MWL. A Brief Advertisement Before Your Regularly Scheduled Program

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1 MWL A Brief Advertisement Before Your Regularly Scheduled Program

2 PKS

3 PKS z=0.939! VHE detection over more than a single day!

4 PKS % polarization!

5 PKS Continues optical activity!

6 PKS Detection at VHE 4 days after VHE discovery by MAGIC!

7 MWL Observations of PKS are Encouraged!

8 MWL

9 NuSTAR Observations of Blazars Amy Furniss Stanford University (gamma-ray) for the NuSTAR Team, VERITAS Collaboration, MAGIC Collaboration, Fermi Collaboration, ++Optical and radio partners Relativistic Jets: Creation, Dynamics, and Internal Dynamics Krakow, Poland April 20-24

10 Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array Launched 13 June 2012 Focusing high energy X-ray telescope (3-79 kev) Low background and good angular resolution (18 FWHM) ~0X sensitivity improvement over other instruments in this bandpass < 24 hour ToO response Harrison et al. 2013, ApJ, 770, 3

11 A Busy Observing Schedule Probe obscured AGN Study the population of Galactic hard X-ray-emitting compact objects Study the non-thermal radiation in young supernova remnants Observe core-collapse supernovae in the Local Group Observation of solar activity Observe blazars contemporaneously with ground-based radio, optical, and TeV telescopes, as well as with Fermi and Swift, to understand the structure of AGN jets ++!

12 Integral Flux > 315 GeV ] -1 s photons m -7 [ X Power [νfν] Very-High-Energy Blazars Radio Optical X-ray Gamma-ray SSC? Frequency [ν] (ApJ, 2014, 797, 89) VERITAS 1ES Orphan VHE flare in 2012? Flux 2- kev XRT Index erg cm s -1 ] -11 [X Swift XRT Swift XRT UVOT Flux Optical Magnitude ] [ x -11 erg cm s Swift UVOT Optical R-Band Magnitude UVOT W1 UVOT W2 UVOT M2 SuperLOTIS R-band itelescope R-band itelescope V-band

13 MWL Study of Quiescent States of Mkn 421 with Unprecedented Hard X-ray Coverage Provided by NuSTAR in 2013 Baloković et al., in preparation, Baloković et al. arxiv:

14 April of 2013 Borracci et al., in preparation Fermi LAT to 4 kev 4 to 7 kev 7 to kev to 20 kev 20 to 75 kev Preliminary NuSTAR MJD

15 Mrk 421 Hard X-ray Spectral Variability

16 Mrk 421 Hard X-ray Spectral Variability Extending the Insight on Spectral State at Low Flux Levels NuSTAR Observations 2013 Giebels et al.2007 Spectral trends found in NuSTAR observations Break energy kept fixed at 7 kev Smooth trend Apparent saturation at both ends No longer a break when Log(flux) < ~ -.0 (Γlow~3.0) Archival from Giebels et al. 2007

17 Mrk 421 X-ray vs VHE Flux Fitted slopes of between in all X-ray bands Trend remains for strictly simultaneous observations Consistent with IC up-scattering occurring in the Klein-Nishina regime

18 Mrk 421 Broadband Variability Observations from radio to TeV Higher fractional variability in X- ray and VHE bands as compared to optical and radio Fermi LAT shows evidence of significant fractional variability

19 First NuSTAR Observations of Mrk 501 within a Radio to TeV Multi-Instrument Campaign Furniss et al., ApJ submitted (as of yesterday!) s -1 ] dn/de [kev cm 2 MJD (Obs ID ) Power Law Broken Power Law Log Parabola s -1 ] dn/de [kev cm -1 MJD (Obs ID ) Power Law Broken Power Law Log Parabola E 2 s -1 ] dn/de [kev cm 2-1 MJD (Obs ID ) Power Law Broken Power Law Log Parabola E s -1 ] E dn/de [kev cm Ratio Energy [kev] 2 MJD (Obs ID ) Power Law Broken Power Law Log Parabola E Ratio Ratio Energy [kev] Energy [kev] Ratio Energy [kev]

20 NuSTAR Mrk 501 Observation Orbit-by-orbit 7-30 kev NuSTAR 3-7 kev NuSTAR 7-30 kev NuSTAR 3-7 kev NuSTAR 7-30 kev NuSTAR 3-7 kev NuSTAR s -1 ] Flux [ erg cm Index Γ s -1 ] Flux [ erg cm Index Γ s -1 ] Index Γ Flux [ erg cm VERITAS 0.1 MAGIC VERITAS 55 MAGIC MJD MJD MJD MAGIC MJD and MJD MJD Flux variability in 3-7 kev and 7-30 kev bands on orbit timescale (~90 min) NuSTAR Detection to 30 kev in ~90 min Significant preference for logparabolic fit versus power-law and broken power-law fits Simultaneous MAGIC and VERITAS observations for every NuSTAR exposure

21 Full View of the Mrk 501 Synchrotron Peak 0.05 kev 2 (Photons cm 2 s 1 kev 1 ) Energy (kev)

22 Mrk 501 X-ray Variability Swift XRT 2.35 Observation 002 Observation 004 NuSTAR Observations 006 and 008 Index Γ (PL) 1.8 Index Γ kev Swift XRT-Measured Flux [ erg cm s -1 ] Flux [ ergs cm Significant spectral variability observed within each NuSTAR exposure Harder when brighter pattern out to 30 kev 7-30 kev NuSTAR 7-30 kev band consistently softer at kev than at 1 kev s -1 ] -9

23 Mrk 501 Broadband Variability ] > 0.2 TeV Flux -9-1 [ x cm s MAGIC VERITAS ] > 0.2 TeV Flux -9-1 [ x cm s MAGIC GeV Flux -6-1 [ x cm s ] Fermi LAT GeV Flux -6-1 [ x cm s ] Fermi LAT 3-7 kev Flux 7-30 kev Flux ] -1 s erg cm -11 [ x ] -1 s XRT Flux -11 [ x erg cm NuSTAR kev Swift XRT kev 3-7 kev Flux 7-30 kev Flux ] -1 s erg cm -11 [ x ] -1 s XRT Flux -11 [ x erg cm NuSTAR kev Swift XRT kev [ mjy ] Swift UVOT U V B UVW1 UVW2 UVM2 [ mjy ] Swift UVOT U V B UVW1 UVW2 UVM Multiple Optical Instruments (R-band) R-band [ mjy ] Multiple Optical Instruments (R-band) R-band [ mjy ] Radio [ Jy ] mm 3 mm 7 mm 9 mm 13 mm 20 mm 28 mm 36 mm 60 mm 1 mm OVRO 15 GHz Metsahovi 37 GHz = Radio [ Jy ] mm 3 mm 7 mm 9 mm 13 mm 20 mm 28 mm 36 mm 60 mm 1 mm OVRO 15 GHz Metsahovi 37 GHz MJD MJD

24 Mrk 501 Broadband Variability F var OVRO (15GHz) Metsahovi (37GHz) Optical R Swift/UVOT u Swift/UVOT uvw1 Swift/UVOT uvw2 Swift/UVOT uvm2 Swift/XRT (0.3-3keV) Swift/XRT (3-7keV) NuSTAR (3-7keV) NuSTAR (7-30keV) Fermi VERITAS MAGIC log E[eV] Observations from radio to TeV Higher fractional variability in X-ray and VHE bands as compared to radio, optical and Fermi LAT bands Fractional variability consistent with SSC emission scenario

25 Modeling the Broadband SED 13 MJD [Jy Hz] F ν ν MJD [Jy Hz] F ν [Jy Hz] ν F ν [Jy Hz] ν F ν [Jy Hz] ν F ν ν MJD MJD MJD ν [Hz] 28 Use an equilibrium single-zone SSC model to describe the data on five different periods Provides a reasonable representation of the data Radio data is taken as upper limit, expected to have significant contribution from extended lobes Requires hard (q=1.3) injected particle spectrum Variability timescales are within agreement with those found within the paper (~ hours) Result is << equipartition

26 Mrk 501 X-ray vs VHE Variability -9 ] s -1 > 200 GeV Flux [ ph cm NuSTAR 3-7 kev NuSTAR 7-30 kev Quadratic relation is preferred over linear Evidence of inverse IC in Thompson regime Quadratic: χ 2 =11.4 Linear: χ 2 = Degrees of Freedom X-ray Flux [ ph cm s -1 ] Quadratic: χ 2 =17.5 Linear: χ 2 = Degrees of Freedom

27 Conclusions Hard X-ray observations of (gamma-ray) blazars by NuSTAR provide direct insight into the population of relativistic particles producing gamma-ray emission Extensive multi-instrument campaigns on Mrk421 and Mrk501 have happened every year since 2009 (see talk by David Paneque). The campaigns from 2013 could count, for the first time, with NuSTAR Special focus on NuSTAR observations simultaneous to MAGIC/VERITAS, as well as Swift/optical, which brought unprecedented insight into the broadband nature of both sources NuSTAR showed < day scale variability extends to hard X-ray energies within Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 are remarkably different animals Mrk 421 VHE emission likely to occur in Klein-Nishina regime, while Mrk 501 VHE emission is within the Thompson regime Observations of additional gamma-ray emitting blazars will also provide interesting insight into the jet broadband emission - stay tuned! PS Observe PKS if you ve got a chance!

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