Laura Barragán. Universidad Complutense de Madrid

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1 . Universidad Complutense de Madrid Tutors: Erik Kuulkers & Peter Kretschmar

2 INTEGRAL: International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory The payload The mission The project

3 IBIS (Imager on-board the Integral Satellite) high resolution images of celestial objects of all classes. 15keV 10MeV. ISGRI // PICsIT FOV ~ 8º x 8º JEM-X (Join European Monitor for X-rays) 3 35 kev Images FOV: 5º radius circle INTEGRAL spectra of Galactic Bulge sources. INTEGRAL payload SPI (Spectrometer on Integral) OMC (Optical Monitoring Camera)

4 Observation of various gamma-ray phenomena by combining fine spectroscopy with imaging and accurate positioning of celestial sources of gamma-ray emission. Science objectives: INTEGRAL Compact objects (White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars, Black Hole Candidates, High Energy Transients and Gamma-Ray Bursts) Extragalactic astronomy (Galaxies, Clusters, AGN, Seyferts, Blazars, Cosmic Diffuse Background) Stellar nucleosynthesis (Hydrostatic Nucleosynthesis (AGB, WR Stars), Explosive Nucleosynthesis (Supernovae, Novae)) Galactic plane and centre structure (Cloud Complex Regions, Mapping of continuum and line emission, ISM, CR distribution) Particle processes acceleration (Transrelativistic Pair Plasmas, Beams, Jets) Identification of high energy sources (Unidentified Gamma-Ray Objects as a Class)

5 The INTEGRAL Galactic Bulge monitoring program Observe the region frequently and regularly investigate the source variability and transient activity on time scales of days to weeks and months relatively soft and hard energies Get the data of IBIS/ISGRI and JEM-X fit to standard models: powerlaw & cutoffpowerlaw -Have we missed something? plot the parameters with time (revolutions) - Global properties of the sources - Are there spectral changes?

6 Why IBIS/ISGRI & JEM-X? Revolutions MJD , 2005/02/ /04/21 IBIS/ISGRI 20-60keV Mosaic All the sources Galactic center SPI: bad resolution OMC: too many stars (optical!!) (2.5º) (IBIS: Angular resolution: 12arcmin)

7 Obtaining the data IBIS/ISGRI 81 sources 10 hours JEM-X 12 more significant sources 1 hour

8 Data treatment Cleaning for IBIS/ISGRI Collecting the sources get images, spectra & light curves Binning for JEM-X Fitting with XSPEC: (PROGRAM) Fitting IBIS/ISGRI & JEM-X independently Fitting IBIS/ISGRI & JEM-X together Parameters in each revolution

9 The models: Powerlaw: par1 = Γ norm= N photon index of power law (dimensionless) photons kev 1 cm 2 s 1 at 1 kev Cutoffpl: power law, high energy exponential cutoff par1 = Γ power law photon index par2 = β e-folding energy of exponential rolloff (in kev) norm = N Photons kev -1 cm -2 s -1 at 1 kev

10 The fitting: GRS IBIS/ISGRI Rev:0298 Cutoffpl Normalized counts s -1 kev -1 INTEGRAL spectra of Galactic Bulge sources. Strong source 22 Energy (kev) 100 Normalized Normalized counts counts s s -1-1 kev kev -1-1 Normalized counts s -1 kev -1 JEM-X Rev:0298 Cutoffpl 0 Energy (kev) 20 IBIS/ISGRI & JEM-X Rev:0298 Cutoffpl JEM-X IBIS/ISGRI 0 Energy (kev) 100

11 JEM-X Rev:0298 Cutoffpl IBIS/ISGRI Rev:0298 Cutoffpl Normalized counts s -1 kev -1 1A weaker source 22 Energy (kev) 100 Normalized counts s -1 kev -1 Normalized counts s -1 kev -1 0 Energy (kev) 20 IBIS/ISGRI & JEMX Rev:0298 Cutoffpl JEM-X IBIS 0 Energy (kev) 100

12 What the program does: Ignores the bad energies: compromise Fits the models (adding a constant when we have both detectors) Asks for the detection significance Plots the fitted spectra and saves them Saves the fittings Saves the parameters and errors for each source and model Do tables per source or per revolution

13 Tables 1A _ ibis=> jemx=> cutoffpl HighECut PhoIndex norm factor powerlaw PhoIndex norm factor U _ ibis=> jemx=>5.31 cutoffpl HighECut PhoIndex norm factor powerlaw PhoIndex norm factor Easy access to the data COMPARISON Combine the data in order to plot the parameters

14 GRS INTEGRAL spectra of Galactic Bulge sources. FIRST SCIENTIFIC RESULTS Plotting the parameters (function of time) IBIS/ISGRI JEM-X D.S. R_χ 2 PL N PL Γ PL R_χ 2 CUT N CUT Γ CUT HEC Revolutions D.S. R_χ 2 PL N PL Γ PL R_χ 2 CUT N CUT Γ CUT HEC Revolutions

15 GRS Both IBIS/ISGRI & JEM-X D.S.J. D.S.I. R_χ 2 PL F PL N PL Γ PL R_χ 2 CUT F CUT N CUT Γ CUT HEC Revolutions

16 1A D.S. R_χ 2 PL N PL Γ PL R_χ 2 CUT N CUT Γ CUT HEC Revolutions IBIS/ISGRI D.S. R_χ 2 PL N PL Γ PL R_χ 2 CUT N CUT Γ CUT HEC Revolutions JEM-X

17 1A Both IBIS/ISGRI & JEM-X D.S.J. D.S.I. R_χ 2 PL F PL N PL Γ PL R_χ 2 CUT F CUT N CUT Γ CUT HEC Revolutions

18 Future work: Improve modeling IBIS/ISGRI & JEM-X Rev:0298 Cutoffpl Ex: Red χ 2 CUT ~ 6 Normalized counts s -1 kev -1 0 Energy (kev) 100

19 Future work: Fit all the revolutions Plot the parameters we obtain Compare the different types of sources (X-ray bursters, BH-binaries, etc)

20 CODED MASK TECHNIQUE NO MIRRORS IN GAMMA RAYS NO OPTICAL-LIKE IMAGES E X T R A S L I D E CODED MASK: Mask the opening of the telescope Measure its shadow on the detector orientation of the satellite & analysis of data from the detector determine position & intensity of sources image of the observed sky: a. Coded mask b. Detector c. Field of view

21 ANTI-COINCIDENCE SYSTEM Blocked photon E X T R A S L I D E Vetoed photon or particle Valid photon MASK ANTI-COINCIDENCE

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