Secular Planetary Dynamics: Kozai, Spin Dynamics and Chaos


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1 Secular Planetary Dynamics: Kozai, Spin Dynamics and Chaos Dong Lai Cornell University 5/17/2014 Tsinghua IAS
2 Chaotic Dynamics of Stellar Spin in Binaries and the Production of Misaligned Hot Jupiters Natalia Storch, Kassandra Anderson & Dong Lai 5/17/2014 Tsinghua Outer binary axis Inner binary axis Stellar spin axis
3 Hot Jupiters exoplanets.org 3/24/ Pla anet Mass s [Jupiter Mass] SemiMajor Axis [Astronomical Units (AU)] Gas giants, with orbital periods < 10 days
4 Hot Jupiter Spin Orbit Misalignment exoplanets.org 3/24/2014 Spin Orbit Misalig gnment [Degr rees] 100 ~ 70 observed planets with projected misalignment angle between stellar spin axis and planet orbital angular momentum Possible causes: SemiMajor Axis [Astronomical Units (AU)] Primordial disk misalignment (Bate+10; Lai, Foucart & Lin 11; Batygin 12,13; Lai 14) Ang. Momentum transfer from gravity waves (Rogers & Lin 12) High e migration: Planet planet interactions/scattering (e.g. Ford & Rasio 08, Wu & Lithwick 11) Kozai oscillations due to binary companion (Wu & Murray 03, Fabrycky & Tremaine 07)
5 Kozai Mechanism Distant stellar companion M b i M * M P Need minimum inclination of ~ 40 degrees to increase eccentricity
6 Kozai Mechanism Eccentricity is a minimum when inclination is maximum
7 Digression: Secular Dynamics of Planetary Motion
8
9 Kozai Lidov Oscillations Two secular constants of motion:
10 Kozai Mechanism Eccentricity is a minimum when inclination is maximum
11 Corrections to Kozai Additional periastron precession due to GR, static tides, oblateness Octupole order effects
12 B.Liu+2014
13 Hot Jupiter formation through Kozai Oscillations + Tide Kozai oscillations pump planet into high eorbit Tidal dissipation during high e phases causes orbital decay Combined effects can result in planets in ~ few days orbit from host star (a hot Jupiter is born!) Final planet orbit not necessarily aligned with stellar spin axis
14 The spin in spin orbit misalignment During Kozai cycle, planet orbit undergoes large variation in both eccentricity and inclination relative to the outer binary axis.
15 The spin in spin orbit misalignment During Kozai cycle, planet orbit undergoes large variation in both eccentricity and inclinationrelative to the outer binary axis. Question: what happens to stellar spin during this time?
16 The Stellar Spin Dance Ω s Star is spinning anywhere from 3 to 30 days. oblate will precess M p
17 The Stellar Spin Dance Ω s Star is spinning anywhere from 3 to 30 days. oblate will precess M p
18 The Stellar Spin Dance Star is spinning anywhere from 3 to 30 days. oblate will precess It takes two to tango Just as the planet torques the star, the star torques the planet s orbit so really we have mutual precession of L and S
19 So the ingredients are Kozai: eccentricity ii and inclination oscillations at frequency ω k Mutual spin and orbital precession at frequency Ω ps Ω ps S L θ sl θ lb L B ω k Throw them together what happens? θ sb
20 So the ingredients are Kozai: eccentricity ii and inclination oscillations at frequency ω k Mutual spin and orbital precession at frequency Ω ps Ω ps S L θ sl θ lb L B ω k Throw them together what happens? θ sb
21 During a Kozai cycle The precession frequency changes: ω k Ω ps S L L B θ sl θ lb θ sb
22 This leads to three qualitatively different regimes
23 This leads to three qualitatively different regimes I Non adiabatic L B L B L S
24 This leads to three qualitatively different regimes I Non adiabatic Prediction: θ sb constant L B L B L S
25 This leads to three qualitatively different regimes I Non adiabatic Prediction: θ sb constant III Adiabatic L B L B L S
26 This leads to three qualitatively different regimes I Non adiabatic Prediction: θ sb constant III Adiabatic Prediction: θ sl constant L B L S
27 This leads to three qualitatively different regimes I Non adiabatic Prediction: θ sb constant Trans adiabatic II III Adiabatic Prediction: θ sl constant L B L S
28 This leads to three qualitatively different regimes I Non adiabatic Prediction: θ sb constant II Trans adiabatic Prediction: Speculation: Interesting behavior due to secular resonance! III Adiabatic Prediction: θ sl constant L B L S
29 How to find these regimes: I II III
30 Finally, numerics! Armed with a qualitative understanding of what s going on, we can now actually take the Kozai+spin precession ODEs and see what happens!
31 L B L S
32 Visualizing the spin behavior To check whether our predictions for different regime behavior were correct, we construct surfaces of section: scatter plots of the variables evaluated at each eccentricity maximum.
33 Numerical results for each of the three regimes I II III
34 I Numerical results for each of the three regimes Non adiabatic Prediction: θ sb constant Ω ps S L θ sl θ lb L θ sb
35 I Numerical results for each of the three regimes Non adiabatic Prediction: θ sb constant Ω ps S L θ sl θ lb L θ sb
36 Numerical results for each of the three regimes I II III
37 Numerical results for each of the three regimes Ω ps S L θ sl θ lb L θ sb III Adiabatic Prediction: θ sl constant t
38 Numerical results for each of the three regimes Ω ps S L θ sl θ lb L θ sb III Adiabatic Prediction: θ sl constant t
39 Numerical results for each of the three regimes I II III
40 I I Numerical results for each of the three regimes Trans adiabatic adiabatic Prediction: Speculation: Interesting behavior due to secular resonance! Ω ps S L θ sl θ lb L θ sb
41 I I Numerical results for each of the three regimes Trans adiabatic adiabatic Prediction: Speculation: Interesting behavior due to secular resonance! Ω ps S L θ sl θ lb L θ sb
42 I I Numerical results for each of the three regimes Trans adiabatic adiabatic Prediction: Speculation: Interesting behavior due to secular resonance! Ω ps S L θ sl θ lb L θ sb
43 Numerical results for each of the three regimes I II III
44 Is it chaos? In a chaotic system, the phase space distance between two initially neighboring trajectories increases exponentially
45 Is it chaos? In a chaotic system, the phase space distance between two initially neighboring trajectories increases exponentially So, in addition to the real trajectory we used to make the surfaces of section, we also evolved a shadow trajectory, with slightly different initial conditions.
46 Is it chaos? In a chaotic system, the phase space distance between two initially neighboring trajectories increases exponentially So, in addition to the real trajectory we used to make the surfaces of section, we also evolve a shadow trajectory, with slightly different initial conditions. Quasiperiodic (not chaotic)
47 Is it chaos? In a chaotic system, the phase space distance between two initially neighboring trajectories increases exponentially So, in addition to the real trajectory we used to make the surfaces of section, we also evolve a shadow trajectory, with slightly different initial conditions. Chaotic
48 By eye
49 More precisely S real δ S shadow δ 0 =10 8 max(δ) = 2 (unit vectors)
50 More precisely S real δ S shadow δ 0 =10 8 max(δ) = 2
51 All together now
52 Toward realism We now add in extra orbital precession terms due to: GR Static tides in planet Planet oblateness (due to spin) D hi h h Does this change the qualitative picture?
53 Toward realism We now add in extra orbital precession terms due to: GR Static tides in planet Planet oblateness (due to spin) Does this change the qualitative picture? Not really
54 But it does limit the interesting parameter space
55 Now we d like to explore this parameter space We have seen that the trans adiabatic regime has both regions of chaos and quasiperiodicity. We would like to explore this further!
56 Presence of scatter is indicative of chaos
57 Now we d like to explore this parameter space We have seen that the trans adiabatic regime has both regions of chaos and quasiperiodicity. We would like to explore this further! So we construct t bifurcation diagrams: we vary planet mass (x axis). For each planet mass, we integrate t our ODEs over a long period of time and record the spin orbit misalignment at each eccentricity tiit maximum (y axis). i)
58 Now we d like to explore this parameter space We have seen that the trans adiabatic regime has both regions of chaos and quasiperiodicity. We would like to explore this further! So we construct t bifurcation diagrams: we vary planet mass (x axis). For each planet mass, we integrate t our ODEs over a long period of time and record the spin orbit misalignment at each eccentricity tiit maximum (y axis). i) So scatter on the y axis will be indicative of how much phase space the stellar spin has explored
59 Bifurcation diagram (stellar spin period: 5 days)
60 A Toy Model Ω ps S L θ sl θ lb L B θ sb Adopt the ansatz
61 A Toy Model Periodic Chaotic Qualitativelysimilarto to real system
62 Bifurcation Diagram Specify Ω ps0 and integrate toy model equations for 1000 Kozai cycles Record the spin orbit and spin binary angles at each eccentricity maximum Repeat tfor different values of Ω ps0
63 Spin orrbit anglee Spin bin nary angle Values recorded at eccentricity maxima, for 1000 cycles
64 Logistic Map
65 Spin orrbit anglee Spin bin nary angle Values recorded at eccentricity maxima, for 1000 cycles
66 Periodic Islands in a Chaotic Ocean Chaotic
67 Measuring Chaos Define a real system with set of initial conditions, and shadow system with initial conditions differing by a small amount Chaotic Periodic island
68 A Curiosity
69 Estimate of spin orbit angle in periodic islands Trans adiabatic adiabatic cycle Adiabatic Nonadiabatic Nonadiabatic During a trans adiabatic cycle, most of the change in the spin orbit angle occurs during the non adiabatic portion of the cycle Integrate up to the point where system becomes adiabatic, beyond which, h spin orbit angle is ~ constant t Predicted spin orbit angles in good agreement with values in islands
70 Recap
71 Three regimes I II III
72 Recap We have found that the stellar spin exhibits hb a lot of interesting behavior during Kozai cycles, and we have a qualitative i understanding di of why that is
73 Bifurcation diagram (stellar spin period: 5 days)
74 Recap We have found that the stellar spin exhibits hb a lot of interesting behavior during Kozai cycles, and we have a qualitative i understanding di of why that is The trans adiabatic regime definitely shows complex, including chaotic, behavior
75 Recap We have found that t the stellar spin exhibits a lot of interesting behavior during Kozai cycles, and we have a qualitative understanding of why that is The trans adiabatic regime definitely shows complex, including chaotic, behavior Now we d like to see what, if any, effect this has on the spin orbit misalignment of Hot Jupiters so we add in tidal dissipation
76 Effect of tidal dissipation
77 Blurring of regimes As semi major axis decays, even if the initial conditions were in non adiabatic regime, they will always end up adiabatic
78 Blurring of regimes As semi major axis decays, even if the initial conditions were in non adiabatic regime, they will always end up adiabatic Stellar spin always gets a chance to affect things
79 Variation in final spin orbit misalignment Recall: in a chaotic system, the phase space distance between two initially neighboring trajectories increases exponentially Things that start out similar end up different
80 Variation in final spin orbit misalignment Recall: in a chaotic system, the phase space distance between two initially neighboring trajectories increases exponentially Things that start out similar end up different So we do the following: g Vary initial orbital inclination by ± 0.05 S and L always start out parallel Record final misalignment angle Repeat for different planet masses
81 Variation in final spin orbit misalignment Here stellar spin period is 3 days, initial orbital inclination θ lb =85±
82 Now let the star spin down!
83 Now let the star spin down!
84 Now let the star spin down! Conclusion: a tiny initial spread in inclination leads to a very large spread in spin orbit misalignment
85 Take away away messages Stellar spin often does a crazy dance during Kozai! We can understand qualitatively under what circumstances this happens ( trans trans adiabatic adiabatic regime) This certainly impacts the final distribution of spin orbit misalignments in hot Jupiters
86 Take away away messages Stellar spin often does a crazy dance during Kozai! We can understand qualitatively under what circumstances this happens ( trans trans adiabatic adiabatic regime) This certainly impacts the final distribution of spin orbit misalignments in hot Jupiters
87 Bimodality
88 Bimodality: has been numerically found before Correia, Laskar, Farago, & Boué (2011)
89 Bimodality: definitely has to do with spin
90 Take away away messages Stellar spin often does a crazy dance during Kozai! We can understand qualitatively under what circumstances this happens ( trans trans adiabatic adiabatic regime) This certainly impacts the final distribution of spin orbit misalignments in hot Jupiters
Supplementary Materials for
www.sciencemag.org/content/345/622/1317/suppl/dc1 Supplementary Materials for Chaotic dynamics of stellar spin in binaries and the production of misaligned hot Jupiters Natalia I. Storch, Kassandra R.
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