1 Today The Sun Events Last class! Homework due now - will count best 5 of 6 Final exam Dec. 12:00 noon here Review this Course!
2 The Sun the main show in the solar system 99.8% of the mass % of the energy
3 The Sun Radius: m (109 times Earth) Mass: kg (1,000 Jupiters; 300,000 Earths) Luminosity: watts That s about a billion big nuclear bombs every second
4 It can be powered by NUCLEAR ENERGY! (E = mc 2 ) Nuclear potential energy (core) Luminosity with 0.7% efficiency ~ 10 billion years 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
5 Why the Sun shines Chemical and gravitational energy sources could not explain how the Sun could sustain its luminosity for more than about 25 million years. The Sun shines because gravitational equilibrium keeps its core hot and dense enough to release energy through nuclear fusion. Hydrogen fuses into Helium in a 3-step process called the proton-proton chain Pearson Education, Inc.
6 density temperature Interior Structure of the Sun Fraction of radius Gravity causes the density and temperature to increase towards the center. Ave. density about 1 g/cc (water) but much denser in core much thinner at surface 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
7 Stars are stable: pressure balances gravity. Hydrostatic equilibrium: Energy released by nuclear fusion in the core of the sun heats the surrounding gas. The resultant pressure balances the relentless crush of gravity Pearson Education, Inc.
8 Energy Balance: The rate at which energy radiates from the surface of the Sun must be the same as the rate at which it is released by fusion in the core Pearson Education, Inc.
9 initial gravitational contraction: Provided the energy that heated the core as Sun was forming Contraction stopped when fusion began Pearson Education, Inc. Need a minimum of 70 Jupiter masses to make a star
10 Core: Energy generated by nuclear fusion ~ 15 million K Radiation zone: Energy transported upward by photons Convection zone: 10_01StructSun Energy transported upward by rising hot gas Photosphere: Visible surface ~5,800 K
11 Interior Structure of the Sun density temperature core radiation zone convection zone photosphere (visible surface) Fraction of radius 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
12 Chromosphere: Middle layer of solar atmosphere Corona: Outermost layer of solar atmosphere Solar wind: A flow of charged particles from the surface of the Sun Little mass in these components
13 Solar structure From inside out, the layers are: 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Core Energy generation by fusion reactions Radiation zone Outward energy transport by photons Convection zone Outward energy transport by gas motions Photosphere Luminous surface (energy emitted to space)» absorption spectrum Chromosphere low density upper atmosphere» emission spectrum, but much fainter than photosphere Corona very hot, low density plasma tailing off into space
14 Energy transport through the Sun Energy is produced in the core Transported through Radiative Zone by photons Convective Zone by gas motions Nature chooses whichever is more efficient 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
15 Photosphere is what we see limb darkening is a geometric effect
16 Bright blobs on photosphere show where hot gas is reaching the surface Pearson Education, Inc.
17 Sunspots Are cooler than other parts of the Sun's surface (4000 K) Are regions with strong magnetic fields 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
18 The photosphere produces an absorption spectrum
19 (thermal emission without absorption lines)
20 Composition determined from absorption lines Abundance (by number relative to Hydrogen) Atomic number (number of protons) By mass, the sun is 3/4 Hydrogen 1/4 Helium < 2% everything else This is typical of the universe; Earth is an exception. Helium discovered in the spectrum of the sun (hence the name)
21 solar corona solar chromosphere only visible during eclipse - greatly outshown by photosphere normally seen in Hα emission
22 Coronal mass ejections send bursts of energetic charged particles out through the solar system. Poses a risk to the power grid & wouldbe space travelers 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
23 Gravity Four fundamental forces e.g, planetary orbits falling objects Electromagnetism attraction and repulsion of electric charges magnets Strong nuclear force fusion: binds protons together in atomic nuclei Weak nuclear force fission; radioactive decay
24 Nuclear fusion powers the Sun Strong nuclear force Fission Weak nuclear force Big nucleus splits into smaller pieces. (Example: nuclear power plants) Fusion Small nuclei stick together to make a bigger one. (Example: the Sun, stars) 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
25 High temperatures enable nuclear fusion to happen in the core. Positively charged protons repel each other. Fusion only happens when the strong nuclear force is stronger than this repulsion, which only happens at very small separations. High temperatures are required to move fast enough to get that close.
26 The Sun releases energy by fusing four hydrogen nuclei into one helium nucleus. Fusion is driven by the strong nuclear force after gravity heats a star s core enough to overcome the electrostatic repulsion of protons Pearson Education, Inc.
27 Sun releases energy by fusing four hydrogen nuclei into one helium nucleus. Starting point is 4 protons. End point is 2 p + 2 n (a helium nucleus) + energy There are several steps required to make this happen.
28 The proton proton chain is how hydrogen fuses into helium in Sun Pearson Education, Inc.
29 Proton proton chain is how hydrogen fuses into helium in Sun step 1: p + p makes D (deuterium) step 2: D + D makes 3 He (helium 3) step 3: 3 He + 3 He makes 4 He (helium 4) plus energy plus 2 spare protons and neutrinos. The first step is the hardest - on average, takes 10,000,000 years to occur in the sun. 29
30 Net Result: IN 4 protons OUT 4He nucleus 2 gamma rays 2 positrons 2 neutrinos E = mc 2 : Total mass is 0.7% lower.
31 Most stars shine by fusing Hydrogen into Helium Iron has the most stable nucleus. Fusion up to iron releases energy. For elements heavier than iron, Fission releases energy.
32 The life stages of the sun Main sequence star ~10 billion years White Dwarf eternity Horizontal Branch star ~100 million years Asymptotic Giant ~10 million years subgiant/red Giant ~1 billion years *Helium Flash* Planetary Nebula ~10 thousand years
33 Red Giant: after hydrogen fuel is spent The sun will eventually exhaust the H fuel in its core main sequence star Without further fusion, the core contracts. H begins fusing to He in a shell around the core. red giant As the core contracts, temperature increases, nuclear reaction rates increase (in the shell), and the Radius and Luminosity increase.
34 Helium Flash The core continues to shrink and heat as the rest of the star expands and becomes more luminous. Ascends giant branch for a billion years At a critical temperature and density, helium fusion suddenly begins. The Helium Flash The star evolves rapidly, finding a new equilibrium with He burning in core and H burning in a shell surrounding the core.
35 Helium fusion tough larger charge leads to greater repulsion. Worse, the fusion of two helium nuclei doesn t work; 4 He more stable than Beryllium ( 8 Be). Need three 4 He nuclei to make carbon ( 12 C). Only works because of resonant state of carbon predicted by Fred Hoyle.
36 Helium burning stars line for a brief time fusing Helium in the core and Hydrogen in a shell.
37 Double-Shell Burning Helium also gets used up. He continues to fuse into carbon in a shell around the carbon core, and H fuses to He in a shell around the helium layer. The star expands again, ascending the Asymptotic Giant Branch This double-shell-burning stage never reaches equilibrium the fusion rate periodically spikes upward in a series of thermal pulses. With each spike, some of the outer layers may be lost to space.
38 Planetary Nebulae Double-shell burning ends with a pulse that ejects the H and He into space as a planetary nebula. The core left behind becomes a white dwarf.
39 End of Fusion Fusion progresses no further in a low-mass star because the core temperature never grows hot enough for fusion of heavier elements (some He fuses to C to make oxygen). Degeneracy pressure supports the white dwarf against gravity. White dwarf spend eternity cooling off, eventually going dark entirely.
40 Ultimately, the sun will lose about half its mass to space, leaving the other half in a dense core called a white dwarf. A white dwarf is about the size of the Earth, but much more massive, being a million times more dense. It is the cinder left over when a star dies. It shines by residual heat, but after billions of years will fade into oblivion. This is the ultimate fate of our sun.
The Sun the main show in the solar system 99.8% of the mass 99.9999...% of the energy 2007 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Homework due next time - will count best 5 of 6 The
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