1. Base your answer to the following question on the weather map below, which shows a weather system that is affecting part of the United States.

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1 1. Base your answer to the following question on the weather map below, which shows a weather system that is affecting part of the United States. Which sequence of events forms the clouds associated with this weather system? A) Moist air rises and becomes saturated in clean air. B) Moist air rises, becomes saturated, and condenses on microscopic particles. C) Moist air falls and reaches the dewpoint in clean air. D) Moist air falls, reaches the dewpoint, and condenses on microscopic particles. Base your answers to questions 2 and 3 on the diagram below, which shows the frontal boundary between mt and cp air masses. 2. Why do clouds and precipitation usually occur along the frontal surface? A) The warm air rises, expands, and cools. B) The warm air sinks, expands, and warms. C) The cool air rises, compresses, and cools. D) The cool air sinks, compresses, and warms. 3. If the front at ground level is moving toward city B. which type of weather front is shown? A) cold front B) warm front C) occluded front D) stationary front 4. A strong west wind steadily blew over Lake Ontario picking up moisture. As this moist air flowed over the Tug Hill Plateau, the plateau received a 36-inch snowfall. This snow fell from clouds that formed when rising air was A) cooled by expansion, causing water vapor to condense B) cooled by compression, causing water vapor to condense C) warmed by expansion, causing water vapor to evaporate D) warmed by compression, causing water vapor to evaporate

2 5. The flowchart below shows part of Earth's water cycle. The question marks indicate a part of the flowchart that has been deliberately left blank. Which process should be shown in place of the question marks to best complete the flowchart? A) condensation B) deposition C) evaporation D) infiltration 6. By which process are clouds, dew, and fog formed? A) condensation B) evaporation C) precipitation D) melting 7. A diagram of the water cycle is shown below. Letters A through D represent the processes taking place. Which arrow represents the process of transpiration? A) A B) B C) C D) D 8. Which two processes lead to cloud formation in rising air? A) compressing and cooling B) compressing and warming C) expanding and cooling D) expanding and warming 9. When would the water in a Georgia pond evaporate fastest? A) in January, when the pond is frozen B) in March, when the pond ice is melting C) in May on a calm, sunny day D) in July on a hot, windy day 10. The flowchart below shows one process by which moisture enters the atmosphere. 11. A container of water is placed in an open area outdoors so that the evaporation rate may be observed. The water will probably evaporate fastest when the air is A) cool and humid B) cool and dry C) warm and humid D) warm and dry 12. Which process occurs when water vapor moves out of the leaves of a tree into the atmosphere? A) condensation B) infiltration C) runoff D) transpiration 13. Which sequence of events affecting moist air within Earth's atmosphere causes cloud formation? A) rising expanding cooling condensation B) rising contracting warming evaporation C) sinking expanding warming condensation D) sinking contracting cooling evaporation The last step of this process is known as A) condensation B) convection C) radiation D) transpiration

3 Base your answers to questions 14 and 15 on the diagram of the water cycle below. Letter A represents a process in the water cycle. Points X and Y represent locations on Earth's surface. 14. The process represented by A is A) precipitation B) transpiration C) condensation D) saturation 15. Which process in the water cycle is directly responsible for cloud formation? A) condensation B) infiltration C) precipitation D) evaporation 16. The diagram below shows air rising from the Earth's surface to form a thunderstorm cloud. According to the Lapse Rate chart, what is the height of the base of the thunderstorm cloud when the air at the Earth's surface has a temperature of 20 C and a dewpoint of 12 C? A) 1.0 km B) 1.5 km C) 3.0 km D) 0.7 km 17. Which process requires water to gain heat energy from the environment? A) evaporation B) condensation C) infiltration D) precipitation 18. Two identical towels are hanging on a clothesline in a sunny location. One towel is wet, the other is dry. What is one reason that the wet towel feels cooler than the dry towel? A) Water in the wet towel is evaporating. B) Water in the wet towel prevents absorption of heat energy. C) The dry towel receives more heat energy from the Sun than the wet towel does. D) The dry towel has more room for heat storage than the wet towel does. 19. Which graph best illustrates the relationship between rate of evaporation and air temperature? A) B) C) D)

4 20. In which environment is the amount of transpiration usually the greatest? A) B) C)

5 D) Base your answers to questions 21 and 22 on the water cycle diagram shown below. Some arrows are numbered 1 through 4 and represent various processes. 21. Which numbered arrow best represents the process of transpiration? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) The clouds have formed primarily because moist air A) rises, expands, and cools B) rises, expands, and warms C) sinks, compresses, and cools D) sinks, compresses, and warms 23. Under which atmospheric conditions will water most likely evaporate at the fastest rate? A) hot, humid, and calm B) hot, dry, and windy C) cold, humid, and windy D) cold, dry, and calm

6 Base your answers to questions 24 and 25 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The diagram represents the water cycle. Letters A through C represent different processes in the water cycle. 24. In order for process A to occur, liquid water must A) gain 334 Joules per gram B) gain 2260 Joules per gram C) lose 334 Joules per gram D) lose 2260 Joules per gram 25. Which process is represented by letter B? A) capillarity B) transpiration C) infiltration D) precipitation 26. All of the containers shown below contain the same volume of water and are at room temperature. In a two-day period, from which container will the least amount of water evaporate? A) B) C) D)

7 27. Base your answer to the following question on the reading passage about lake-effect snow and the radar image map below, and on your knowledge of Earth science. The radar map shows areas where snowfall was occurring. The whitest area indicates where snowfall was heaviest. Lake-Effect Snow In late fall, cold air originating in Canada and then moving over the Great Lakes often produces lake-effect snow in New York State. When the cold air mass moves across large areas of warmer lake water, water vapor enters the cold air. When this moist air moves over the cooler land, the moisture comes out of the atmosphere as snow. The effect is enhanced when the air that flows off the lake is forced over higher land elevations. The areas affected by lake-effect snow can receive many inches of snow per hour. As the lakes gradually freeze, the ability to produce lake-effect snow decreases. Which list indicates the correct sequence in the formation of a lake-effect snow cloud? A) air contracts as it sinks air warms to the dewpoint water evaporates B) air expands as it rises air warms to the dewpoint water vapor condenses C) air contracts as it sinks air cools to the dewpoint water evaporates D) air expands as it rises air cools to the dewpoint water vapor condense

8 28. The arrows in the diagram below represent processes in the water cycle. Which processes in the water cycle are identified by the numbered arrows? A) Process 1 is transpiration; process 2 is runoff. B) Process 1 is precipitation; process 2 is runoff. C) Process 1 is condensation; process 2 is infiltration. D) Process 1 is evaporation; process 2 is infiltration. 29. The letters A through D in the cross section below represent four of the processes that are part of the water cycle. Which table correctly matches each letter with the process that it represents A) B) C) D)

9 30. People sometimes release substances into the atmosphere to increase the probability of rain by A) raising the air temperature within the clouds B) providing condensation nuclei C) lowering the relative humidity within the clouds D) increasing the energy absorbed during condensation and sublimation 31. Under which set of atmospheric conditions does water usually evaporate at the fastest rate? A) warm temperatures, calm winds, and high humidity B) warm temperatures, high winds, and low humidity C) cold temperatures, calm winds, and low humidity D) cold temperatures, high winds, and high humidity 32. Which event will most likely occur in rising air? A) clearing skies B) cloud formation C) decreasing relative humidity D) increasing temperature 33. In order for clouds to form, cooling air must be A) saturated and have no condensation nuclei B) saturated and have condensation nuclei C) unsaturated and have no condensation nuclei D) unsaturated and have condensation nuclei 34. In order for clouds to form, cooling air must be A) saturated and have no condensation nuclei B) saturated and have condensation nuclei C) unsaturated and have no condensation nuclei D) unsaturated and have condensation nuclei 35. Under which conditions is a cloud most likely to form at the Earth's surface? A) The air temperature is above the dewpoint, and no condensation nuclei are present. B) The air temperature is at the dewpoint, and condensation nuclei are abundant. C) The relative humidity is zero, and condensation nuclei are abundant. D) The air temperature and air pressure are stable, and condensation nuclei are scarce. 36. Cloud formation is likely to occur in rising air because rising air A) expands and cools B) expands and warms C) contracts and cools D) contracts and warms 37. Moisture is evaporating from a lake into stationary air at a constant temperature. As more moisture is added to this air, the rate at which water will evaporate will probably A) decrease B) increase C) remain the same 38. The diagram below shows a cross section of a cold front. The cloud formation and precipitation shown in the cross section are caused by the A) rising of cold, moist air B) sinking of cold, moist air C) rising of warm, moist air D) sinking of warm, moist air 39. The table below shows the air temperature and dewpoint at each of four locations, A, B, C, and D. Based on these measurements, which location has the greatest chance of precipitation? A) A B) B C) C D) D 40. By which process do plants add water vapor to the atmosphere? A) precipitation B) transpiration C) condensation D) absorption

10 41. The rate of evaporation from the surface of a lake would be increased by A) a decrease in wind velocity B) a decrease in the amount of insolation C) an increase in the surface area of the lake D) an increase in the moisture content of the air 42. The graph below is a computer-generated forecast of air temperature and dewpoint for a city during a period of 2 days. 46. The arrows in the diagram below represent the movement of water in the water cycle. At which time during this period is the rate of evaporation expected to be highest? A) April 27 at 10 a.m. B) April 28 at 10 a.m. C) April 28 at 4 p.m. D) April 29 at 4 a.m. 43. Which substance is a form of precipitation? A) frost B) hail C) fog D) dew 44. A student uses a sling psychrometer outdoors on a clear day. The dry-bulb (air) temperature is 10 C. The water on the wet bulb will most likely A) condense, causing the wet-bulb temperature to be higher than the air temperature B) condense, causing the wet-bulb temperature to be equal to the air temperature C) evaporate, causing the wet-bulb temperature to be lower than the air temperature D) evaporate, causing the wet-bulb temperature to be equal to the air temperature 45. Which process most directly results in cloud formation? A) condensation B) transpiration C) precipitation D) radiation Which arrow represents the process of transpiration? A) A B) B C) C D) D 47. What is the most effective method for increasing the rate of evaporation of a given amount of water? A) decreasing the water's temperature B) decreasing the air movement over the water's surface C) increasing the water's surface area D) increasing the air pressure over the water's surface 48. Which is a form of precipitation? A) frost B) snow C) dew D) fog 49. Which graph best represents the relationship between the moisture-holding capacity (ability to hold moisture) of the atmosphere and atmospheric temperature? A) B) C) D)

11 50. Which processes of the water cycle return water vapor directly to the atmosphere? A) evaporation and transpiration B) infiltration and capillarity C) freezing and precipitation D) water retention and runoff 51. The greatest source of moisture entering the atmosphere is evaporation from the surface of A) the land B) the oceans C) lakes and streams D) ice sheets and glaciers 52. Liquid water will continue to evaporate from the Earth's surface, increasing the amount of atmospheric water vapor, until A) transpiration occurs B) the relative humidity falls below 50% C) the atmosphere becomes saturated D) the temperature of the atmosphere becomes greater than the dewpoint temperature 53. All of the glass containers shown below contain the same amount of water and are receiving the same amount of heat energy. In a given amount of time, the most water will evaporate from which container? A) B) C) D) 55. When a person leaves the ocean after swimming on a windy day, the person usually feels cold because A) water evaporates from the skin B) water condenses on the skin C) salt is absorbed through the skin D) radiation is absorbed through the skin 56. Which graph best represents the relationship between water droplet size and the chance of precipitation? A) B) C) D) 57. The primary source of most of the moisture for the Earth's atmosphere is A) soil-moisture storage B) rivers and lakes C) melting glaciers D) oceans 58. Most water vapor enters Earth s atmosphere by the processes of A) condensation and precipitation B) radiation and cementation C) conduction and convection D) evaporation and transpiration 54. The base of a cumulus cloud was determined to be 500 meters above the Earth's surface. This is the altitude at which A) cumulus clouds always form B) no dust is present in the air C) the air temperature drops below 0 C D) the air temperature equals the dewpoint temperature

12 59. The graph below represents how the rate of evaporation of water is affected by a variable, X. Which variable is most likely represented by X? A) temperature B) wind velocity C) exposed surface area D) moisture content of the air 60. Which event is a direct result of transpiration and evaporation? A) The atmosphere warms. B) Cloud cover decreases. C) Moisture enters the atmosphere. D) Moisture leaves the atmosphere. 61. Clouds usually form when moist air rises because the air A) contracts and cools B) contracts and warms C) expands and cools D) expands and warms 62. The arrows in the block diagram below show the movement of water after it has fallen as precipitation. Which arrow indicates the process of transpiration? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4

13 63. Base your answer to the following question on the graph below. The graph shows air temperature and relative humidity at a single location during a 24-hour period. At which time would the rate of evaporation most likely be greatest? A) 11 p.m. B) 6 a.m. C) 10 a.m. D) 4 p.m. 64. Why is it possible for no rain to be falling from a cloud? A) The water droplets are too small to fall. B) The cloud is water vapor. C) The dewpoint has not yet been reached in the cloud. D) There are no condensation nuclei in the cloud. 65. Clouds usually form when A) air temperature reaches the dewpoint B) evaporation has warmed the surrounding air C) relative humidity is 0% D) condensation nuclei have been removed from the air

14 66. The diagrams below show the setup and results of an experiment. 67. A container of water is placed in an open outdoor area so that the evaporation rate can be observed. The water will most likely evaporate fastest when the weather is A) cool, humid, and windy B) cool, dry, and calm C) warm, humid, and calm D) warm, dry, and windy 68. Which atmospheric condition will cause the greatest amount of evaporation from the surface of a lake? A) calm, dry, cold B) moist, cold, windy C) calm, moist, hot D) dry, hot, windy 69. The table below shows air temperatures and dew point temperatures at different elevations above sea level. Which statement best explains the results of the experiment? A) Condensation is the primary source of moisture for the atmosphere. B) Energy is required for evapotranspiration. C) Precipitation at a given location depends on surface area. D) Transpiration moves moisture from the plant into the atmosphere. Clouds that form at an elevation of 3 kilometers will most likely be composed of A) raindrops B) ozone C) ice crystals D) sleet

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