Chapter 12 Gravity. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

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1 Chapter 12 Gravity

2 Units of Chapter 12 Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion Gravitational Potential Energy Energy Conservation

3 12-1 Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation Newton s insight: The force accelerating an apple downward is the same force that keeps the Moon in its orbit. Hence, Universal Gravitation.

4 12-1 Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation The gravitational force is always attractive, and points along the line connecting the two masses: The two forces shown are an action-reaction pair.

5 Question 12.1a Earth and Moon I Which is stronger, Earth s pull on the Moon, or the Moon s pull on Earth? a) the Earth pulls harder on the Moon b) the Moon pulls harder on the Earth c) they pull on each other equally d) there is no force between the Earth and the Moon e) it depends upon where the Moon is in its orbit at that time

6 Question 12.1a Earth and Moon I Which is stronger, Earth s pull on the Moon, or the Moon s pull on Earth? a) the Earth pulls harder on the Moon b) the Moon pulls harder on the Earth c) they pull on each other equally d) there is no force between the Earth and the Moon e) it depends upon where the Moon is in its orbit at that time By Newton s Third Law, the forces are equal and opposite.

7 Question 12.1b Earth and Moon II If the distance to the Moon were doubled, then the force of attraction between Earth and the Moon would be: a) one quarter b) one half c) the same d) two times e) four times

8 Question 12.1b Earth and Moon II If the distance to the Moon were doubled, then the force of attraction between Earth and the Moon would be: a) one quarter b) one half c) the same d) two times e) four times The gravitational force depends inversely on the distance squared. So if you increase the distance by a factor of 2, the force will decrease by a factor of 4. F = G Mm 2 R Follow-up up: What distance would increase the force by a factor of 2?

9 12-1 Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation G is a very small number; this means that the force of gravity is negligible unless there is a very large mass involved (such as the Earth). If an object is being acted upon by several different gravitational forces, the net force on it is the vector sum of the individual forces. This is called the principle of superposition.

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12 12-2 Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies Gravitational force between a point mass and a sphere: the force is the same as if all the mass of the sphere were concentrated at its center.

13 12-2 Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies What about the gravitational force on objects at the surface of the Earth? The center of the Earth is one Earth radius away, so this is the distance we use: Therefore, R E =6370 km

14 R E =6370 km

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16 12-2 Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies The acceleration of gravity decreases slowly with altitude:

17 12-2 Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies Once the altitude becomes comparable to the radius of the Earth, the decrease in the acceleration of gravity is much larger:

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20 12-2 Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies The Cavendish experiment allows us to measure the universal gravitation constant:

21 12-2 Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies Even though the gravitational force is very small, the mirror allows measurement of tiny deflections. Measuring G also allowed the mass of the Earth to be calculated, as the local acceleration of gravity and the radius of the Earth were known.

22 12-3 Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion Johannes Kepler made detailed studies of the apparent motions of the planets over many years, and was able to formulate three empirical laws: 1. Planets follow elliptical orbits, with the Sun at one focus of the ellipse.

23 12-3 Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion 2. As a planet moves in its orbit, it sweeps out an equal amount of area in an equal amount of time.

24 12-3 Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion 3. The period, T, of a planet increases as its mean distance from the Sun, r, raised to the 3/2 power. This can be shown to be a consequence of the inverse square form of the gravitational force.

25 12-3 Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion A geosynchronous satellite is one whose orbital period is equal to one day. If such a satellite is orbiting above the equator, it will be in a fixed position with respect to the ground. These satellites are used for communications and and weather forecasting.

26 12-3 Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion GPS satellites are not in geosynchronous orbits; their orbit period is 12 hours. Triangulation of signals from several satellites allows precise location of objects on Earth.

27 12-4 Gravitational Potential Energy Gravitational potential energy of an object of mass m a distance r from the Earth s center:

28 12-4 Gravitational Potential Energy Very close to the Earth s surface, the gravitational potential increases linearly with altitude: Gravitational potential energy, just like all other forms of energy, is a scalar. It therefore has no components; just a sign.

29 12-5 Energy Conservation Total mechanical energy of an object of mass m a distance r from the center of the Earth: This confirms what we already know as an object approaches the Earth, it moves faster and faster.

30 12-5 Energy Conservation

31 12-5 Energy Conservation Another way of visualizing the gravitational potential well:

32 12-5 Energy Conservation Escape speed: the initial upward speed a projectile must have in order to escape from the Earth s gravity Derive this?

33 12-5 Energy Conservation Speed of a projectile as it leaves the Earth, for various launch speeds

34 Summary of Chapter 12 Force of gravity between two point masses: G is the universal gravitational constant: In calculating gravitational forces, spherically symmetric bodies can be replaced by point masses.

35 Summary of Chapter 12 Acceleration of gravity: Mass of the Earth: Kepler s laws: 1. Planetary orbits are ellipses, Sun at one focus 2. Planets sweep out equal area in equal time 3. Square of orbital period is proportional to cube of distance from Sun

36 Orbital period: Summary of Chapter 12 Gravitational potential energy: U is a scalar, and goes to zero as the masses become infinitely far apart

37 Summary of Chapter 12 Total mechanical energy: Escape speed:

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