10 Years. of TeV Extragalactic Science. with VERITAS. Amy Furniss California State University East Bay

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1 Å s erg cm MM/YY 12/8 12/9 12/ 12/11 12/12 12/13 12/ OVRO Catalina MJD MM/YY 12/14 1/15 2/15 3/15 4/15 5/ Years of TeV Extragalactic Science MJD Å s erg cm Swift -XRT Swift -UVOT / ASAS-SN / Catalina DD/MM 8/4 15/4 22/4 29/4 6/5 13/5 2/5 VERITAS 25 SPOL SPOL V - ASAS-SN V - Catalina V B U W1 M2 W2 MJD with VERITAS Amy Furniss California State University East Bay

2 An unsolicited observation. By personal observation I have found a statistically significant excess of good people within the VERITAS collaboration. Keep in mind the standard caveats when sampling a population which was built in a biased-manner

3 An unsolicited observation. I look forward to continuing this study as more statistics become available

4 The Ever Present Question: Why Observe Extragalactic Sources with VERITAS? Particle Physics and Fundamental Laws Particle processes at the highest energies Lorentz invariance violation Origin of ultra high energy cosmic rays Exotic physics - e.g. evidence for axions Cosmology Extragalactic background light density Magnitude of the intergalactic magnetic field Black holes Supermassive black holes Jet physics Evolution

5 VERITAS Discoveries VERITAS has discovered gamma-ray emission from nearly 2 extragalactic sources in years VERITAS Turns On Fermi Launches Blazar Long Term Plan Initiated The first step to understanding sub-types of astrophysical sources is to build a population.

6 VERITAS Detections VERITAS collects data on all visible gamma-ray detected galaxies every year, providing a vast dataset on sources in both low and high emission states VERITAS Turns On Fermi Launches Blazar Long Term Plan Initiated The second step to understanding sub-types of astrophysical sources is to collect state measurements.

7 Years to Address Fundamental Questions What types of galaxies produce gamma-ray emission? Where does the gamma-ray emission originate within radio galaxies and blazars? How is the gamma-ray emission produced within these sources? Is there any pattern or mode to the variability of the gamma-ray emission from these sources? How is the gamma-ray emission related to the lower-energy emission emerging from these sources? How do the spectral signatures of these sources change as the sources evolve? What is the astrophysical origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays? What secondary interactions do gamma rays undergo as they travel extragalactic distances? What is the density of the low redshift optical/ir light produced by stars and galaxies? What is the magnitude (and origin) or the intergalactic magnetic field?

8 What type of galaxies produce gamma-ray emission? V. A. Acciari et al., Nature, volume 472, , 29 The Starburst Galaxy M82 CR hadrons + gas => pions => γ-rays CR e - + ambient photons => γ-rays Johannes Schedler (Panther Observatory) M 82 is a prototypical starburst galaxy D = ~3.9 Mpc toward Ursa Major: EBL a non-issue Diameter ~1 => Point-like for VHE γ-ray studies Central SMBH: < 3 x 7 Msun; No evidence of an AGN Starburst region Tidal forces => Active starburst region Diameter ~ light years HST => Contains >2 massive star clusters High star formation rate: ~x Milky Way High supernova rate: ~.1 to ~.3 / year VERITAS (27-9): ~137 h live time E th ~ 7 GeV; Sensitivity less at elevation ~ 39º Nice agreement with detection, Γ = 2.5

9 Where does the gamma-ray emission originate within radio galaxies and blazars? The Radio Galaxy M87 A. Abramowski et al. (The VERITAS Collaboration, with HESS, MAGIC, Fermi, Chandra, HST and others), Astrophysical Journal 746: 151, 211 Unique laboratory for the jet and substructure studies Big MWL γ-ray, X-ray and Radio campaign between 2811 (VERITAS/MAGIC/ HESS/VLBA/Chandra) Location of VHE emission region still uncertain despite apparent correlations in MWL data

10 Where does the gamma-ray emission originate within radio galaxies and blazars? E. Aliu et al. (The VERITAS Collaboration), Astrophysical Journal 746: 141, 212 The Radio Galaxy M87 Coordination continues between the IACT instruments when observing this source The exponential timescale is ~3 days for the rising side of the flare, and ~1 day for the falling side of the flare The spectra and timescales derived from this dataset favor the predictions by leptonic models over those of hadronic or large scale models Through causality, the timescale of the enhanced TeV emission implies an emission region size of R 5 15 δ cm Both the core and HST are still viable candidates for VHE gamma-ray emission following these observations

11 Flux ( -6 m s ) Is there any pattern or mode to the variability of the gamma-ray emission from these sources? MAGIC discovered TeV-blazar (25) VERITAS non-detection 2 < 3% Crab Many reports of MWL activity (May 211) June 28 th 211 VERITAS (3T, twilight) observed a flare in a 4 min observation Soft spectrum Γ = 3.6 ±.4 at ~125% Crab m s Minut es Initial Insight from BL Lacertae s ] [erg cm F ν ν VERITAS flare VERITAS pre-flare LAT simultaneous LAT 1-day LAT pre-flare 1 E [GeV] T. Arlen et al., Astrophysical Journal 762: 92, M o difie d Juli a n D a t e

12 Is there any pattern or mode to the variability of the gamma-ray emission from these sources? Additional Insight from BL Lac Observations in October 216 VERITAS detected a fast flare from BL Lac, reaching a flux of ~18% Crab The decay time is of order ~3 minutes, and faster than the rise time This constrains the size of the emitting region to be less than 12 Schwarzchild radii Observation of a correlated, albeit slower, GeV/optical flare at the time of the TeV flare Changes in polarization observed in both R band and radio frequencies VLBA 43 GHz images consistent with a superluminal radio knot passing the core around the time of the TeV flare (but the interpretation is not unique).

13 Where and how is the gamma-ray emission produced within these sources? The VERITAS Detection of OJ 287 OJ 287 is a blazar around z~.3 Proposed as a source with a binary supermassive black hole system Detected during high X-ray activity/low Fermi-band activity Not inline with predicted high state according to optical modulation

14 Where and how is the gamma-ray emission produced within these sources? The VERITAS Detection of OJ 287 Observed more than 4 times with Swift Great simultaneous Swift coverage over last VERITAS observations Variability observed by VERITAS over the last years New detections lead to new questions! Is this gamma-ray activity due to standard BL Lac emission? Is the gamma-ray emission due to the location of the secondary black hole within the system? What does the long term LAT gamma-ray emission tell us about the relative state of the source and how is this related to what was(n t) observed by VERITAS over the last decade?

15 How to the spectral signatures of these 5 sources change as the sources evolve? PSK : Broadband View of a Distant Gamma-ray Source MJD Φ(.1- GeV) s cm -8 Index.1- GeV /14 1/15 2/15 3/15 4/15 5/ Φ(15 GHz) 5 x Φ(V) Φ(.1- GeV) Φ(.1- GeV) Jy s cm -8 s cm -8 Å s erg cm Index.1- GeV Catalina MM/YY 12/8 12/9 12/ 12/11 12/12 12/13 12/14 OVRO MM/YY 12/14 1/15 2/15 3/15 4/15 5/ MJD MJD Φ(> 8 GeV) Φ(.1- GeV) Φ(2- kev) 5 Φ(O-UV)x s cm 1 s cm -8 Index.1- GeV s erg cm 2 Å s erg cm Polarization fraction % Polarization angle deg DD/MM 8/4 15/4 22/4 29/4 6/5 13/5 2/5 VERITAS Swift -XRT Swift -UVOT / ASAS-SN / Catalina SPOL SPOL V - ASAS-SN V - Catalina V B U W1 M2 W2 MJD

16 What is the density of the low redshift optical/ir light produced by stars and galaxies? PKS : Broadband View of a Distant Gamma-ray Source s ] [ erg cm F ν ν Energy flux ] sr ] April 215 VERITAS NuSTAR Swift ASAS-SN OVRO Frequency [ Hz ] Other observations Swift - May 215 Swift - January 215 Swift - June 2 Archival (ASDC) -4 1 Energy [ MeV ] Broad-band modeling Synchrotron Self Compton External Compton 2 Biteau & Williams (215) - 68% c.l. H.E.S.S. (213) - 68% c.l. (212) - 68% c.l ] [ erg s L ν ν ] Detection by Fermi LAT, MAGIC and VERITAS motivated a extraordinary MWL campaign on the source, allowing the full broadband view The model parameters consistent with the emission are close to FSRQ characteristics Luminosity s [ erg cm F ν ν Energy flux s [ erg cm F ν ν Energy flux Swift -XRT Observed 5 NuSTAR Corrected for EBL VERITAS Energy [ MeV ] Energy [ MeV ] Upper limits direct observations Combination and continuity of & VERITAS data allows constraint on the EBL from ~.2. μm which is constant with constraints from previous studies [ nw m EBL intensity VERITAS - 95% c.l. upper limit PKS cross section peak Lower limits galaxy counts PKS cross section FWHM Wavelength [ µm ]

17 What is the density of the low redshift optical/ IR light produced by stars and galaxies? sr ] ν I ν (λ) [nw m 217 ICRC Upper limits/68% containment Gilmore 212 Fiducial 1 1 Interaction of EBL-VHE photons results in the observation of attenuated spectra above GeV Making ~5 EBL shapes and extracting the opacity values then deabsorbing the VERITAS spectral points for multiple TeV blazers and comparing them to Fermi LAT spectra provides a model independent constraint on the EBL density can be produced as a function of wavelength The energy across which the TeV blazer is detected by VERITAS translates to the wavelength range of the EBL that can be constrained by that source Constraint region is consistent with galaxy count lower limits and current model-dependent EBL density profiles λ [µm]

18 How is the gamma-ray emission related to the lowerenergy emission emerging from these sources? Insight from Swift XRT and UVOT Gamma-ray Flare of 1ES Information on emission mechanisms possible through broadband view Moved from contemporaneous to simultaneous observation method Swift provides critical constraint with XRT and UVOT simultaneous shots Coordination of observation windows for many TeV blazars Trigger on high X-ray states to build understanding of source variability

19 How is the gamma-ray emission related to the lowerenergy emission emerging from these sources? Quasi-continuous Insight from Fermi LAT Fermi LAT allows full picture of gamma-ray emission characteristics Open lines of communication to flaring sources allow fast response to flaring sources Triggering observations based on private communication, Astronomer s Telegrams, public light curves and private rapid analysis pipelines RGB J Discovery Triggered by Fermi LAT Private SAO pipeline

20 How is the gamma-ray emission related to the lowerenergy emission emerging from these sources? Evidence of Jet Structure from Radio and Polarimetry Measurements BL Lac HESS J GHz MOJAVE VLBA composite image of RGB J on 212 April 29

21 What secondary interactions do gamma-rays undergo as they travel extragalactic distances? Motivating Spectral Redshift Measurements Fermi LAT Bright Source List Target RX J Keck Spectrum z=.179 5()&,6'(.7)89 22## 2### 14## 13## 1$## :&.;.<.= AB#C1DE 12## 1###!"## $### $"## "### ""## %&'()(*+,-./Å Lick Observations of Various Non-detected VHE Candidates PKS HST Observations (z>.6)

22 The Search Continues What types of galaxies produce gamma-ray emission? Where does the gamma-ray emission originate within radio galaxies and blazars? How is the gamma-ray emission produced within these sources? Is there any pattern or mode to the variability of the gamma-ray emission from these sources? How is the gamma-ray emission related to the lower-energy emission emerging from these sources? How do the spectral signatures of these sources change as the sources evolve? What is the astrophysical origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays? What secondary interactions do gamma rays undergo as they travel extragalactic distances? What is the density of the low redshift optical/ir light produced by stars and galaxies? What is the magnitude (and origin) or the intergalactic magnetic field?

23 Opportunities Abound More than 5 accepted papers on VERITAS observations of extragalactic gamma-ray galaxies The potential for new and unexpected discoveries persists, and now we have a years of observations to lead us in the right directions I am optimistic about the prospect for VERITAS observations of extragalactic sources to motivate new investigative techniques, and enable the definitive closure of persistent debates With our experience we can continue to prepare a strong foundation on which to continue ground-based gamma-ray astronomy well into the future

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