Current Climate Trends and Implications

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1 Current Climate Trends and Implications Dr. Mark Seeley Professor emeritus Department of Soil, Water, and Climate University of Minnesota St Paul, MN Crop Insurance Conference September 12, 2018 Mankato, MN 92 degrees F at Mankato, MN Sep 12, degrees F Mankato, MN Sep 12, 1955 Today in Mankato Climate History 2 thunderstorm at Mankato, MN Sep 12, 1984 Dust storm at Mankato, MN Sep 12, 1931

2 Segments Big picture disparities Changes in Regional Climate Attributes Examination of Extremes Current Climate Conditions Outlooks Disparity in the pace of climate change relative to temperature

3 Geographic Disparity in Precipitation Change-IPCC warmth by state

4 Statewide Precipitation Ranks for Jan-Sep, 2017

5

6

7 Minnesota Mean Annual Temperature Trends Temp trend is upward and more frequently above the 90 th percentile, pace is 2 F per century

8 Winter (D,J,F) Spring (M,A,M) Seasonal Statewide Temperature Trends in MN Summer (J,J,A) Fall (S,O,N) Minnesota State Averaged Temperature Trends degrees F per century January February March April May June July August September October November December Annual Maximum Temperature Trend Minimum Temperature Trend Difference (Max minus Min)

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10 Trends in mean monthly temperatures at Austin, MN normals vs normals (F) Month Min Change Max Change Mean Change January February March April May June July August September October November December Trends in mean monthly temperatures at Waseca, MN normals vs normals (F) Month Min Change Max Change Mean Change January February March April May June July August September October November December

11 Trends in mean monthly temperatures at Mankato, MN normals vs normals (F) Month Min Change Max Change Mean Change January February March April May June July August September October November December Great Lakes Region (32 F threshold) 10 Frost-Free Season (days from normal) Year Length Spring Fall Source: K. Kunkel, Midwest. Reg. Clim. Center

12 Consequences of Warm Winters and Higher Minimum Temperatures Change in depth and duration of soil and lake freezing More rapid breakdown of crop residues Later fall nitrogen applications (soil temp too high) Longer outdoor construction season, fewer adverse weather days Change in over winter survival rates of insect pests and plant diseases, and soil microbes Reduced energy use for heating (fewer HDD) Change in Plant Hardiness Zones Longer frost-free growing seasons Increased number of freeze/thaw cycles (damaged roads) Change in animal migration, hibernation, and foraging Longer exposure times to mold and allergens

13 Winter (D,J,F) Spring (M,A,M) Seasonal Trends in MN Precipitation Summer (J,J,A) Fall (S,O,N)

14 Average Annual PPT , in Average Annual PPT , in Average Annual PPT , in Avg. Annual PPT, in < > 30 Average Annual PPT , in

15 Change in Annual Precipitation Normals at Austin, MN PERIOD AMOUNT (IN.) percent increase since period

16 Change in Annual Precipitation Normals at Waseca, MN PERIOD AMOUNT (IN.) percent increase since period Change in Annual Precipitation Normals at Mankato, MN PERIOD AMOUNT (IN.) percent increase since period

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18 Historical recurrence interval of 2 inch rains in southern and eastern MN was calculated to be once per year. This is no longer the case. Observed 2 inch rainfalls for the period and maximum single day value for various communities: Location No. 2 in. rains Maximum Value (date) Albert Lea (6/15/1978) Waseca (9/23/2010) Winnebago (9/25/2005) Owatonna (8/19/2007) Amboy (9/23/2010) Windom (9/23/2010) Fairmont (9/15/2004) Blue Earth (6/15/1978) Bricelyn (9/14/2004) Radiosonde history of PW at MSP since 1948

19 Observations Minnesota Trends Minnesota Mega rain Events August 6, 1866, Southern Minnesota July , Central Minnesota July 20 22, 1909, Northern Minnesota September 9 10, 1947 Iron Range July 21 22, 1972, Grand Daddy Flash Flood June 28 29, 1975, Northwest Minnesota July 23 24, 1987, Twin Cities Superstorm June 9 10, 2002, Northern Minnesota September 14 15, 2004 Southern Minnesota August 18 20, 2007, Southern Minnesota September 22 23, 2010 Southern Minnesota June 19 20, 2012, Northeast Minnesota July 11 12, 2016 central and east central Minnesota August 10 11, 2016 west central and southeastern Minnesota *Defined as 6 or greater rains cover at least 1000 square miles and a peak amount of 8 or greater Shift in Precipitation Recurrence Intervals Mega Rains since 2002

20 MN Counties designated for federal disaster assistance in 2012 All are associated with drought except those with which designates for flood or severe storm Possible Implications of Changes in Precipitation Quantity and Character Altered irrigation, drainage, runoff, sediment, and shoreline management Change in storm sewer runoff design Modified fisheries management Mitigation of soil erosion Mitigation of flooding potential

21 U.S. Drought Monitor 2018

22 5ft soil moisture profile Lamberton, MN

23 Sep-Nov Oct-Dec Nov-Jan Ensemble forecast for Oct-Dec, 2018 Temperature Anomaly

24 Ensemble forecast for precipitation anomaly Oct-Dec 2018 SUMMARY Trends toward warmer temperature and more precipitation continue in recent years. Probability for an extended fall season is high Probability for another warm winter (Dec-Feb) is high Probability for early spring is high (at least 80% in most cases). Probability for warmer than normal growing in 2019 season is high. Outlook for moisture is uncertain, but stored soil moisture by December of 2018 will be an indicator of production potential for 2019

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