# Third Grade Math and Science DBQ Weather and Climate/Representing and Interpreting Charts and Data - Teacher s Guide

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1 Third Grade Math and Science DBQ Weather and Climate/Representing and Interpreting Charts and Data - Teacher s Guide A document based question (DBQ) is an authentic assessment where students interact with content related texts. Much like a DBQ in social studies, students analyze documents, gather information, and fill in short scaffolded responses. Then students assimilate and synthesize the information from the documents, and write to an overarching prompt, by using information from the documents as well as integrating background knowledge they may have brought to the topic. In this math and science version of a DBQ, the documents include text, visual models, diagrams, illustrations, videos, etc., all examples of resources a scientist or mathematician might use in research and/or in the field. This DBQ is aligned with the third grade NGSS standard 3-ESS2-1 (Weather and Climate) as well as the third grade Common Core Math Standard 3.MD.B.3 (data). It is meant to accompany an integrated unit focusing on these standards. This DBQ can replace or support EnVision Math, 3 rd Grade, Topic 7 if desired. Notes for each math lesson are included throughout. With prompting and support, the students will review the series of documents to write to a final prompt. Helpful vocabulary: meteorologist graph table chart data predict/predictions forecast communicate weather climate precipitation pattern pictograph bar graph compare typical gather represent interpret analyze conjecture Culminating Task: How do meteorologists gather and use data to predict future weather and communicate their forecasts to the public? Use at least four of the vocabulary words. Use evidence and/or knowledge gained from each document. Use your background knowledge about this topic. Developed by Jillian Welch, Kate Smith Elementary School, 2018

2 Third Grade Math and Science DBQ Weather and Climate/Representing and Interpreting Charts and Data - Teacher s Guide A DBQ is a very structured activity, it cannot be independent or used as a worksheet, it must be directed. Most of the time, a DBQ combines prior knowledge and inferences with the documents students are exposed to. When directing students though this DBQ, these are the suggested steps in the process for each document: 1. Review the final writing prompt. Throughout the document, you might want to reference this question as the objective for what students are expected to understand. 2. Have students look at, read, watch, or listen to the document. 3. Have the students discuss their general observations of the document. 4. Talk through the first question, or have groups of students talk through the question. You could also have students jot down their individual ideas prior to having this discussion. 5. Have students write their answers to the question, either independently or together. As the students get comfortable with the process, they should do the writing independently after their discussions. 6. Move on to the next question, discuss, and then write. You will notice that the questions in each document build on one another, leading students to higher levels of thinking and deeper into the content. It is important to do each document and the questions in the order they are listed as part of the scaffolding process. The vocabulary words should be posted, as they come about in the DBQ, in a highly visible area of your classroom and should be referred to often. When completing the final writing, the length and specific details of writing is dependent on purpose, timing, and your expectations. Depending on your students writing ability, you might also choose to scaffold this writing and/or model how to cite from the documents. *Note: When printing this DBQ for students, you will NOT need to include the first page, however students should know the final writing prompt throughout the process so they understand and make connections to the final writing task.

3 Document A What Causes Weather? Weather and climate are different. Weather is a day-to-day description of the air in an area measured by temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind, and other factors. In other words, weather is what you see and find every day whereas climate is an average of that weather. There are many types of weather phenomena such as rain, snow, heat, tornado, hurricane, etc. 1. All weather happens in the lower level of the Earth s atmosphere. 2. Because the Earth is round and not flat, the Sun s rays don t fall evenly on the land and oceans. The sun shines more directly near the equator, bringing these areas more warmth. 3. Daily changes in the weather are due to winds and storms which is movement of warm and cold air from place to place. 4. Seasonal changes are due to the Earth revolving around the Sun. The interaction between the Earth s air, water, land, and the sun cause the changes to weather. What Causes Climate? Climate is usually defined as the weather conditions in an area over a long period of time and is the average of the conditions of that area. Climate is determined by one or more of the five causes of climate: latitude, elevation, ocean/wind currents, closeness to large bodies of water, and terrain. There are 12 different types of climate found on Earth. Climates in the same category share characteristics and usually are found in the same area. 1. Latitude: how close a place is to the equator - usually the closer it is to the equator, the warmer it is 2. Elevation: how high the land is above sea level - usually the higher the elevation, the cooler it is 3. Ocean/Wind Currents: hot water and air rises, cool water and air sinks - this creates currents that move heat around our planet 4. Closeness to large bodies of water: this can increase precipitation and affect the temperature depending on where the water is and how big it is 5. Terrain: mountains can change how much rain or sun you get, the north side of a mountain usually has a different climate than the south side Climates change over time, usually the change is very slow, and many different factors cause climates to shift and change. What is a Meteorologist? A meteorologist is a scientist who uses scientific principles to explain, understand, observe, or forecast the earth's atmospheric phenomena. Meteorologists look at long-term weather patterns and data to help predict future climate trends and past climate data. Meteorologists also develop and use new instruments and tools with computers and mathematical methods in order to forecast the weather. Forecast: to predict or estimate a future event or trend (verb) a prediction or estimate of future events (verb) to happen in the future (noun) a conjectured estimate of a future event (noun)

5 Document B Reno, NV - 10 Day Forecast Complete this document during science instruction Process to approach this document: -Start with simply looking at the chart and making observations -Have students talk with partners about their observations -Discuss observations as a class, discussing any misconceptions the students may bring up Watch a news forecast - what are the similarities and differences between the news and this document? 1. Name at least 3 facts about the information in the graph.

6 2. What patterns do you see in the data? Have a discussion about patterns that don t have to be quite as precise as students might have learned in earlier grades (like a number pattern of 2, 4, 6, 8), but in science could be more general and not as precise. Make sure to include the vocabulary words observation, forecast, conjecture, pattern, and trend in the discussion. Sample patterns: the temperature starts high, then drops, then rises, then drops, then rises, then drops; the high temperature varies more than the low temperatures; the wind speed correlates to the wind direction (for example, the NNW winds are always close to 10 mph, but the SW winds are much higher); when the temperature is high on a windy day, the following day the temperature drops significantly; low temperatures are cloudy days and higher temperatures are on sunny days Possible leading questions if students are struggling: What does forecast mean? (noun - a conjectured estimate of a future event/verb - to predict or estimate a future event or trend/verb - a prediction or estimate of future events) How does the data in each column on the chart change? What do you notice about data across the columns? 3. Is this chart representing weather or climate data? Explain your thinking based on Document A. Review the definitions of weather and climate by having students refer back to document A. Possible leading questions if students are struggling: What does document A say about weather? What does it say about climate? 4. How do meteorologists decide what the weather forecast will be? Have students refer back to document A and find the information about meteorologists. 5. Based on this forecast, what would you predict the weather to be for the following 10 days? Students should make predictions, explaining why they believe they are correct. Re-watch a news forecast to show how meteorologists justify their predictions. Make sure to include the vocabulary words forecast and predict/prediction.

7 Document C Complete this document during math (questions #1-6 can replace EnVision lesson 7.1) and science (questions #6-8) instruction Process to approach this document: -Start with simply looking at the chart and making observations -Have an open-ended conversation about observations with the graph -Have students talk with partners about their observations -Discuss observations as a class, discussing any misconceptions the students may bring up -Watch EnVision 7.1 Visual Learning Bridge -Start questions - how can you prove your thinking using the graph? -Discuss the key if it hasn t already been mentioned 1. Name at least 3 facts about the information in the graph. Make brief notes. 2. Which month received the most number of days with precipitation? May 3. What month received the least number of days with precipitation? August and September 4. What is the difference in days with precipitation between the most number of days and least number of days? 3 Give students time to talk as a group to discuss how to answer this question.

8 5. Which months have the same number of days with precipitation? Based on your knowledge of climate, why do these months have the same number of days with precipitation? June, July, and October (all have 3 days) August and September (all have 2 days) 6. What patterns do you see in this data? Make brief notes. Have a discussion about mathematical verses scientific patterns Sample student responses: June, July, and October have the same amounts of precipitation because they are the beginning and end of summer, and happen with the changing of seasons; August and September are the hottest and driest months of the year Discuss seasonal patterns: How many seasons are there in a year? What are they? Where does each season fall within the year? 7. Predict the amount of precipitation for November. Have a discussion about predictions, just like in reading, predictions are always based on information you have. 8. Is this graph representing weather or climate data? Explain your thinking based on Document A. Answers may vary, however students should justify their thinking.

9 Document D Average Snowfall in Reno, Nevada Months November December January February March April Inches of snowfall Complete this document during math (the pictograph can replace EnVision lesson 7.2 with a discussion about #5 in the EnVision homework with the class, the guided practice can be used as homework; the bar graph can replace EnVision lesson 7.3 along with questions #1-3) and science (questions #3-4) instruction Process to approach this document: Day 1 -Start with simply looking at the data table and making observations -Have students talk with partners about their observations -Discuss observations as a class, discussing any misconceptions the students may bring up -Watch EnVision 7.2 Visual Learning Bridge -How would you use the information in the data table to construct the pictograph using your knowledge from document C? -Construct the pictograph Day 2 -Compare pictographs to bar graphs: What do they have in common? What differences do they have? -Watch EnVision 7.3 Visual Learning Bridge -Construct the bar graph -Answer/Discuss questions #1-3

10 Use the data table and the key to create a pictograph of the average number of inches of snowfall in Reno. In your pictograph, you may use whole and half pictures for each inch of snowfall. Students should add a half snowflake to the key to represent 1 inch of snow. Have a discussion of the necessary components of a pictograph (title, labels, pictures). Where do we get that information? (from the data table). Create a bar graph based on the data given. Have a class discussion about why the numbers on the side of the bar graph were chosen as the scale for this set of data. Also include in this discussion the necessary components of a graph (title, labels, bars, scale). Where do we get that information? (from the data table or pictograph)

11 1. Make 3 statements about the information in the graphs. 2. What patterns do you see in the data? Note: At this point, students should be able to complete this question independently and it could be used as a science assessment. Discuss the difference between mathematical patterns and scientific patterns. Sample students responses: The graph starts low, gets higher, then gets low again because as months get warmer, snowfall goes down; December to January doubles in snowfall, January to February halves in snowfall 3. Predict the snowfall for May. Students should recognize that from January to April, the snowfall continues to drop, so May might drop. Make sure students explain why (seasonal patterns, it is getting warmer so the snowfall should go down) 4. Are these graphs representing weather or climate data? Explain your thinking based on Document A. Note: At this point, students should be able to complete this question independently and it could be used as a science assessment. Answers may vary, however students should justify their thinking.

12 Document E Complete this document during math (questions #1-6 can replace EnVision lesson 7.4 over several days) and science (questions #6-7) instruction Process to approach this document: Day 1 -Start with simply looking at the chart and making observations -Have students talk with partners about their observations -Discuss observations as a class, discussing any misconceptions the students may bring up -Ask students to state facts about the graph and share with the class -EnVision 7.4 Visual Learning Bridge -Students complete questions 1-3 -Homework - EnVision p #1-4 and 9 Day 2 -Ask students to state facts about the graph -Complete question 3 in a similar manner as an EnVision Solve and Share -Complete questions 3-5 -Homework - EnVision p. 380 #4-6, 8, and 9

13 1. The pictograph shows the number of hours of sunshine for each month. Complete the table to show how many hours of sunshine there are for each month. Ask students to first add a ½ sun to the pictograph s key to represent 20 hours of sunshine. Average Hours of Sunshine in Reno Months Hours of Sunshine November 220 December 140 January 160 February 200 March 260 April Which 2 months, when added together, equal the same amount of sunshine as the total in April? Write the names of the months as well as the number equation (sentence). December + January = April 3 ½ + 4 = 7 ½ = Compare the number of hours of sunshine. Solve for the number of hours in May, June, July, and August. a. There are 40 more hours of sunshine in May than in April. 340 hours of sunshine b. There are 110 more hours of sunshine in June than in March. 370 hours of sunshine c. There are 220 fewer hours of sunshine in January than in July. 380 hours of sunshine d. There are 200 fewer hours of sunshine in February than in August. 400 hours of sunshine

14 4. Use your answers from question 3 to complete the table to show how many hours of sunshine are in May, June, July, and August. Average Hours of Sunshine in Reno Months Hours of Sunshine May 340 June 370 July 380 August Use the data table from question 4 to complete the bar graph. Have a class discussion about how to choose the scale on the side of the bar graph for this set of data.

15 6. What patterns do you see in the data? Note: At this point, students should be able to complete this question independently and it could be used as a science assessment. Sample student response: December through April increases 7. Is this graph representing weather or climate data? Explain your thinking based on Document A. Note: At this point, students should be able to complete this question independently and it could be used as a science assessment. Answers may vary, however students should justify their thinking.

16 Complete this document during math (questions #1-5 can replace EnVision lesson 7.5 over several days) and science (questions #6-9) instruction Document F Process to approach this document: -Start with simply looking at each chart, one at a time, and making observations -Have students talk with partners about their observations -Discuss observations as a class, discussing any misconceptions the students may bring up -Have students complete questions independently City 1 Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Average High (Fahrenheit) Average Low (Fahrenheit) Average Precipitation (inches) Number of Days with Precipitation To help students see patterns in this data, you might want to project the bar graph below Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Average High (Fahrenheit) Average Low (Fahrenheit) 1. What patterns do you notice for this city? Sample student responses: The temperature starts low in January, increases in the spring and summer, then decreases in the fall and winter through December; the temperature is a slow gradual increase from January through July, but drops quickly September through December.

17 City 2 Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Average High (Fahrenheit) Average Low (Fahrenheit) Average Precipitation (inches) Number of Days with Precipitation To help students see patterns in this data, you might want to project the bar graph below Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Average High (Fahrenheit) Average Low (Fahrenheit) 2. What patterns do you notice for this city? Sample student responses: the highs and lows are pretty close so the temperature doesn t change a lot from day to night; year round, the temperature stays pretty much the same (in the 80 s); days with precipitation remains pretty constant throughout the year.

18 City 3 Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Average High (Fahrenheit) Average Low (Fahrenheit) Average Precipitation (inches) Number of Days with Precipitation To help students see patterns in this data, you might want to project the bar graph below Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Average High (Fahrenheit) Average Low (Fahrenheit) 3. What patterns do you notice for this city? Sample student responses: The temperature starts low in January, increase through August, then decrease through December; The amount of precipitation decreases from August through April, then increases May through August. 4. Which months show seasonal weather patterns? Consider having students highlight each season of the year in a different color to see which months correspond to each season. City 1 has seasons, City 2 doesn t have clear seasons, city 3 has seasons.

19 5. How was the weather the same or different in each of the three cities? For example, which location seemed the warmest? Coldest? Sample student responses: City 3 is the coldest throughout the year; City 1 gets the hottest, however City 2 stays warmer on average throughout the year; City 1 has less days with precipitation than City 2 or City 3; City 2 has the most days with precipitation; in August and September, City 3 has the most precipitation; All three cities have their coldest months during December, January, and February (in the winter); in all the cities, the temperature is low in January then increases through summer, then decreases to December. 6. Which climate zone is each city located in? City 1: Temperate City 2: Tropical City 3: Polar 7. Can you think of any reasons why the weather is similar or different to each other? Discuss the difference between the words how and why to help analyze what this question is asking. Sample student responses: The cities are in different locations; the cities are in different climate zones.

20 8. In February, which city would you want to vacation in? Why? 9. Are these tables representing weather or climate data? Explain your thinking based on Document A. Note: At this point, students should be able to complete this question independently and it could be used as a science assessment. These tables are representing climate data because they are showing average weather conditions, which tells us that it has been collected and averaged over time.

21 Document G Meteorologist presentation: How do meteorologists gather and use data to predict future weather and communicate their forecasts to the public? DATA PREDICT COMMUNICATE Invite a meteorologist to talk to your class about predicting future weather and communicating forecasts to the public. Students should then use this graphic organizer to take notes during the presentation and use the information in their writing along with the information from the documents.

22 Name: Culminating Task: How do meteorologists gather and use data to predict future weather and communicate their forecasts to the public? Use evidence and/or knowledge gained from each document. After a piece of evidence from a document, put the document letter in parentheses. For example, Meteorologists study the weather carefully to determine climate information (Doc. A). Correctly use at least four of the vocabulary terms. meteorologist communicate compare graph table chart data predict/prediction forecast weather climate precipitation pattern pictograph bar graph typical gather represent interpret analyze conjecture Complete this document during science and writing instruction, it can also be taken through the writing process if desired. (W.3.2) Complete the Envision Math, 3 rd Grade, Topic 7 Assessment

23 Document F City Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Average High (Fahrenheit) Average Low (Fahrenheit)

24 Document F City Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Average High (Fahrenheit) Average Low (Fahrenheit)

25 Document F City Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Average High (Fahrenheit) Average Low (Fahrenheit)

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