Target:

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1 Earth & Space Learning Target: Most of the cycles and patterns of motion between the Earth and sun are predictable. You understand this when you know: 1) 1 Revolution of the Earth takes approximately 365 days. 2) 1 Rotation of the Earth on its axis takes 24 hours. 3) The Earth's axis tilts at 23.5 degrees. 4) The seasons are caused by the amount of direct sunlight an area receives.

2 Universe Vocabulary Atmosphere layer of gasses, air, around the earth Gravity- the force that pulls objects toward each other Axis- an imaginary line that passes from the north pole to the south pole through earths center Magnitude- size of something such as the brightness of a star; determined by size, distance and temperature HR Diagram Revolution one complete trip of a planet around the sun Orbit- the path that one object in space takes around another object in space Rotation the spinning of a planet or moon on its axis Star an object in space that produces its own heat and light (our sun)

3 The Sun, Earth, & Moon by Christine Goudeau Reading pages Earth's Axis An AXIS is an imaginary line that runs through the center of an object. The Earth's Axis is tilted 23.5 degrees Click to watch a clip

4 Earth's Orbit An orbit is the path that something makes as it revolves around another object. The Earth follows an ORBIT around the SUN Earth's orbit is almost completely circular and centered around the sun, but some planets' orbits are not click to explore orbit shapes return Revolution and Rotation of the Earth,Moon and Sun. What's the difference between rotation and revolution? Rotation-to turn around itself Click to see Earth's Rotation Revolution-to go around something else Click on the Earth to see how it revolves

5 So, What is the EFFECT of our Earth's Rotation? D A Y N I G H T How long does it take for Earth to make one complete rotation? The part of the Earth that is facing the sun is having what? The part of the Earth that is facing away from the sun is having what? About 24 hours (1 Day) day night Day and Night

6 Problem: How can we show Day and Night with everyday objects? Axis Materials: Flashlight Earth on Axis Dark Room Earth *You will work in pairs in this activity. Sunshine So, What is the EFFECT of our Earth's Revolution? Reading pages Seasons To understand how this works, we need to study about: click *Earth's Orbit click *Earth's Axis

7 Seasons So, how does Earth's AXIS and it's ORBIT around the sun cause us to have SEASONS? If the Earth weren't titled on its axis, the same parts of the earth would always receive the same amount of direct sunlight and their weather would remain the same throughout the year Watch the Earth's Revolution around the sun

8 Seasons Foldable We will be creating this foldable in class to illustrate the seasons! Make sure to bring your coloring supplies (crayons or colored pencils!!) Is it Revolution or Rotation? People often get Revolution and Rotation confused! Here's a trick to help you remember the difference: If an object rotates, the center stays in the same place. If an object revolves, the whole object circles a center object or area. Notice how the middle of the fan stays in the same spot while the rest of the fan travels in a circle around the middle. Click on the dog to watch a dog's revolution around the center of the pool. Notice how the whole dog moves around the center of the pool. Is the object showing REVOLUTION or ROTATION? A car wheel The hands of a clock A twirling ballerina A teacher walking around desks

9 Is it Revolution or Rotation? People often get Revolution and Rotation confused! Here's a trick to help you remember the difference: If an object rotates, the center stays in the same place. If an object revolves, the whole object circles a center object or area. Notice how the middle of the fan stays in the same spot while the rest of the fan travels in a circle around the middle. Click on the dog to watch a dog's revolution around the center of the pool. Notice how the whole dog moves around the center of the pool. Is the object showing REVOLUTION or ROTATION? A car wheel The hands of a clock A twirling ballerina A teacher walking around desks Earth and the Moon are always half lit. We've already learned that the half of the Earth that's lit is experiencing daytime and the other half is having nighttime. Sun sunlight It's a little more complicated with moonlight. Since the moon revolves around the Earth, the amount of the half lit moon that we see changes depending on where the moon is in its month long rotation around the earth. We call these different amounts of moonlight Moon Phases. Let's learn more!

10 Reading pages The Phases of Our Moon There are 8 moon phases. Each one shows a different amount or area of moonlight. The moon takes about one month to go through each of the 8 phases. see the moon phases Waxing Gibbous First Quarter Waxing Crescent Full New Sun Waning Gibbous Last Quarter Waning Crescent Click in each box next to the phases's name to see what the moon looks like from earth during that moon phase

11 Waxing Gibbous First Quarter Waxing Crescent Full New Sun Waning Gibbous Last Quarter Waning Crescent Click in each box next to the phases's name to see what the moon looks like from earth during that moon phase

12 Match each phase with its name. Waxing Gibbous First Quarter New Waxing Crescent Full Last Quarter Waning Crescent Waning Gibbous Learning Target for Today: - Understand that the Sun is the closest star to Earth - Understand the characteristics of the Sun (age, composition, and temperature) - Understand how the Sun compares to other stars.

13 Comparing the sizes of the Sun Earth Moon Click to compare the Earth, Moon, and Sun Another way to think about it... Watch a clip If the Sun were the size of a basketball... the Earth would be about the size of a pea... the Moon would be about the size of a pinhead... A closer look at Our Sun Reading Pages

14 Sun Facts... The sun is about 110 times the diameter of the Earth The sun is an averagedsized yellow star Video! Reading Page 228 The sun is about 4.6 billion years old Let's take a closer look at Our Solar System In Our Solar System, there are 8 planets Can you name them in order? Remember this! Watch a Clip My Very Energetic Mother Just Sat Under Noodles

15 Earth is one of the four INNER PLANETS along with Mercury, Venus, & Mars Earth is the third planet from the sun How do the ORBITS of the inner planets compare? How do the axes of the inner planets compare? Click on the picture for a closer look. Click on the picture for a closer look. How do the inner planets compare in size? Click on the picture for a closer look. How is our Earth unique? The Earth is a geologically active planet with a surface that is constantly changing. Unlike the other three inner planets, Earth has large amounts of lifesupporting water and an oxygen-rich atmosphere. The Earth's protective atmosphere blocks out most of the sun's damaging rays.

16 Other space bodies! Asteroid Belt Comet... Dwarf PLANETS Meteroid Meteor Asteriod Belt - page 230 An asteroid is a metallic bit of rock. It can be thought of as what was "left over" after the Sun and all the planets were formed. Most of the asteroids in our solar system can be found orbiting the Sun between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. This area is sometimes called the "asteroid belt". Think about it this way: the asteroid belt is a big highway in a circle around the Sun. Think about the asteroids as cars on the highway. Sometimes, the asteroid cars run into one another. When this happens, the asteroids may break up into smaller asteroids. Scientists think that most asteroids are the result of collisions between larger rocky space bodies. Asteroids can be a few feet to several hundred miles wide. The belt probably contains at least 40,000 asteroids that are more than 0.5 miles across. If an asteroid is captured by the gravitational pull of a planet, the asteroid can be pulled out of the belt and go into orbit as a moon around the planet that pulled on it.

17 Reading page 233 What are comets?a comet is a small world which scientists sometimes call a planetesimal. They are made out of dust and ice, kind of like a dirty snow ball. Where do they come from?comets come from two places: The Kuiper Belt and the Oort Cloud.

18 When you wish upon a star... Meteor - streak of light, Meteoriod - small space rocks that orbit the sun, Meteorite - Meteorid that strikes Earth's surface The meteorites you see during a meteor shower might appear to be very close, but did you know that those tiny particles of burning space debris are actually about 30 to 40 miles (48 to 64km) above Earth's surface? Pretty amazing that you are able to see such a tiny piece of space dust from so far away! Reading Page 234

19 Size Distance from Earth Temperature Size - the bigger one

20 Constellations pages Long before the time of television, people told stories about the "pictures" they saw in the night sky. Many star groups were named for the people, animals and objects our ancestors imagined when they looked at the stars. Certain Constellations can only be seen during certain times of the year!

21 Observing Space How has our understanding of our solar system changed over time? An earth-centered model of the universe was developed thousands of years ago by Greek philosophers. This earth-centered model is called a GEOCENTRIC model. Two famous Greek philosophers who wrote about this Ptolemy and Aristotle. Most people believed this Geocentric view of the universe to be true for a long, long, time! In the 16th century, an astronomer named Copernicus developed a HELIOCENTRIC model of the universe, in which the sun was the center of the universe with the earth and other planets orbiting around the sun. Soon after, an astronomer named Galileo expanded upon and offered proof of Copernicus's sun-centered model of our solar system. Watch a clip Today, we understand that the sun is the center - but not of the universe, The sun is the center of our solar system. We continue to learn more and more about our solar system, galaxy, and our universe with new scientific discoveries.

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