PLATO Follow-up. Questions addressed. Importance of the follow-up. Importance of the follow-up. Organisa(on*&*Progress*Report

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1 PLATO Follow-up Organisa(on*&*Progress*Report Questions addressed A next generation transit mission will be efficient only with ground-based help S. Udry University of Geneva (Geneva Observatory) Needs - planet parameters (masses from RVs) - confirmation (false positives) - tools for optimal planning and operation Observing facilities - yield of the mission and telescope time estimate - available/planned facilities - impact of the recent change in the space-transit landscape Organization of the Follow-up work - work breakdown and interfaces - strategy - involvement of the community Importance of the follow-up Goals - Necessity - Organisation Importance of the follow-up Goals - Necessity - Organisation 1) Planet parameters Not obtained from the light curves - mass, density - temperature, geometry - others 2) added science return - stellar parameters - non-transiting planets - binaries - other 1) Planet parameters Not obtained from the light curves - mass, density - temperature, geometry - others 2) False positives Experience gained from - ground-based => giant planets - space => small planets (dynamics)

2 A zoo of false positives Eclipsing M dwarfs Grazing Eclipsing binaries & triple systems Blended Eclipsing Binaries Grazing eclipsing binaries Secondary-only eclipsing binaries Background eclipsing binaries (inside PLATO window) Blended eclipsing binaries (inside seeing) Amplitude change With CCF template? Hot and fast Rotating star no signif. RV variations Transiting planets Bisector Span Spectroscopy Ground-based photometric & imaging follow-up - To estimate dilution factor within photometric mask - To exclude diluted eclipsing binaries with ON-OFF photometry - To identify close contaminant at high angular resolution 1 arcmin A zoo of false positives *Small5size*planets* ****=>*add*false5posi(ve*due*to*diluted*transits*** Grazing eclipsing *********by*giant*planets*on*secondaries binaries ****=>*same*diagnos(cs*applicable **********5*Consistency*checks*(dura(on,*etc) **********5*Light*curve*shape*(V,*ellipsoidal,*etc) **********5*Astrometry,*RVs,*line*bisector Background eclipsing **********5*Imaging*(dilu(on),*on5off*photometry binaries (inside PLATO window) **10%*5*30%*false*posi(ves*(from*Kepler) ****small*5*giant*planets Hot and fast Rotating star *sta(s(cal*approach*(blender/pastis) no signif. RV variations ****=>*Valida(on? *Valida(on*of*Earths*via*Rossiter5McLaughlin Eclipsing M dwarfs Secondary-only eclipsing binaries Blended eclipsing binaries (inside seeing) Transiting planets

3 1) Planet parameters Not obtained from the light curves - mass, density - temperature, geometry - others Importance of the follow-up 2) False positives Experience gained from - ground-based => giant planets - space => small planets Goals - Necessity - Organisation 3) Optimisation Enhanced science return - strategy, organisation - synergies Basic facts FU Organisation 1. Large number of expected transit candidates 2. => systematic observation of all transits with large telescopes unfeasible => an optimized follow-up scheme has to be organized 2. Same level of precision cannot be reached for all stars 3. (spectral type, luminosity class, activity, brightness) 3. Same is true for the RVs and high-contrast imaging 4. Strategy for the follow-up: efficient approach => matching targets and adequate facilities => minimum number of used facilities per target In practice => a multi-step approach from moderate to high-precision => a guided approach FU Requirements WP Optimisation Basic observations enhanced science Star & limits Interfaces Large and dynamic list of potential targets to be followed: to achieve this goal => efficient organisation and coordination ESA requirement Efficiency requirement (community) Strategy & operation preparation Radial-velocity follow-up Imaging-photom follow-up Spectroscopy Spectroscopy Additional planetary science Interfaces other WP - PDC PDC Basic idea: i) automatic distribution of the targets in boxes according to the needs ii) given facilities will only have access to the boxes matching their capabilities. Information transfer NN TBD S. Udry => need to design and develop: - efficient tools for the target repartition - user interface and tools for the observers - interface between the PDC and the observer able to accept input from the observer as well (web interface) => part of WP activities Efficiency Planet yield D. Pollacco F. Bouchy Spectro- Polarimetry A. Hatzes X. Bonfils

4 PLATO: # of Light Curves PLATO expected numbers of planets / For the baseline observing strategy: Noise level Magnitude limit 4300 deg 2 (long stare fields) (ppm/ hr) m V Number of cool stars 20,000 deg 2 (plus step and stare fields) Number of cool stars ,000 85, ,000 1,000,000 core science Detection of Earth-sized planets + asteroseismology + radial velocity + Detection of Earth-sized planets + Legacy Simulations (Y. Alibert et al.) 1) Catalog of stars: actual PLATO field or Besançon model Mass, magnitude Radius Metallicity, activity level (from distributions in the HARPS GTO volume-limited sample) 2) Transit probability and S/N (transit detection) for all (sep,mpl) planets depends on Rstar and magnitude depends on planet mass and semi-major axis 3) Calculate RV effect and probability to confirm the signal depends on stellar magnitude and activity level (and vsini) depends on planet mass and semi-major axis RV precision estimate: - stellar noise simulations - observed HARPS precision from early-type and active stars Radial-velocity precision Total numbers of characterized planets in core sample Number of characterized planets (Earth to Neptune mass) after detailed model of radial velocity efforts and the impact of stellar activity: Habitable zone 20 Instrument + photon noise > HARPS results + simulations + binning mass (MEarth) 10 > activity & granulation effects (Dumusque et al. 2010a, 2010b) 3 > Separation (a /ahz) 1.0

5 => At least 1 planet per bin in separation hundreds(of(systems Total numbers of characterized planets in core sample similar(proper2es(for( RV(&(Kepler(systems( Number of characterized planets (Earth to Neptune mass) after detailed model of radial velocity efforts and the impact of stellar activity: Habitable zone 20 > Kepler multi-transiting systems The(size(is(known( rather(than(the(mass but(periods(ok mass (MEarth) 10 3 > > Separation (a /ahz) f(m) observed in RV surveys PLATO expected numbers of planets / Simulations (Y. Alibert et al.) 1) Catalog of stars: actual PLATO field or Besançon model Mass, magnitude Radius Metallicity, activity level Star rotation Improvements (from distributions in the HARPS GTO volume-limited sample) Real fields 2) Transit probability and S/N (transit detection) for all (sep,mpl) planets depends on Rstar and magnitude Realistic transit detection depends on planet mass and semi-major axis 3) Calculate RV effect and probability to confirm the signal depends on stellar magnitude and activity level (and vsini) depends on planet mass and semi-major axis RV precision estimate: - stellar noise simulations Actual orbit characterisation - observed HARPS precision from early-type and active stars Radial velocity precision Telescope Type of objects Example time distribution 1m/s 4m Giant planets, long orbits. Super-Earths on short medium orbits <20cm/s 8m Earths/Super-Earths on long orbits Follow-up time needed Full follow-up of the expected planet yield from core sample 40 nights/yr for 6 yrs on 3 tel. 40 nights/yr for 6 yrs on 1 tel. Rest: Legacy 10m/s 1-2m Giant planets on short/ 50 nights/yr for 6 Follow-up is tractable medium orbits with existing/planned yrs on 3 tel. facilities with reasonable allocation of time Follow-up activities include favouring the development of new facilities Few hardest cases (eg faintest hosts with Earths in the habitable zone) will need E-ELT

6 In#opera)on HARPS5S/3.6m,*HARPS5N/TNG***<*1*m/s INT+NOT+HERMES/Mercator,**La*Palma Sophie/193cm*OHP**********************~2*m/s Coralie*+*FEROS/2.2m,**La*Silla 2m*Tautenburg PARAS/Mount*Abu*(1.2m*telescope)********** Carnegie*Planet*Finder*at*Magellan**<*2*m/s Chiron*at*CTIO****=>* *m/s* LCOGT/photom**(2x2m*+*9x1m) HRS/HET,*Texas* HIRES/Keck,*Hawaii UCLES/AAT,*siding*spring... APF/Lick Pepsi/LBT In#opera)on HARPS5S/3.6m,*HARPS5N/TNG***<*1*m/s INT+NOT+HERMES/Mercator,**La*Palma Sophie/193cm*OHP**********************~2*m/s Coralie*+*FEROS/2.2m,**La*Silla 2m*Tautenburg PARAS/Mount*Abu*(1.2m*telescope)********** Carnegie*Planet*Finder*at*Magellan**<*2*m/s Chiron*at*CTIO****=>* *m/s* LCOGT/photom**(2x2m*+*9x1m) HRS/HET,*Texas* HIRES/Keck,*Hawaii UCLES/AAT,*siding*spring... APF/Lick Pepsi/LBT In#well,advanced#development ESPRESSO*on*VLT**=>*<*10*cm/s,*2017 LCOGT/spectro*(within*a*few*years) Pathfinder*on*HET* CARMENES*at*Calar*Alto,*2015 IR* SPIROU*on*CFHT*(budget*OK)... ESPRESSO on ESO VLT «Echelle SPectrograph for Rocky Exoplanets and Stable Spectroscopic Observations» ESPRESSO integration -> end 2015 Ultra-stable spectrograph for the VLT R= visible: blue + red arms can use any of the UTs (coudé train) Consortium : CH, Italy, Portugal, Spain FDR in June 2013 On the sky : 2017 Precision in RV : < 10 cm/s Goal : Very low-mass planets Very important for the FU of very small-mass planets vacuum tank in Geneva (Dec 2014) ESPRESSO

7 CARMENES Visible and IR arms covering the range nm In#opera)on In#well,advanced#development HARPS5S/3.6m,*HARPS5N/TNG***<*1*m/s ESPRESSO*on*VLT**=>*<*10*cm/s,*2017 INT+NOT+HERMES/Mercator,**La*Palma LCOGT/spectro*(within*a*few*years) Sophie/193cm*OHP**********************~2*m/s Pathfinder*on*HET* Coralie*+*FEROS/2.2m,**La*Silla CARMENES*at*Calar*Alto,*2015 2m*Tautenburg SPIROU*on*CFHT*(budget*OK) PARAS/Mount*Abu*(1.2m*telescope)********** Song*network Carnegie*Planet*Finder*at*Magellan**<*2*m/s Chiron*at*CTIO****=>* *m/s*... Progressing#ideas LCOGT/photom**(2x2m*+*9x1m) Vacuum tanks: tests on-going in Granada and Heidelberg Commissioning: 2nd half of 2015 Deal: 600 useful nights at Calar Alto IR* HRS/HET,*Texas* ESPRESSO5North*(GranTecan/IAC,*Espresso+USA) HIRES/Keck,*Hawaii NIRPS/NTT*(proposal*going*to*2nd*phase) UCLES/AAT,*siding*spring... UKIRT*Planet*Finder APF/Lick GCLEF*on*GMT Pepsi/LBT Harvester*on*Palomar Yesterday: ESO council GO forward for E-ELT IR* HiRES*on*E5ELT**253*cm/s*(AO*call*soon) THE:*HARPS53*on*INT/La*Palma*(50%*of*the*(me)... (Courtesy: A. Reiners) Organization of Groundbased follow-up Lack of transiting planets around bright stars US: several 2m Keck 10m Spirou CFH 3.6m Tautenburg 2m Mercator 1.2m HARPS-N TNG 3.5m Euler 1.2m GTC 10m Crires VLT 8m Espresso VLT 8m HARPS ESO 3.6m NTT 3.5m 1-2m-class telescopes: 3-10m/s giant planets on short/medium orbits 100 nights/year x 6 years 6 telescopes Satellites targeting bright stars Known Planets, March 2013 NOT 2.5m Carmenes CA 3.5m ESO 2.2m Planets that Transit Stars Brighter than V=10 Infrared facilities: 1-2 m/s earths around late K - M dwarfs 40 nights/year x 6 years 3 telescopes 4m-class telescopes: 1-2 m/s giant planets on long orbits super-earths on short/medium orbits 100 nights/year x 6 years 4 telescopes AAT 4m 8m-class telescopes: < 50cm/s super-earths on long orbits, earths on short/medium orbits earths on long brightest stars 40 nights/year x 6 years 1 telescope Planet radius (Earth radii) HET 10m OHP 2m C H E O P S K2 Sub-Neptune (<3.0 Earth radii) TESS 2017 Super-Earth (<2.0 Earth radii) Earth (<1.25 Earth radii) Orbital Period (days) (From TESS team) PLATO 2024

8 Radial velocities in the space-transit era *TTV*as*a*way*to*planet*mass,*but...* small5mass*planet*searches*in*rv ***Precision:*~1*m/s *Many*new*facili(es*in*development Target*defini(on*for*CHEOPS**************** *Follow5up*for*TESS ********=*an(cipated*follow5up*for*plato Europe/world*wide*effort Opportunity*to*build5up*a*strong* exoplanet*community*from*the*need* of*ground5based*support*to*space* missions Set*up*of*a*close*collabora(ons*with 5*CHEOPS*consor(um 5*TESS*consor(um 5*ESO+* =>#Very#important#ac0vi0es#for#the#mission#adop0on The next steps ESA: main important points concerning the follow-up - (1) Solid and convincing organization of the follow-up - (2) Involvement of the Community - (3) Data right and publication policy <= same as for the satellite data? Consortium: - (1) consolidate the WP break-down most of the coordinators confirmed define and describe preparation and operation strategy precise activities of the WP, in the light of the changes in the field - (1) more precise estimate of the planet yield & telescope time required - (2) available/planed facilities (landscape) web interface for registration for participation: facilities & individuals (3) involvement of leading organizations in ground-based observations - (2) organize soon a workshop involving the community Follow-Up web site Direct link from PLATO main web page also obswww.unige.ch/plato-follow-up/ Registration for facilities participating to the PLATO follow-up efforts

9 FU registration interface FU registration interface

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