# SC.8.E.5.9. Summer and Winter Gizmo

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1 8 th Grade Science Quarter 1 Recovery Packet SC.8.E.5.9 DAYS/YEARS/SEASONS Go to and search for the Summer and Winter Gizmo. Answer the following questions: Gizmo Warm-up Summer and Winter Gizmo The SPACE tab of the Summer and Winter Gizmo shows two different snapshots of Earth as it orbits the Sun. The Earth at left shows June 21. The Earth at right shows December The white line going through the North Pole and the South Pole is Earth s axis. Does the axis go straight up and down, or is it tilted? 2. Your latitude indicates how far you are from the equator, a line around Earth s middle. The person in the Gizmo has the same latitude on each date. Turn on Show Sun rays and slowly drag the person on the left Earth toward the North Pole. What do you notice about how the Sun rays hit the person as she is moved northward? 3. The half of Earth north of the equator (the top half) is called the northern hemisphere. (Hemisphere means half a sphere.) The southern half is the southern hemisphere. A. Which hemisphere receives more direct sunlight on June 21? B. Which hemisphere receives more direct sunlight on December 21?

2 Activity A: Reasons for seasons Get the Gizmo ready: On the SPACE tab, drag the person to 40 N latitude. (This is the latitude of New York City.) Check that Show Sun rays is on. Introduction: A season is a major division of the year, based on regular weather changes. Most of the world has four seasons winter, spring, summer, and autumn (fall). The summer solstice is the first day of summer. The winter solstice is the first day of winter. Question: Why is it colder in winter than summer? 1. Form hypothesis: In the northern hemisphere, why do you think it is colder in December than in June? 2. Collect data: Select the EARTH tab. Record the following data for the 40 N location: The number of Sun rays hitting the solar panel on June 21 and December 21. The temperature on each date. The June 21 day length and December 21 day length. The angle of the Sun s rays on each date. (Turn on Show protractor.) Date Rays on panel Temp. ( C) Day length Sun ray angle June 21 December Analyze: Look at your data table. A. On which date are there more hours of daylight? B. On which date does more sunlight hit the solar panel? C. How does the angle of sun rays relate to the temperature? 4. Draw conclusions: Why is it colder in winter than summer? Give two reasons.

3 MOON PHASES Go to the following website to review information on the Phases of the Moon: Answer the following questions: Why does the Moon sometimes appear in the sky as a crescent shape? What do we call the process of the Moon's changes as it goes from a new moon to a full moon? Draw a diagram showing the relationship between the Moon, Earth and the Sun when there is a full moon. Draw a diagram showing the relationship between the Moon, Earth and Sun when there is a new moon. Although we can't see a new moon, at what time of day is a 'new' moon actually in the sky? ECLIPSES Watch the video clip below and respond to the questions Solar Eclipses What is happening to the Sun as seen from Earth during a solar eclipse? Either describe or draw it. Why can a solar eclipse happen only during a new Moon phase? What would a solar eclipse look like if the Moon were smaller than it is now?

4 Based on what you now know about a solar eclipse explain what happens during a lunar eclipse. (Hint: They only can happen when there is a full Moon!) TIDES Go to and search for the TIDES gizmo. Answer the following questions: Student Exploration: Tides Activity A: The Moon and tides Get the Gizmo ready: Click Reset. Select the BAR CHART tab. Question: What causes high and low tides? 5. Observe: Click Play and watch the tides for a while on the BAR CHART and SIMULATION panes. Notice the oblong bands of water around Earth. These are tidal bulges. A. How many tidal bulges are there? B. What kind of tide does the observer experience as he passes through a tidal bulge? C. What kind of tide does the observer experience when he is between tidal bulges? D. In one day, how many times does the observer pass through a tidal bulge? 6. Form hypothesis: What do you think causes the tidal bulges to form? 7. Observe: Set the Speed to Fast and click Play. What do you notice about the tidal bulges and the position of the Moon?

5 8. Draw conclusions: How does the Moon influence the tides? 9. Extend your thinking: The Moon s gravity pulls on Earth. A. How does the Moon s gravity affect the oceans nearest to the Moon? B. What happens on the side of Earth opposite the Moon? Activity B: The Sun and tides Get the Gizmo ready: Click Reset. Select the GRAPH tab. Question: How does the Sun influence tides? 1. Observe: Set the Speed to Fast and click Play. Observe the shape of the tidal bands over time. After 15 days or so, click Pause. How do the tidal bands change over time? 2. Analyze: On the GRAPH tab, click the button twice to zoom out. A. What do you notice? B. When the high tide is very high, and the low tide is very low, it is a spring tide. On which days did the observer experience a spring tide? C. When there is a smaller difference between high and low tide, it is a neap tide. On which day did the observer experience a neap tide?

6 3. Sketch: As the Moon orbits Earth, there are two periods of spring tides and two periods of neap tides. Sketch the positions of the Earth, Moon, and Sun for each spring and neap tide. Spring tide Neap tide Spring tide Neap tide Analyze: List the type of tide (spring or neap) that occurs in each situation: A. The gravity of the Sun and Moon pull Earth s surface in the same direction: B. The gravity of the Sun and Moon pull Earth s surface in opposite directions: C. The gravity of the Sun and Moon pull Earth s surface at right angles: 4. Draw conclusions: How does the Sun s gravity influence tides? 5. Extend your thinking: Think about how the Moon would look for the observer on Earth. A. What kind of tides (spring or neap) would you expect during a full Moon? B. What kind of tides would you expect during a new Moon? C. What kind of tides would you expect during a half Moon?

7 SC.8.E.5.9 Assessment Questions: 1. Not all planets experience a chance of seasons. What causes the seasons on Earth? a. The changing position of the Moon in relation to Earth s hemispheres b. The angle of Earth s hemispheres in relation to the Sun c. Differing quantities of light coming from the Moon d. Changes in the distance between Earth and the Sun 2. The diagram below describes the relative positions of the Sun, Earth and the Moon. When the Sun, Earth, and the Moon are in these positions, what phase of the Moon do we observe? a. Full moon c. third quarter b. New moon d. first quarter moon 3. A new planet is discovered in a different solar system. The new planet is much like Earth. One difference is that the planet does not have tides. What does the planet lack that Earth has? a. A star c. a geosphere b. A moon d. a rotational period 4. In the diagram below, the Sun, Earth, and the Moon are all aligned, and only part of the Moon falls in Earth s shadow. What does this diagram illustrate? a. A full solar eclipse c. A partial solar eclipse b. A full lunar eclipse d. A partial lunar eclipse

8 5. Earth s seasons are caused by the tilt of Earth s axis, which is shown in the diagram below. The diagram also shows how the relationship between Earth and the Sun changes as Earth orbits. Earth s Northern and Southern hemispheres take turns receiving more direct rays from the Sun. Each image of Earth in the diagram above shows different seasons. Which of the following seasons is taking place on Earth when it is at position 3 shown above? a. It is winter in the Southern Hemisphere. c. It is spring in the Northern Hemisphere. b. It is winter in the Northern Hemisphere. d. It is spring in the Southern Hemisphere. 6. The following diagram shows the alignment of the Sun, Earth, and the Moon during an astronomical event. On the night of this astronomical event, the Moon starts fully lit. Then the Moon is dark for about three hours. Finally, the Moon is fully lit again. What is this astronomical event called? a. A solar eclipse c. a first-quarter moon b. A lunar eclipse d. a third-quarter moon

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