# Astronomy across the spectrum: telescopes and where we put them. Martha Haynes Exploring Early Galaxies with the CCAT June 28, 2012

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1 Astronomy across the spectrum: telescopes and where we put them Martha Haynes Exploring Early Galaxies with the CCAT June 28, 2012

2 CCAT: 25 meter submm telescope CCAT Site on C. Chajnantor Me, at 18,400 feet in the high Atacama desert in Chile, at the site of the future CCAT (submillimeter wavelength telescope) ALMA 12m antenna Oct 11

3 Thermal radiation A blackbody is an object whose radiation depends only on its temperature. If an object (star, planet, galaxy) behaves like a blackbody, then its radiation is said to be thermal, and its spectrum is given by Planck s function ). Spectrum: the variation in the intensity of light with wavelength. B(,T) = 2h 3 c 2 B is the spectral radiance, the energy per unit time per unit surface area per unit solid angle per unit frequency (or wavelength) h is Planck s constant = 6.625x10-27 erg s k is Boltzmann s constant = 1.38x10-16 erg K -1 1 exp(h /kt) -1 Wikipedia.org

4 Blackbody radiation A blackbody is an object whose radiation depends only on its temperature. If an object (star, planet, galaxy) behaves like a blackbody, then its radiation is said to be thermal, and its spectrum is given by Planck s function ). Spectrum: the variation in the intensity of light with wavelength. B(,T) = 2h 3 c 2 1 exp(h /kt) -1 B(λ,T) = 2hc 2 /λ 5 exp(hc/λkt) -1 h is Planck s constant = 6.625x10-27 erg s k is Boltzmann s constant = 1.38x10-16 erg K -1 Wikipedia.org

5 Non-thermal radiation Not all sources that exhibit continuous spectra are thermal, meaning that their temperature does not determine how their apparent brightness changes with wavelength. => non-thermal sources The most important source of non-thermal radiation is synchrotron emission, which is emitted when very fast moving electrons are accelerated as they spiral around lines of magnetic field. For example, the radio source SgrA * : a supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way. Here: 3C31 Blue: optical starlight Red: radio synchrotron

6 Observing the universe Optical light: Light from stars Bright lines from ionized (hot) gas near very hot stars and supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei We need other telescopes to reveal: cold gas, cool gas, superhot gas, dust, and non-thermal sources!

7 Spectral energy distribution (SED) of galaxies In the optical regime, we detect the integrated starlight. I Thermal emission = black body radiation I( )= 2h 3 1 c 2 exp(h /kt) - 1 But at other wavelengths, we detect other important constituents like gas, dust, and synchrotron radiation Typical spectrum of active galaxy, i.e. one with accreting supermassive black hole in its nucleus

8 Darkness: Absence of (visible) light Extinction due to foreground dust: makes a star appear redder and fainter

9 Interstellar Dust Probably formed in the atmospheres of cool stars Mostly observable through infrared emission - very cold < 100 K. Radiates lots of energy - surface area of many small dust particles adds of to very large radiating area Infrared and radio emissions from molecules and dust are efficiently cooling gas in molecular clouds. Whispy nature indicates turbulence in ISM IRAS (infrared) image of infrared cirrus of interstellar dust.

10 Dark cloud Barnard 68 B V Z K H J

11 Electromagnetic spectrum

12 Astronomical Images Position on the sky Morphological appearance Apparent brightness (flux) at some l Images at different times: Does source move? => parallax? Does it change size/shape? Does it change brightness? Images in different wavelength bands Flux => temperature, if thermal source What is the image s field-of-view? What is the image s angular resolution? What is the image s spectral sensitivity? When was the image taken?

13 Different telescopes provide different clues Images Wide field High resolution Morphology: appearance, structural details Astrometry: position, relative to other objects Photometry: apparent brightness, color Spectra: temperature, density, chemical composition, motions

14 Elliptical galaxy spectra

15 Elliptical galaxy spectra Color: difference in the flux at two wavelengths

16 Spectral energy distribution More measures of flux => more accurate representation of the true spectral energy distribution (SED)

17 Activity at 11am: The CMD of galaxies Red: ellipticals Blue: spirals

18 Galaxy spectra Redshift Velocity dispersion/rotational velocity Star formation rate AGN activity Abundances

19 Trivial understanding of the Hubble sequence Elliptical galaxies Formed all stars long ago (red) Little gas (fuel for new stars) Random stellar motions Found in clusters Spiral galaxies Still forming stars today (blue) Lots of gas and dust Rotation in disk plane Avoid clusters

20 Spectral evolution

21 What is the purpose of a telescope? 1. A telescope acts like a light bucket, to gather photons. bigger is better => collecting area 2. In addition to gathering light, a telescope allows a more detailed view of the structure of a celestial object and/or to discern the presence of multiple objects. This is called the telescope s ANGULAR RESOLUTION Example: Palomar 5m telescope The diameter of the telescope is 5 m = 500 cm Let s find the diffraction limit at 500 nm. Θ = 1.22 X 500 nm X 10-7 cm/nm 500 cm But image quality at Palomar isn t that good! At optical wavelengths, the images are not diffraction limited => atmospheric turbulence = arc seconds

22 The seeing of an image The seeing of an image is a measure of its quality or sharpness. The seeing is always bigger than either (1) the diffraction limit or (2) the atmospheric seeing, whichever is greater.

23 High-Resolution Astronomy Solutions: Put telescopes on mountaintops, especially in deserts Put telescopes in space Active optics control mirrors based on temperature and orientation

24 Source Confusion Especially at longer wavelengths, telescopes with angular resolution detect the collective radiation from lots of sources within the beam but which are unresolved by it. Because of confusion, even if you keep on integrating longer and longer, the noise level will not decrease.

25 Herschel and CCAT

26 Large Optical/IR telescopes Telescope Location Diameter Access Hubble space 2.4 m National/international VLT Chile 4 x 8 m Europe Keck Mauna Kea 2 x 10 m Caltech/U California/Hawaii Gemini Mauna Kea and Chile 2 x 8 m National/international Subaru Mauna Kea 7 m Japan, U Hawaii Magellan Chile 2 x 6.5 m Carnegie, Harvard, MIT, Michigan, Chile Palomar Calif. 5 m Caltech, JPL, National Access to some telescopes is restricted to astronomers from certain countries/institutions

27 Radio Astronomy R-M-S: Radio millimeter submillimeter wavelengths Radio: Meter to centimeter wavelength 1 mm 1 cm 1 meter Long wavelengths (relative to IR/opt/UV/X-rays) By Wien s law, we expect cold temperatures (partly true) But also, not all radiation is thermal (i.e. follows Wien s law and reflects the object s temperature) Synchrotron radiation Bremsstrahlung radiation

28 Telescopes across the E-M spectrum Name Wavelength range Diameter Location Main science Fermi Gamma ray (complex) Low earth Time domain Chandra X-ray (complex) Elliptical orbit Imaging/spect GALEX nm 0.5m Low earth Imaging/spect HST UV/opt/NIR 2.4m Low earth Imaging/spect Spitzer NIR/MIR 0.9m Earth trailing Imaging/spect Herschel μm 3.5m L2 (Lagrange point) Imaging/spect WISE μm 0.4m Low earth Imaging ALMA 350μm 10mm 54 x 12m 5000 m in Chile Continuum/spect EVLA 7mm to 1m 27 X 25m 2124 m in NM Continuum/spect Arecibo 2 cm to 1 m 305 m Puerto Rico Pulsars; HI; Solar system radar

29 Telescope design considerations Aperture size (collecting area, diffraction limit) Wavelength/frequency coverage Elevation/transparency of atmosphere Angular resolution/point spread function Field of view Spectral bandwidth Spectral resolution Sampling rate (time domain) How much human intervention can there be? Construction practicalities Data rates/transfer/reduction Politics/opportunities Who pays the bill for (1) construction and (2) operations?

30 Star Formation Rate in the Universe The Universe is far less active now than 10 billion years ago Today Galaxy-galaxy interactions stimulate star formation, as well as the production of elements heavier than Hydrogen through nuclear reactions (*) Billions of years after the BB? (*) We care because we are, after all, made of nuclear waste

31 Submillimeter galaxies Optically obscured galaxies in the early universe HST HST Spitzer Wang, Barger & Cowie 2009 ApJ 690, 319 GOODS field object at z>4 Spitzer

32

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