# Chapter 12 Gravity. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Chapter 12 Gravity

2 Units of Chapter 12 Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion Gravitational Potential Energy Energy Conservation

3 12-1 Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation Newton s insight: The force accelerating an apple downward is the same force that keeps the Moon in its orbit. Hence, Universal Gravitation.

4 12-1 Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation The gravitational force is always attractive, and points along the line connecting the two masses: The two forces shown are an action-reaction pair.

5 Question 12.1a Earth and Moon I Which is stronger, Earth s pull on the Moon, or the Moon s pull on Earth? a) the Earth pulls harder on the Moon b) the Moon pulls harder on the Earth c) they pull on each other equally d) there is no force between the Earth and the Moon e) it depends upon where the Moon is in its orbit at that time

6 Question 12.1a Earth and Moon I Which is stronger, Earth s pull on the Moon, or the Moon s pull on Earth? a) the Earth pulls harder on the Moon b) the Moon pulls harder on the Earth c) they pull on each other equally d) there is no force between the Earth and the Moon e) it depends upon where the Moon is in its orbit at that time By Newton s Third Law, the forces are equal and opposite.

7 Question 12.1b Earth and Moon II If the distance to the Moon were doubled, then the force of attraction between Earth and the Moon would be: a) one quarter b) one half c) the same d) two times e) four times

8 Question 12.1b Earth and Moon II If the distance to the Moon were doubled, then the force of attraction between Earth and the Moon would be: a) one quarter b) one half c) the same d) two times e) four times The gravitational force depends inversely on the distance squared. So if you increase the distance by a factor of 2, the force will decrease by a factor of 4. F = G Mm 2 R Follow-up up: What distance would increase the force by a factor of 2?

9 12-1 Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation G is a very small number; this means that the force of gravity is negligible unless there is a very large mass involved (such as the Earth). If an object is being acted upon by several different gravitational forces, the net force on it is the vector sum of the individual forces. This is called the principle of superposition.

10

11

12 12-2 Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies Gravitational force between a point mass and a sphere: the force is the same as if all the mass of the sphere were concentrated at its center.

13 12-2 Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies What about the gravitational force on objects at the surface of the Earth? The center of the Earth is one Earth radius away, so this is the distance we use: Therefore, R E =6370 km

14 R E =6370 km

15

16 12-2 Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies The acceleration of gravity decreases slowly with altitude:

17 12-2 Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies Once the altitude becomes comparable to the radius of the Earth, the decrease in the acceleration of gravity is much larger:

18

19

20 12-2 Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies The Cavendish experiment allows us to measure the universal gravitation constant:

21 12-2 Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies Even though the gravitational force is very small, the mirror allows measurement of tiny deflections. Measuring G also allowed the mass of the Earth to be calculated, as the local acceleration of gravity and the radius of the Earth were known.

22 12-3 Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion Johannes Kepler made detailed studies of the apparent motions of the planets over many years, and was able to formulate three empirical laws: 1. Planets follow elliptical orbits, with the Sun at one focus of the ellipse.

23 12-3 Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion 2. As a planet moves in its orbit, it sweeps out an equal amount of area in an equal amount of time.

24 12-3 Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion 3. The period, T, of a planet increases as its mean distance from the Sun, r, raised to the 3/2 power. This can be shown to be a consequence of the inverse square form of the gravitational force.

25 12-3 Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion A geosynchronous satellite is one whose orbital period is equal to one day. If such a satellite is orbiting above the equator, it will be in a fixed position with respect to the ground. These satellites are used for communications and and weather forecasting.

26 12-3 Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion GPS satellites are not in geosynchronous orbits; their orbit period is 12 hours. Triangulation of signals from several satellites allows precise location of objects on Earth.

27 12-4 Gravitational Potential Energy Gravitational potential energy of an object of mass m a distance r from the Earth s center:

28 12-4 Gravitational Potential Energy Very close to the Earth s surface, the gravitational potential increases linearly with altitude: Gravitational potential energy, just like all other forms of energy, is a scalar. It therefore has no components; just a sign.

29 12-5 Energy Conservation Total mechanical energy of an object of mass m a distance r from the center of the Earth: This confirms what we already know as an object approaches the Earth, it moves faster and faster.

30 12-5 Energy Conservation

31 12-5 Energy Conservation Another way of visualizing the gravitational potential well:

32 12-5 Energy Conservation Escape speed: the initial upward speed a projectile must have in order to escape from the Earth s gravity Derive this?

33 12-5 Energy Conservation Speed of a projectile as it leaves the Earth, for various launch speeds

34 Summary of Chapter 12 Force of gravity between two point masses: G is the universal gravitational constant: In calculating gravitational forces, spherically symmetric bodies can be replaced by point masses.

35 Summary of Chapter 12 Acceleration of gravity: Mass of the Earth: Kepler s laws: 1. Planetary orbits are ellipses, Sun at one focus 2. Planets sweep out equal area in equal time 3. Square of orbital period is proportional to cube of distance from Sun

36 Orbital period: Summary of Chapter 12 Gravitational potential energy: U is a scalar, and goes to zero as the masses become infinitely far apart

37 Summary of Chapter 12 Total mechanical energy: Escape speed:

### Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. GRAVITY. Chapter 12

GRAVITY Chapter 12 Units of Chapter 12 Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion Gravitational Potential Energy Energy Conservation

### Physics Mechanics. Lecture 29 Gravitation

1 Physics 170 - Mechanics Lecture 29 Gravitation Newton, following an idea suggested by Robert Hooke, hypothesized that the force of gravity acting on the planets is inversely proportional to their distances

### Chapter 5 Part 2. Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation, Satellites, and Weightlessness

Chapter 5 Part 2 Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation, Satellites, and Weightlessness Newton s ideas about gravity Newton knew that a force exerted on an object causes an acceleration. Most forces occurred

### Chapter 9 Lecture. Pearson Physics. Gravity and Circular Motion. Prepared by Chris Chiaverina Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 9 Lecture Pearson Physics Gravity and Circular Motion Prepared by Chris Chiaverina Chapter Contents Newton's Law of Universal Gravity Applications of Gravity Circular Motion Planetary Motion and

Chapter 13. Newton s Theory of Gravity The beautiful rings of Saturn consist of countless centimeter-sized ice crystals, all orbiting the planet under the influence of gravity. Chapter Goal: To use Newton

### General Physics I. Lecture 7: The Law of Gravity. Prof. WAN, Xin 万歆.

General Physics I Lecture 7: The Law of Gravity Prof. WAN, Xin 万歆 xinwan@zju.edu.cn http://zimp.zju.edu.cn/~xinwan/ Outline Newton's law of universal gravitation Motion of the planets; Kepler's laws Measuring

### 4.3 Conservation Laws in Astronomy

4.3 Conservation Laws in Astronomy Our goals for learning: Why do objects move at constant velocity if no force acts on them? What keeps a planet rotating and orbiting the Sun? Where do objects get their

### Radial Acceleration. recall, the direction of the instantaneous velocity vector is tangential to the trajectory

Radial Acceleration recall, the direction of the instantaneous velocity vector is tangential to the trajectory 1 Radial Acceleration recall, the direction of the instantaneous velocity vector is tangential

### AP Physics Multiple Choice Practice Gravitation

AP Physics Multiple Choice Practice Gravitation 1. Each of five satellites makes a circular orbit about an object that is much more massive than any of the satellites. The mass and orbital radius of each

### Planetary Mechanics:

Planetary Mechanics: Satellites A satellite is an object or a body that revolves around another body due to the gravitational attraction to the greater mass. Ex: The planets are natural satellites of the

Question 8.1: the following: (a) You can shield a charge from electrical forces by putting it inside a hollow conductor. Can you shield a body from the gravitational influence of nearby matter by putting

### 7.4 Universal Gravitation

Circular Motion Velocity is a vector quantity, which means that it involves both speed (magnitude) and direction. Therefore an object traveling at a constant speed can still accelerate if the direction

### Physics Mechanics Lecture 30 Gravitational Energy

Physics 170 - Mechanics Lecture 30 Gravitational Energy Gravitational Potential Energy Gravitational potential energy of an object of mass m a distance r from the Earth s center: Gravitational Potential

### Projectile Motion. Conceptual Physics 11 th Edition. Projectile Motion. Projectile Motion. Projectile Motion. This lecture will help you understand:

Conceptual Physics 11 th Edition Projectile motion is a combination of a horizontal component, and Chapter 10: PROJECTILE AND SATELLITE MOTION a vertical component. This lecture will help you understand:

### 12/1/2014. Chapter 5 Circular Motion; Gravitation. Contents of Chapter 5. Contents of Chapter Kinematics of Uniform Circular Motion

Lecture PowerPoints Chapter 5 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7 th edition Giancoli Chapter 5 Circular Motion; Gravitation This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided

### Can you shield a body from the gravitational influence of nearby matter by putting it inside a hollow sphere or by some other means?

Question 8.1: the following: You can shield a charge from electrical forces by putting it inside a hollow conductor. Can you shield a body from the gravitational influence of nearby matter by putting it

### Conceptual Physics 11 th Edition

Conceptual Physics 11 th Edition Chapter 10: PROJECTILE AND SATELLITE MOTION This lecture will help you understand: Projectile Motion Fast-Moving Projectiles Satellites Circular Satellite Orbits Elliptical

### Gravitation. Luis Anchordoqui

Gravitation Kepler's law and Newton's Synthesis The nighttime sky with its myriad stars and shinning planets has always fascinated people on Earth. Towards the end of the XVI century the astronomer Tycho

### By; Jarrick Serdar, Michael Broberg, Trevor Grey, Cameron Kearl, Claire DeCoste, and Kristian Fors

By; Jarrick Serdar, Michael Broberg, Trevor Grey, Cameron Kearl, Claire DeCoste, and Kristian Fors What is gravity? Gravity is defined as the force of attraction by which terrestrial bodies tend to fall

### Circular Motion and Gravitation Notes 1 Centripetal Acceleration and Force

Circular Motion and Gravitation Notes 1 Centripetal Acceleration and Force This unit we will investigate the special case of kinematics and dynamics of objects in uniform circular motion. First let s consider

### Describing Motion. Newton Newton s Laws of Motion. Position Velocity. Acceleration. Key Concepts: Lecture 9

Key Concepts: Lecture 9 Newton Newton s Laws of Motion More on Kepler s Laws Describing Motion Position Velocity Rate of change of position (speed & direction) 80 km/hr Acceleration 40 km/hr Rate of change

### PHYS 106 Fall 2151 Homework 3 Due: Thursday, 8 Oct 2015

PHYS 106 Fall 2151 Homework 3 Due: Thursday, 8 Oct 2015 When you do a calculation, show all your steps. Do not just give an answer. You may work with others, but the work you submit should be your own.

### A = 6561 times greater. B. 81 times greater. C. equally strong. D. 1/81 as great. E. (1/81) 2 = 1/6561 as great Pearson Education, Inc.

Q13.1 The mass of the Moon is 1/81 of the mass of the Earth. Compared to the gravitational force that the Earth exerts on the Moon, the gravitational force that the Moon exerts on the Earth is A. 81 2

### Gravitation. Objectives. The apple and the Moon. Equations 6/2/14. Describe the historical development of the concepts of gravitational force.

Gravitation Objectives Describe the historical development of the concepts of gravitational force. Describe and calculate how the magnitude of the gravitational force between two objects depends on their

### 4.1 Describing Motion. How do we describe motion? Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity

Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity 4.1 Describing Motion Our goals for learning: How do we describe motion? How is mass different from weight? How do we describe

### How do we describe motion?

Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity How do we describe motion? Precise definitions to describe motion: Speed: Rate at which object moves example: speed of

### AP Physics QUIZ Gravitation

AP Physics QUIZ Gravitation Name: 1. If F1 is the magnitude of the force exerted by the Earth on a satellite in orbit about the Earth and F2 is the magnitude of the force exerted by the satellite on the

### AP Physics C Textbook Problems

AP Physics C Textbook Problems Chapter 13 Pages 412 416 HW-16: 03. A 200-kg object and a 500-kg object are separated by 0.400 m. Find the net gravitational force exerted by these objects on a 50.0-kg object

### End-of-Chapter Exercises

End-of-Chapter Exercises Exercises 1 12 are primarily conceptual questions that are designed to see if you have understood the main concepts of the chapter. Treat all balls with mass as point masses. 1.

### Basics of Kepler and Newton. Orbits of the planets, moons,

Basics of Kepler and Newton Orbits of the planets, moons, Kepler s Laws, as derived by Newton. Kepler s Laws Universal Law of Gravity Three Laws of Motion Deriving Kepler s Laws Recall: The Copernican

### How do we describe motion?

Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity How do we describe motion? Precise definitions to describe motion: Speed: Rate at which object moves \$ speed = distance!#"units

### 9/13/ Describing Motion: Examples from Everyday Life. Chapter 4: Making Sense of the Universe Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity

9/13/17 Lecture Outline 4.1 Describing Motion: Examples from Everyday Life Chapter 4: Making Sense of the Universe Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity Our goals for learning: How do we describe motion?

### Nm kg. The magnitude of a gravitational field is known as the gravitational field strength, g. This is defined as the GM

Copyright FIST EDUCATION 011 0430 860 810 Nick Zhang Lecture 7 Gravity and satellites Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation Gravitation is a force of attraction that acts between any two masses. The gravitation

### Student: Ms. Elbein & Ms. Townsend Physics, Due Date: Unit 5: Gravity 1. HW5.1 Gravity Reading p. 1

Unit 5: Gravity 1 p. 1 Section 5.1: Gravity is More Than a Name Nearly every child knows of the word gravity. Gravity is the name associated with the mishaps of the milk spilled from the breakfast table

### AP Physics-B Universal Gravitation Introduction: Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion: Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation: Performance Objectives:

AP Physics-B Universal Gravitation Introduction: Astronomy is the oldest science. Practical needs and imagination acted together to give astronomy an early importance. For thousands of years, the motions

### ASTR 150. Planetarium Shows begin Sept 9th. Register your iclicker! Last time: The Night Sky Today: Motion and Gravity. Info on course website

Planetarium Shows begin Sept 9th Info on course website Register your iclicker! Last time: The Night Sky Today: Motion and Gravity ASTR 150 Hang on tight! Most math all semester-- get it over with right

### Study Guide Solutions

Study Guide Solutions Table of Contents Chapter 1 A Physics Toolkit... 3 Vocabulary Review... 3 Section 1.1: Mathematics and Physics... 3 Section 1.2: Measurement... 3 Section 1.3: Graphing Data... 4 Chapter

### Physics 111. Tuesday, November 9, Universal Law Potential Energy Kepler s Laws. density hydrostatic equilibrium Pascal s Principle

ics Tuesday, ember 9, 2004 Ch 12: Ch 15: Gravity Universal Law Potential Energy Kepler s Laws Fluids density hydrostatic equilibrium Pascal s Principle Announcements Wednesday, 8-9 pm in NSC 118/119 Sunday,

### /////// ///////////// Module ONE /////////////// ///////// Space

// // / / / / //// / ////// / /// / / // ///// ////// ////// Module ONE Space 1 Gravity Knowledge and understanding When you have finished this chapter, you should be able to: define weight as the force

### AP Physics 1 Chapter 7 Circular Motion and Gravitation

AP Physics 1 Chapter 7 Circular Motion and Gravitation Chapter 7: Circular Motion and Angular Measure Gravitation Angular Speed and Velocity Uniform Circular Motion and Centripetal Acceleration Angular

### PSI AP Physics C Universal Gravity Multiple Choice Questions

PSI AP Physics C Universal Gravity Multiple Choice Questions 1. Who determined the value of the gravitational constant (G)? (A) Newton (B) Galileo (C) Einstein (D) Schrödinger (E) Cavendish 2. Who came

### Episode 403: Orbital motion

Episode 40: Orbital motion In this episode, students will learn how to combine concepts learned in the study of circular motion with Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation to understand the (circular) motion

### Conceptual Physics Fundamentals

Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 6: GRAVITY, PROJECTILES, AND SATELLITES This lecture will help you understand: The Universal Law of Gravity The Universal Gravitational Constant, G Gravity and Distance:

### FORCE. The 4 Fundamental Forces of Nature

FORCE - Force a push or pull. Results only from interaction with another object. Without interaction, forces cannot be present. - Measured in Newtons (N) 1 Newton is the amount of force required to give

### Classical mechanics: conservation laws and gravity

Classical mechanics: conservation laws and gravity The homework that would ordinarily have been due today is now due Thursday at midnight. There will be a normal assignment due next Tuesday You should

### First exam next Wednesday. Today in class Review: Motion, Gravity. Gravity and Orbits. Review: Motion. Newton s Laws of Motion. Gravity and Orbits

Review: s of First exam next Wednesday Today in class Review:, Gravity Gravity and Gravity and Review: s of Review: Gravity and Newton s laws of motion Review: s of 1. Momentum (qualitative) 2. Force and

### Observational Astronomy - Lecture 4 Orbits, Motions, Kepler s and Newton s Laws

Observational Astronomy - Lecture 4 Orbits, Motions, Kepler s and Newton s Laws Craig Lage New York University - Department of Physics craig.lage@nyu.edu February 24, 2014 1 / 21 Tycho Brahe s Equatorial

### Chapter 3 - Gravity and Motion. Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Chapter 3 - Gravity and Motion Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. In 1687 Isaac Newton published the Principia in which he set out his concept

### Kepler s first law (law of elliptical orbit):- A planet moves round the sun in an elliptical orbit with sun situated at one of its foci.

Gravitation:- Kepler s first law (law of elliptical orbit):- A planet moves round the sun in an elliptical orbit with sun situated at one of its foci. Kepler s second law (law of ars eal velocities):-

### Lesson 9. Luis Anchordoqui. Physics 168. Tuesday, October 24, 17

Lesson 9 Physics 168 1 Static Equilibrium 2 Conditions for Equilibrium An object with forces acting on it but that is not moving is said to be in equilibrium 3 Conditions for Equilibrium (cont d) First

### Gravitation and the Motion of the Planets

Gravitation and the Motion of the Planets 1 Guiding Questions 1. How did ancient astronomers explain the motions of the planets? 2. Why did Copernicus think that the Earth and the other planets go around

### 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity

Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity 4.1 Describing Motion: Examples from Daily Life Some of the topics we will explore: How do we describe motion? (Speed,

### Chapter 6: Circular Motion and Gravitation

Chapter 6 Lecture Chapter 6: Circular Motion and Gravitation Goals for Chapter 6 To understand the dynamics of circular motion. To study the unique application of circular motion as it applies to Newton's

### Kepler's Laws and Newton's Laws

Kepler's Laws and Newton's Laws Kepler's Laws Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) developed a quantitative description of the motions of the planets in the solar system. The description that he produced is expressed

### Lecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System

Lecture 13 Gravity in the Solar System Guiding Questions 1. How was the heliocentric model established? What are monumental steps in the history of the heliocentric model? 2. How do Kepler s three laws

### Unit 3 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Florida Benchmarks SC.8.N.1.4 Explain how hypotheses are valuable if they lead to further investigations, even if they turn out not to be supported by the data. SC.8.N.1.5 Analyze the methods used to develop

### Slide 1 / The discovery of Universal Gravitation is associated with: Robert Hook Isaac Newton James Joule Max Plank Christian Huygens

Slide 1 / 22 1 The discovery of Universal Gravitation is associated with: Robert Hook Isaac Newton James Joule Max Plank hristian Huygens Slide 2 / 22 2 Two objects with equal masses of 1 kg each are separated

### Where do objects get their energy?

Where do objects get their energy? Energy makes matter move. Energy is always 'conserved' Conservation of Energy Energy can neither be created nor destroyed The total energy content of the universe was

### N t ew on L s aws Monday, February 2

Newton s Laws Monday, February Isaac Newton (1643-177): English Discovered: three laws of motion, one law of universal gravitation. Newton s great book: Newton s laws are universal in scope, and mathematical

### Quest Chapter 12. What things did Newton bring together and what did he toss? Read the text or check your notes. How does the moon move?

1 What is the Newtonian synthesis? 1. All objects near the Earth free-fall with the same acceleration. 2. The combination of forces on each planet directed towards the Sun 3. The combination of all forces

### Kepler Galileo and Newton

Kepler Galileo and Newton Kepler: determined the motion of the planets. Understanding this motion was determined by physicists like Galileo and Newton and many others. Needed to develop Physics as a science:

### The escape speed for an object leaving the surface of any celestial body of mass M and radius d is

8-3 Escape Speed Vocabulary Escape Speed: The minimum speed an object must possess in order to escape from the gravitational pull of a body. In Chapter 6, you worked with gravitational potential energy

### Questions on Gravity and Orbits MS

Questions on Gravity and Orbits MS 1. Using the usual symbols write down an equation for (i) Newton s law of gravitation M1M F G R (ii) Coulomb s law Q1Q F K R State one difference and one similarity between

### How do we describe motion?

Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity If I have seen farther than others, it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants. Sir Isaac Newton (1642 1727)

### CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION

CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION An object moves in a straight line if the net force on it acts in the direction of motion, or is zero. If the net force acts at an angle to the direction of motion at any

### Agenda Announce: 4.1 Describing Motion. Tests. How do we describe motion?

Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity Agenda Announce: Stony Brook talk this Friday on Precision Cosmology Project Part I due in one week before class: one paragraph

### Satellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity

OpenStax-CNX module: m444 Satellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License.0 Abstract

### ORBITS WRITTEN Q.E. (June 2012) Each of the five problems is valued at 20 points. (Total for exam: 100 points)

ORBITS WRITTEN Q.E. (June 2012) Each of the five problems is valued at 20 points. (Total for exam: 100 points) PROBLEM 1 A) Summarize the content of the three Kepler s Laws. B) Derive any two of the Kepler

### F = ma. G mm r 2. S center

In the early 17 th century, Kepler discovered the following three laws of planetary motion: 1. The planets orbit around the sun in an ellipse with the sun at one focus. 2. As the planets orbit around the

### Section 2: Friction, Gravity, and Elastic Forces

Chapter 10, Section 2 Friction, Gravity, & Elastic Forces Section 2: Friction, Gravity, and Elastic Forces What factors determine the strength of the friction force between two surfaces? What factors affect

### Gravitational Potential Energy. The Gravitational Field. Grav. Potential Energy Work. Grav. Potential Energy Work

The Gravitational Field Exists at every point in space The gravitational force experienced by a test particle placed at that point divided by the mass of the test particle magnitude of the freefall acceleration

### Lecture Presentation. Chapter 6 Preview Looking Ahead. Chapter 6 Circular Motion, Orbits, and Gravity

Chapter 6 Preview Looking Ahead Lecture Presentation Chapter 6 Circular Motion, Orbits, and Gravity Text: p. 160 Slide 6-2 Chapter 6 Preview Looking Back: Centripetal Acceleration In Section 3.8, you learned

### Finding Extrasolar Planets. I

ExtraSolar Planets Finding Extrasolar Planets. I Direct Searches Direct searches are difficult because stars are so bright. How Bright are Planets? Planets shine by reflected light. The amount reflected

### Version 001 circular and gravitation holland (2383) 1

Version 00 circular and gravitation holland (383) This print-out should have 9 questions. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page find all choices before answering. AP B 993 MC

### 9/12/2010. The Four Fundamental Forces of Nature. 1. Gravity 2. Electromagnetism 3. The Strong Nuclear Force 4. The Weak Nuclear Force

The Four Fundamental Forces of Nature 1. Gravity 2. Electromagnetism 3. The Strong Nuclear Force 4. The Weak Nuclear Force The Universe is made of matter Gravity the force of attraction between matter

### KEPLER S LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION

KEPLER S LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION In the early 1600s, Johannes Kepler culminated his analysis of the extensive data taken by Tycho Brahe and published his three laws of planetary motion, which we know

### Space Notes Covers Objectives 1 & 2

Space Notes Covers Objectives 1 & 2 Space Introduction Space Introduction Video Celestial Bodies Refers to a natural object out in space 1) Stars 2) Comets 3) Moons 4) Planets 5) Asteroids Constellations

### Conceptual Physics Projectiles Motion of Planets

Conceptual Physics Projectiles Motion of Planets Lana Sheridan De Anza College July 19, 2017 Last time angular momentum gravity gravitational field black holes Overview projectile motion orbital motion

### Gravity & The Distances to Stars. Lecture 8. Homework 2 open Exam on Tuesday in class bring ID and #2 pencil

1 Gravity & The Distances to Stars Lecture 8 Homework 2 open Exam on Tuesday in class bring ID and #2 pencil 2 Preparing for the Exam 1 Exams in this class are multiple choice, but the questions can be

### Chapter: The Laws of Motion

Table of Contents Chapter: The Laws of Motion Section 1: Newton s Second Law Section 2: Gravity Section 3: The Third Law of Motion 1 Newton s Second Law Force, Mass, and Acceleration Newton s first law

### Chapter 9 Circular Motion Dynamics

Chapter 9 Circular Motion Dynamics Chapter 9 Circular Motion Dynamics... 9. Introduction Newton s Second Law and Circular Motion... 9. Universal Law of Gravitation and the Circular Orbit of the Moon...

### 2.7 Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion

2.7 Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion PRE-LECTURE READING 2.7 Astronomy Today, 8 th Edition Chaisson & McMillan) Astronomy Today, 7 th Edition Chaisson & McMillan) Astronomy Today, 6 th Edition Chaisson

### 10/21/2003 PHY Lecture 14 1

Announcements. Second exam scheduled for Oct. 8 th -- practice exams now available -- http://www.wfu.edu/~natalie/f03phy3/extrapractice/. Thursday review of Chapters 9-4 3. Today s lecture Universal law

### Circular Motion and Gravitation

Chapter 6 Circular Motion and Gravitation To understand the dynamics of circular motion. To study the application of circular motion as it applies to Newton's law of gravitation. To examine the idea of

### Basic Physics. What We Covered Last Class. Remaining Topics. Center of Gravity and Mass. Sun Earth System. PHYS 1411 Introduction to Astronomy

PHYS 1411 Introduction to Astronomy Basic Physics Chapter 5 What We Covered Last Class Recap of Newton s Laws Mass and Weight Work, Energy and Conservation of Energy Rotation, Angular velocity and acceleration

### Natural Questions. About 2000 years ago Greek scientists were confused about motion. and developed a theory of motion

Natural Questions First natural question: Next question: What these things made of? Why and how things move? About 2000 years ago Greek scientists were confused about motion. Aristotle --- First to study

### Practice Test for Midterm Exam

A.P. Physics Practice Test for Midterm Exam Kinematics 1. Which of the following statements are about uniformly accelerated motion? Select two answers. a) If an object s acceleration is constant then it

### TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION FORCE

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION FORCE WHAT IS FORCE? Force is anything that can change the state of motion of a body. In simpler terms, force is a push or a pull. For example, wind pushing on a flag is

### Physics 1100: Uniform Circular Motion & Gravity

Questions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Physics 1100: Uniform Circular Motion & Gravity 1. In the diagram below, an object travels over a hill, down a valley, and around a loop the loop at constant

### Isaac Newton & Gravity

Isaac Newton & Gravity Isaac Newton was born in England in 1642 the year that Galileo died. Newton would extend Galileo s study on the motion of bodies, correctly deduce the form of the gravitational force,

### CAPA due today. Today will finish up with the hinge problem I started on Wednesday. Will start on Gravity. Universal gravitation

CAPA due today. Today will finish up with the hinge problem I started on Wednesday. Will start on Gravity. Universal gravitation Hinge Problem from Wednesday Hinge Problem cont. F x = 0 = F Nx T cosθ F

### Exam #1 Study Guide (Note this is not all the information you need to know for the test, these are just SOME of the main points)

Exam #1 Study Guide (Note this is not all the information you need to know for the test, these are just SOME of the main points) Moon Phases Moon is always ½ illuminated by the Sun, and the sunlit side

### g = Gm / r 2 The Big Idea

The Big Idea Over 2500 years ago Aristotle proposed two laws of physics governing motion. One for Earthly bodies (objects on Earth) that states objects naturally go in straight lines and one for Heavenly

### 9.2 GRAVITATIONAL FIELD, POTENTIAL, AND ENERGY 9.4 ORBITAL MOTION HW/Study Packet

9.2 GRAVITATIONAL FIELD, POTENTIAL, AND ENERGY 9.4 ORBITAL MOTION HW/Study Packet Required: READ Hamper pp 186-191 HL Supplemental: Cutnell and Johnson, pp 144-150, 169-170 Tsokos, pp 143-152 Tsokos Questions

### Eclipses and Forces. Jan 21, ) Review 2) Eclipses 3) Kepler s Laws 4) Newton s Laws

Eclipses and Forces Jan 21, 2004 1) Review 2) Eclipses 3) Kepler s Laws 4) Newton s Laws Review Lots of motion The Moon revolves around the Earth Eclipses Solar Lunar the Sun, Earth and Moon must all be

### Newton's Laws. Before Isaac Newton

Newton's Laws Before Isaac Newton Newton's Laws There were facts and laws about the way the physical world worked, but no explanations After Newton There was a unified system that explained those facts

### The Hertzsprung Russell Diagram. The Main Sequence

The Hertzsprung Russell Diagram H R diagram plots stellar luminosity against surface temperature Luminosity ranges 10-4 10 4 L. Temperature ranges by a factor of 10 increases to the left spectral sequence

### 12-Feb-18. Newton's Laws. Newton's Laws. Prelude to Newton's Laws

Newton's Laws Newton's Laws Before Isaac Newton There were facts and laws about the way the physical world worked, but no explanations After Newton There was a unified system that explained those facts