# Chapter 15 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Surveying the Stars Pearson Education, Inc.

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1 Chapter 15 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Surveying the Stars

2 15.1 Properties of Stars Our goals for learning: How do we measure stellar luminosities? How do we measure stellar temperatures? How do we measure stellar masses?

3 How do we measure stellar luminosities?

4 Luminosity: Amount of power a star radiates (energy per second = watts) Apparent brightness: Amount of starlight that reaches Earth (energy per second per square meter)

5 The amount of luminosity passing through each sphere is the same. Area of sphere: 4π (radius) 2 Divide luminosity by area to get brightness.

6 Inverse Square Law The relationship between apparent brightness and luminosity depends on distance: Brightness = Luminosity 4π (distance) 2 We can determine a star's luminosity if we can measure its distance and apparent brightness: Luminosity = 4π (distance) 2 (brightness) UNITS : apparant brightness (or flux) in J s -1 m -2 (W m -2 ) source luminosity in J s -1 (W ) distance between observer and source in meters

7 Thought Question How would the apparent brightness of Alpha Centauri change if it were three times farther away? A. It would be only 1/3 as bright B. It would be only 1/6 as bright. C. It would be only 1/9 as bright. D. It would be three times brighter.

8 Thought Question How would the apparent brightness of Alpha Centauri change if it were three times farther away? A. It would be only 1/3 as bright B. It would be only 1/6 as bright. C. It would be only 1/9 as bright. D. It would be three times brighter.

9 So how far away are these stars?

10 Measuring Distances

11 Parallax The distance d to the star (in parsecs) is just 1 over the parallax angle p (in arcseconds): d = 1/p.

12 Parallax and Distance p = parallax angle d (in parsecs) = 1 p (in arcseconds) d (in light-years) = p (in arcseconds)

13 HIPPARCOS The smallest parallax angle that can be measured from the ground is about 0.01 arcsec so the furthest stars that can have distances measured from the ground are at d = 1/0.01 = 100 pc. Observations made in space permit measurements of even smaller parallax angles down to arcsec corresponding to distances of 1000 pc. The satellite Hipparcos has measured about 118,000 stars using the parallax method. Hipparcos

14 Most luminous stars (not common): 10 6 L Sun Least luminous stars (common): 10 4 L Sun (L Sun is luminosity of Sun)

15 Magnitude Scale: Apparent Magnitude The magnitude scale is a system used to denote the brightness of an astronomical object. Keep in mind that the greater the apparent magnitude, the dimmer the star. A second magnitude star is a factor of fainter in brightness than a 1 magnitude star, a third magnitude star is fainter by a factor of from a second magnitude star b m 1 m 2 = 2.5log 2 10 b 1 m 1, m 2 = apparent magnitudes of sources 1 and 2, respectively b 1, b 2 = apparant brightnesses of sources 1 and 2, respectively

16 Magnitude Scale: Apparent Magnitude b m 1 m 2 = 2.5log 2 10 m 1 m b 1 b = log 2 m 1 m = b 2 b 1 b 1 Example : If the apparent magnitudes of two stars are m 1 = 15 and m 2 =10 what is the ratio of the apparent brightnesses of star 2 to star 1 (b 2 /b 1 =?) Solution : m b 1 m =10 =10 b = =10 2 =100

17 Magnitude Scale: Absolute Magnitude Absolute magnitude: The apparent magnitude that a star would have if it were at a distance of 10 parsecs from Earth. The apparent magnitude of the Sun is If the Sun were moved to a distance of 10 parsecs from the Earth, it would look fainter and have a magnitude of (remember larger magnitudes means fainter) The relation between the apparent and absolute magnitudes of an object is: m M = 5logd 5 d = distance between the Earth and the object in parsec m - M is referred to as the distance modulus

18 How do we measure stellar temperatures?

19 Colors and Temperature A stars temperature is related its color. Red stars a relatively cold and blue stars are relatively hot.

20 Measuring Temperatures with Filters A filter is transparent to a certain wavelength band. A U filter is more transparent in the ultraviolet band a B filter if more transparent in the blue and a V filter is more transparent in the yellow-green.

21 Measuring Temperatures with Filters Method: First measure a stars brightness through each of the U, B and V filters. This gives the apparent brightnesses of b U, b B and b V. Then compare the relative brightnesses by taking the ratios b V /b B and b B /b U. These ratios indicate the temperature of the stars surface.

22 Spectra of Stars Absorption spectra in stars are produced in the following way: A star produces a continuum spectrum from hot (T gas ) dense gas in its atmosphere. This spectrum is very close to that of a blackbody spectrum with a temperature of T gas. The stars continuum radiation goes through cooler parts of its upper atmosphere where photons of only certain wavelengths are absorbed. The wavelengths of the absorption lines are characteristic of the elements and the ionization level of the stars absorbing gas.

23 Stellar Classification To bring some order in the zoo of stellar spectra astronomers have grouped stars according to the appearance of their spectra. These classifications of stars according to the appearance of their spectra are called spectral classes. The spectra classes are labeled: O B A F G K M L T A refined scheme adds a number ranging from 0 to 9 to each letter. This subdivision of the spectral class is called spectral type. In the late 1800's a team of women at the Harvard College Observatory undertook the task of classifying the spectra of hundreds of thousands of stellar spectra.

24 Stellar Spectra and Temperature

25 Level of ionization also reveals a star's temperature.

26 Absorption lines in star's spectrum tell us its ionization level and its temperature. (Hottest) O B A F G K M (Coolest)

27 For T > 20,000 K most H atoms are ionized so the Balmer lines are very weak in very hot stars. For T < 4,000 K most H atoms have electrons in the n = 1 level and the Balmer lines are very weak in very cool stars.

28 Remembering Spectral Types (Hottest) O B A F G K M (Coolest) Oh, Be A Fine Girl, Kiss Me Only Boys Accepting Feminism Get Kissed Meaningfully

29 Thought Question Which kind of star is hottest? A. M star B. F star C. A star D. K star

30 Thought Question Which kind of star is hottest? A. M star B. F star C. A star D. K star

31 Brown Dwarfs Brown Dwarfs are starlike objects that are not massive enough (M< 0.08 M! ) to sustain hydrogen fusion in their core. They have temperatures lower than those of spectral class M stars. They are primary heated by Kelvin- Helmoltz contraction. Since they are so cool their spectra peak in the infrared. Brown Dwarf spectra have a rich variety of absorption lines produced by molecules. Infrared image of brown dwarf HD3561B. The star HD 3561 is of spectral class K, with a surface temperature of about 5200 K. HD 3651 is orbited by a brown dwarf with a surface temperature between 800 and 900 K and a luminosity just 1/300,000 that of the Sun.

32 Stellar Radii Stefan - Boltzmann Law : F = σt 4 Inverse Square Law : F = L 4πR 2 F = flux at the stars surface in W m -2 L = stars luminosity in W R = radius of stars emitting surface in meters T = temperature of stars surface in kelvins σ = Stefan - Boltzmann contant = W m -2 K -4

33 Stellar Radii L = 4πR 2 σt 4 Equation (1) L! = 4πR!2 σt 4! Equation (2) Dividing equation 1 by equation 2 we have: L/L! = (R/R! ) 2 (T/T! ) 4 Equation (3) Solving for R/R! we have: R/R! = L/L! (T! /T) 2 Example: The bright reddish star Betelgeuse in the constellation Orion is 60,000 times more luminous than the Sun and has a surface temperature of 3500 K. How much larger is Betelgeuse s radius from the Sun s radius? (T! =5,800 K)

34 Measuring the Properties of Stars

35 Binary Star Systems

36 How do we measure stellar masses?

37 The orbit of a binary star system depends on strength of gravity.

38 Types of Binary Star Systems Visual binary Spectroscopic binary Eclipsing binary About half of all stars are in binary systems.

39 Visual Binary We can directly observe the orbital motions of these stars.

40 Spectroscopic Binary We determine the orbit by measuring Doppler shifts.

41 Eclipsing Binary We can measure periodic eclipses.

42 Masses of Stars in Binary Systems M 1 + M 2 = 4π 2 G a 3 P 2 M 1 M 2 = v 2 v 1 = a 2 a 1 P = period of orbit a = a 1 +a 2 (a 1,a 2 are the semimajor axes of the orbits of M 1, M 2, respectively) M 1, M 2 = masses of stars v 1,v 2 = orbital velocities of stars

43 Need two out of three observables to measure mass: 1. Orbital period (p) 2. Orbital separation (a or r = radius) 3. Orbital velocity (v) For circular orbits, v = 2πr/p. v r M

44 Spectroscopic Binaries Radial Velocity Curves of Spectroscopic binary system HD

45 What have we learned? How do we measure stellar luminosities? If we measure a star's apparent brightness and distance, we can compute its luminosity with the inverse square law for light. Parallax tells us distances to the nearest stars. How do we measure stellar temperatures? A star's color and spectral type both reflect its temperature.

46 What have we learned? How do we measure stellar masses? Newton's version of Kepler's third law tells us the total mass of a binary system, if we can measure the orbital period (p) and average orbital separation of the system (a).

47 15.2 Patterns Among Stars Our goals for learning: What is a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram? What is the significance of the main sequence? What are giants, supergiants, and white dwarfs? Why do the properties of some stars vary?

48 Luminosity An H-R diagram plots the luminosity and temperature of stars. Temperature

49 Most stars fall somewhere on the main sequence of the H-R diagram.

50 Stars with lower T and higher L than main-sequence stars have larger radii. These stars are called giants and supergiants.

51 Stars with higher T and lower L than mainsequence stars have smaller radii. These stars are called white dwarfs.

52 Categories of Stars Main-sequence stars: hydrogen fusion is taking place in their cores. About 90% of the stars (including the Sun) in the night sky lie along the main sequence. Giant stars: luminosities of L! and temperatures of K. Red giants have T : K. Supergiant stars: considerably bigger and brighter than typical red giants, with radii of up to 1000 R!. White Dwarfs: A low-mass star that has exhausted all its thermonuclear fuel and contracted to a size roughly equal to the size of the Earth (has-been star). Brown Dwarfs: Starlike (~Jupiter-size, M < 0.08M! ) objects that are not massive enough to sustain hydrogen fusion in their core (never-will-be star).

53 Absorption Line Widths of Stars

54 Absorption Line Widths of Stars The widths of the absorption lines in stellar spectra depends on the density and pressure of the gas causing the absorption. The widths of the absorption lines (especially the H lines) indicate the category (ie. main sequence, giant, supergiant) the star belongs to. In the 1930s W. W. Morgan and P. C. Keenan of the Yerkes Observatory of the University of Chicago classified stars into luminosity classes depending on the widths of their lines. Luminosity Classes: V ( Main sequence), IV (Subgiant), III (Giant), II (Bright giant), Ib(Less luminous supergiant) and Ia(Most Luminous supergiant)

55 Stellar Luminosity Classes A star's full classification includes spectral type (line identities) and luminosity class (line shapes, related to the size of the star): I - supergiant II - bright giant III - giant IV - subgiant V - main sequence Examples: Sun - G2 V Sirius - A1 V Proxima Centauri - M5.5 V Betelgeuse - M2 I

56 Stellar Spectral Type and Luminosity Class Combining the spectral type (which gives the stars temperature) with the luminosity class (which indicates on what branch of the H-R diagram the star lies one can estimate the stars luminosity. Examples: What is the luminosity of - a G2 V star? - a M0 II star? - a B0 Ia star? H-R diagram with Luminosity Classes..

57 H-R diagram depicts: Luminosity Temperature Luminosity Luminosity Class Radius Temperature

58 Which star is the hottest? Luminosity Temperature

59 Which star is the hottest? Luminosity A Temperature

60 Which star is the most luminous? Luminosity Temperature

61 Which star is the most luminous? Luminosity C Temperature

62 Which star is a mainsequence star? Luminosity Temperature

63 Which star is a mainsequence star? Luminosity D Temperature

64 Which star has the largest radius? Luminosity Temperature

65 Which star has the largest radius? Luminosity C Temperature

66 What is the significance of the main sequence?

67 Main-sequence stars are fusing hydrogen into helium in their cores like the Sun. Luminous mainsequence stars are hot (blue). Less luminous ones are cooler (yellow or red).

68 Mass measurements of mainsequence stars show that the hot, blue stars are much more massive than the cool, red ones.

69 The mass of a normal, hydrogenburning star determines its luminosity and spectral type.

70 Mass-Luminosity Relation for Main Sequence Stars Explaining the M-L correlation: The more massive a star the larger the pressure, density and temperature in its core in order to balance gravity. This leads to a larger fusion reaction rate and thus a larger luminosity.

71 Core pressure and temperature of a higher-mass star need to be larger in order to balance gravity. Higher core temperature boosts fusion rate, leading to larger luminosity.

72 Stellar Properties Review Luminosity: from brightness and distance (0.08M Sun ) 10 4 L Sun 10 6 L Sun (100M Sun ) Temperature: from color and spectral type (0.08M Sun ) 3000 K 50,000 K (100M Sun ) Mass: from period (p) and average separation (a) of binary star orbit 0.08M Sun 100M Sun

73 Mass and Lifetime Sun's life expectancy ~ 12 billion years How long will a star remain on the main sequence? E = fmc 2, where f is the fraction of the star's mass that's converted into energy L = E t t = E L = fmc 2 t star = t solar M solar M star 2.5 L M M = M 2.5, t solar = years

74 Main-Sequence Star Summary High-Mass Star: High luminosity Short-lived Larger radius Blue Low-Mass Star: Low luminosity Long-lived Small radius Red

75 What are giants, supergiants, and white dwarfs?

76 Sizes of Giants and Supergiants

77 Off the Main Sequence Stellar properties depend on both mass and age: Those that have finished fusing H to He in their cores are no longer on the main sequence. All stars become larger and redder after exhausting their core hydrogen: giants and supergiants. Most stars end up small and white after fusion has ceased: white dwarfs.

78 Which star is most like our Sun? Luminosity Temperature

79 Which star is most like our Sun? B Luminosity Temperature

80 Luminosity Which of these stars will have changed the least 10 billion years from now? Temperature

81 Luminosity Which of these stars will have changed the least 10 billion years from now? C Temperature

82 Luminosity Which of these stars can be no more than 10 million years old? Temperature

83 Luminosity Which of these stars can be no more than 10 million years old? A Temperature

84 Variable Stars

85 Variable Stars: Long-Period Variables Many stars are found to pulsate in size and brightness. These stars are called pulsating variable stars. Long-period variables are pulsating cool red giants that vary in brightness by a factor of 100 over a period of months to years. Typical surface temperatures of long-period variables are ~3,500K and luminosities of 10-10,000 L solar. The first long-period variable star discovered was Mira (Period ~ 332 days).

86 Variable Stars: Cepheid Variables Pulsating supergiant stars that exhibit rapid brightening followed by gradual dimming with periods ranging from a few to a hundred days are called Cepheid variables. The first Cepheid variable discovered was δ Cephei.

87 Variable Stars After He fusion begins stars move across an instability strip near the middle of the H-R diagram where they begin to pulsate.

88 Variable Stars Why Cepheids vary: When a Cepheid variable pulsates, the star s surface oscillates up and down. During these cyclical expansions and contractions, the star s gases alternately heat up and cool down. Arthur Eddington suggested that a Cepheid pulsates because the star is more opaque when compressed than when expanded. When the star is compressed and opaque, heat cannot easily escape increasing the internal pressure that pushes the star surface outward. John Cox showed that under certain conditions He in the outer layers of a star becomes ionized and opaque when compressed.

89 Cepheid Variables: Period-Luminosity Relation The P-L relation together with the brightness of a Cepheid are used to infer its distance. The abundance of metals in a Cepheid s outer layers plays a significant role on how it pulsates. Metal rich Cepheids are called Type I Cepheids. Metal poor Cepheids are called Type II Cepheids. The period of a Cepheid s pulsations is correlated to its average luminosity.

90 Variable Stars: RR Lyrae Stars RR Lyrae variables are pulsating horizontal branch stars of spectral class A (and rarely F), with a mass of around half the Sun's. Their periods are less than one day and they are commonly found in globular clusters. RR Lyrae stars are old, relatively low mass, metal-poor "Population II" stars. RR Lyrae stars are named for their prototype RR Lyrae in the constellation Lyra.

91 What have we learned? What is a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram? An H-R diagram plots stellar luminosity of stars versus surface temperature (or color or spectral type). What is the significance of the main sequence? Normal stars that fuse H to He in their cores fall on the main sequence of an H-R diagram. A star's mass determines its position along the main sequence (high-mass: luminous and blue; low-mass: faint and red).

92 What have we learned? What are giants, supergiants, and white dwarfs? All stars become larger and redder after core hydrogen burning is exhausted: giants and supergiants. Most stars end up as tiny white dwarfs after fusion has ceased. Why do the properties of some stars vary? Some stars fail to achieve balance between power generated in the core and power radiated from the surface.

93 15.3 Star Clusters Our goals for learning: What are the two types of star clusters? How do we measure the age of a star cluster?

94 What are the two types of star clusters?

95 Star Clusters Large cold and dense clouds of gas and dust can collapse to form groups of stars referred to as star clusters. There are two main types of star clusters: open and globular clusters. Because the stars in a star cluster were all born at roughly the same time, the different properties of all the stars in a cluster are a function only of mass. By studying stars clusters we see how stars of different mass evolve differently. Over time, radiation pressure from the cluster will disperse the molecular cloud. Typically, ~ 10% of the mass of a gas cloud will coalesce into stars before radiation pressure drives the rest away.

96 Open cluster: is a group of up to a few thousand stars that were formed from the same giant molecular cloud, and are still loosely gravitationally bound to each other.

97 Globular cluster: Up to a million or more stars in a dense ball tightly bound together by gravity

98 How do we measure the age of a star cluster?

99 Massive blue stars die first, followed by white, yellow, orange, and red stars.

100 Example of Open Cluster: Pleiades The Pleiades cluster now has no stars with life expectancy less than around 100 million years. Only the most massive stars have left the main sequence

101 Example of Open Cluster: Pleiades The Pleiades and its H-R Diagram (a) The Pleiades star cluster is 380 ly from Earth in the constellation Taurus. (b) Each dot plotted on this H-R diagram represents a star in the Pleiades. The Pleiades is ~ years old. Notice that the most massive stars have stopped fusing H to He in the core and have moved off the main sequence.

102 The mainsequence turnoff point of a cluster tells us its age.

103 To determine accurate ages, we compare models of stellar evolution to the cluster data.

104 Detailed modeling of the oldest globular clusters reveals that they are about 13 billion years old.

105 What have we learned? What are the two types of star clusters? Open clusters are loosely packed and contain up to a few thousand stars. Globular clusters are densely packed and contain hundreds of thousands of stars. How do we measure the age of a star cluster? A star cluster's age roughly equals the life expectancy of its most massive stars still on the main sequence.

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