1 Chapter The Atmosphere: Structure and Temperature Geologists have uncovered evidence of when Earth was first able to support oxygenrich atmosphere similar to what we experience today and more so, take for granted. Research shows that it was 500 million years ago that a reversal took place, wherein from containing carbon dioxide, the atmosphere began containing oxygen, suitable for breathing. It is precisely this reversal that caused a revolutionary change. It was from this day that Earth began capable of supporting living organisms. For the last ten years, researchers at the Ohio State University had been gathering and putting together evidence of when the Earth might have first been able to contain an oxygen-rich atmosphere. This was basically done by measuring the amounts of chemical from different rock cores around the world to chain a series of events. The chain of events was described this way : Tectonic activity led to increased weathering, which basically pulled carbon dioxide from the air, thereby cooling the climate. As the oceans cooled down, the plankton prospered - and in turn created more oxygen through photosynthesis. Since the reversal of that greenhouse effect, oxygen levels have been stable for the last 50 million years, having started fluctuating over the last 500 million. The most crucial element of life support in space is a breathable atmosphere. A human in space, whether in a craft, station, or suit, must have air. As such, we have to thank nature s way of allowing us to come into this air and for sustaining our existence. Image Credit: CESCG
2 17.1 Atmosphere Characteristics Composition of the Atmosphere Weather is constantly changing, and it refers to the state of the atmosphere at any given time and place. Climate, however, is based on observations of weather that have been collected over many years. Climate helps describe a place or region.
3 17.1 Atmosphere Characteristics Composition of the Atmosphere Major Components Air is a mixture of different gases and particles, each with its own physical properties.
4 Volume of Clean, Dry Air
6 17.1 Atmosphere Characteristics Composition of the Atmosphere Variable Components Water vapor is the source of all Water vapor is the source of all clouds and precipitation. Like carbon dioxide, water vapor absorbs heat given off by Earth. It also absorbs some solar energy.
7 17.1 Atmosphere Characteristics Composition of the Atmosphere Variable Components Ozone is a form of oxygen that combines three oxygen atoms into each molecule (O 3 ). If ozone did not filter most UV radiation and all of the sun s UV rays reached the surface of Earth, our planet would be uninhabitable for many living organisms.
8 17.1 Atmosphere Characteristics Composition of the Atmosphere Human Influence Emissions from transportation vehicles account for nearly half the primary pollutants by weight.
9 Primary Pollutants
10 17.1 Atmosphere Characteristics Height and Structure of the Atmosphere The atmosphere rapidly thins as you travel away from Earth until there are too few gas molecules to detect. Pressure Changes Atmospheric pressure is simply the weight of the air above.
11 Atmospheric Pressure vs. Altitude
12 17.1 Atmosphere Characteristics Height and Structure of the Atmosphere Temperature Changes The atmosphere can be divided vertically into four layers based on temperature. The troposphere is the bottom layer of the atmosphere where temperature decreases with an increase in altitude.
13 17.1 Atmosphere Characteristics Height and Structure of the Atmosphere Temperature Changes The stratosphere is the layer of the atmosphere where temperature remains constant to a height of about 20 kilometers. It then begins a gradual increase until the stratopause.
14 Snowy Mountaintops Contrast with Warmer Snow-Free Lowlands
15 17.1 Atmosphere Characteristics Height and Structure of the Atmosphere Temperature Changes The mesosphere is the layer of the atmosphere immediately above the stratosphere and is characterized by decreasing temperatures with height.
16 17.1 Atmosphere Characteristics Height and Structure of the Atmosphere Temperature Changes The thermosphere is the region of the atmosphere immediately above the mesosphere and is characterized by increasing temperatures due to the absorption of very short-wave solar energy by oxygen.
17 Thermal Structure of the Atmosphere
18 17.1 Atmosphere Characteristics Earth-Sun Relationships Earth s Motions Earth has two principal motions rotation and revolution. Earth s Orientation Seasonal changes occur because Earth s position relative to the sun continually changes as it travels along its orbit.
20 Tilt of Earth s Axis
21 17.1 Atmosphere Characteristics Earth-Sun Relationships Solstices and Equinoxes The summer solstice is the solstice that occurs on June 21 or 22 in the Northern Hemisphere and is the official first day of summer. The winter solstice is the solstice that occurs on December 21 or 22 in the Northern Hemisphere and is the official first day of winter.
22 17.1 Atmosphere Characteristics Earth-Sun Relationships Solstices and Equinoxes The autumnal equinox is the equinox that occurs on September 22 or 23 in the Northern Hemisphere. The spring equinox is the equinox that occurs on March 21 or 22 in the Northern Hemisphere.
23 17.1 Atmosphere Characteristics Length of Daylight The length of daylight compared to the length of darkness also is determined by Earth s position in orbit.
24 Solstices and Equinoxes
25 17.2 Heating the Atmosphere Energy Transfer as Heat Heat is the energy transferred from one object to another because of a difference in the objects temperature. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual atoms or molecules in a substance.
26 17.2 Heating the Atmosphere Three mechanisms of energy transfer as heat are conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction Energy Transfer as Heat Conduction is the transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity.
27 17.2 Heating the Atmosphere Energy Transfer as Heat Convection Convection is the transfer of heat by mass movement or circulation within a substance.
28 Energy Transfer as Heat
31 17.2 Heating the Atmosphere Energy Transfer as Heat Electromagnetic Waves The sun emits light and heat as well as the ultraviolet rays that cause a suntan. These forms of energy are only part of a large array of energy emitted by the sun, called the electromagnetic spectrum.
33 Electromagnetic Spectrum
34 Visible Light Consists of an Array of Colors
35 17.2 Heating the Atmosphere Energy Transfer as Heat Radiation Radiation is the transfer of energy (heat) through space by electromagnetic waves that travel out in all directions. Unlike conduction and convection, which need material to travel through, radiant energy can travel through the vacuum of space.
36 17.2 Heating the Atmosphere Energy Transfer as Heat Radiation All objects, at any temperature, emit radiant energy. Hotter objects radiate more total energy per unit area than colder objects do.
37 17.2 Heating the Atmosphere Energy Transfer as Heat Radiation cont. The hottest radiating bodies produce the shortest wavelengths of maximum radiation. Objects that are good absorbers of radiation are good emitters as well.
38 17.2 Heating the Atmosphere What Happens to Solar Radiation? When radiation strikes an object, there usually are three different results. 1. Some energy is absorbed by the object. 2. Substances such as water and air are transparent to certain wavelengths of radiation. 3. Some radiation may bounce off the object without being absorbed or transmitted.
39 Solar Radiation
41 17.2 Heating the Atmosphere What Happens to Solar Radiation? Reflection Reflection occurs when light bounces off an object. Reflection radiation has the same intensity as incident radiation.
42 17.2 Heating the Atmosphere What Happens to Solar Radiation? Scattering Scattering produces a larger number of weaker rays that travel in different directions.
43 17.2 Heating the Atmosphere What Happens to Solar Radiation? Absorption About 50 percent of the solar energy that strikes the top of the atmosphere reaches Earth s surface and is absorbed.
44 17.2 Heating the Atmosphere What Happens to Solar Radiation? Absorption The greenhouse effect is the heating of Earth s surface and atmosphere from solar radiation being absorbed and emitted by the atmosphere, mainly by water vapor and carbon dioxide.
45 17.3 Temperature Controls Why Temperatures Vary Factors other than latitude that exert a strong influence on temperature include heating of land and water, altitude, geographic position, cloud cover, and ocean currents.
46 17.3 Temperature Controls Why Temperatures Vary Land and Water Land heats more rapidly and to higher temperatures than water. Land also cools more rapidly and to lower temperatures than water.
47 Mean Monthly Temperatures for Vancouver and Winnipeg
48 17.3 Temperature Controls Geographic Position The geographic setting can greatly influence temperatures experienced at a specific location.
49 Mean Monthly Temperatures for Eureka and New York City
50 Mean Monthly Temperatures for Seattle and Spokane
51 17.3 Temperature Controls Why Temperatures Vary Altitude The altitude can greatly influence temperatures experienced at a specific location.
52 Mean Monthly Temperatures for Guayaquil and Quito
53 17.3 Temperature Controls Why Temperatures Vary Cloud Cover and Albedo Albedo is the fraction of total radiation that is reflected by any surface. Many clouds have a high albedo and therefore reflect back to space a significant portion of the sunlight that strikes them.
54 Clouds Reflect and Absorb Radiation
56 17.3 Temperature Controls World Distribution of Temperature Isotherms are lines on a weather map that connect points where the temperature is the same. Isotherms generally trend east and west and show a decrease in temperatures from the tropics toward the poles.
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