The Stars. Chapter 14

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1 The Stars Chapter 14 Great Idea: The Sun and other stars use nuclear fusion reactions to convert mass into energy. Eventually, when a star s nuclear fuel is depleted, the star must burn out.

2 Chapter Outline The Nature of Stars The Anatomy of Stars The Variety of Stars The Life Cycles of Stars

3 iclicker Question How often do you look up at the night time sky? A Always (when possible) B Often C Sometimes D Never

4 iclicker Question Do you enjoy looking at the stars? A yes B no

5 The Nature of Stars

6 The Nature of Stars Astronomy Oldest science Star Fusion reactor in space Ball of gas All stars have a beginning and an ending

7 Measuring the Stars with Telescopes and Satellites Electromagnetic radiation Measurement of photons Wavelength Intensity Direction Variation

8 Telescopes

9 Orbiting Observatories Great Observatories Program Hubble Space Telescope Spitzer Infrared Telescope Chandra X-Ray Observatory

10 iclicker Question What source of data is used to analyze stars? A chemical testing of actual samples of stellar matter B electromagnetic radiation C spacecraft in orbit around distant stars D both B and C above E no data is used

11 iclicker Question Telescopes are devices that: A focus and concentrate radiation B magnify only visible light C all use mirrors D both B and C above

12 The Anatomy of Stars

13 Structure The Structure of the Sun Stellar core Radiative zone Convection zone Photosphere Chromosphere Corona Solar Wind Stream of particles

14 More On Solar Structure Hydrogen fusion takes place in a core extending from the Sun s center to about 0.25 solar radius The core is surrounded by a radiative zone extending to about 0.71 solar radius In this zone, energy travels outward through radiative diffusion The radiative zone is surrounded by a rather opaque convective zone of gas at relatively low temperature and pressure In this zone, energy travels outward primarily through convection

15 How do we know the Sun s interior? Helioseismology is the study of how the Sun vibrates These vibrations have been used to infer pressures, densities, chemical compositions, and rotation rates within the Sun

16 Magnetic Fields

17 Northern Lights (Aurora Borealis)

18 The Sun s Energy Source: Fusion Sun s Energy Source Historical Current hydrogen Fusion 3-steps-hydrogen burning 1) P + P D + e + + neutrino + energy 2) D + P 3 He + photon + energy 3) 3 He + 3 He 4 He + 2protons + photon + energy Life expectancy 11 billion years

19 The Variety of Stars Differences Color Brightness Distance Absolute brightness Energy output luminosity Apparent brightness Behavior Total mass age

20 Distance Light-years Measurement Triangulation (parallax) Spectroscopic parallax Cepheid variable Tully-Fisher Supernovae Type Ia Hubble s Law The Cosmic Distance Ladder

21 The Hertzsprung-Russel Diagram Star Groupings Main-sequence stars Red giants White dwarfs

22 Step 1 to an H-R Diagram Plot for the 20 nearest and brightest stars to Earth Absolute Magnitude Not an H-R Diagram Temperature

23 Step 2 to an H-R Diagram Reversing the y-axis -10 Getting Closer to an H-R Diagram Temperature (K) -5 Absolute Magnitude

24 Step 3 to an H-R Diagram Reversing the x-axis Lowest temperature to the right Now it's looking Like an H-R Diagram Temperature (K) Absolute Magnitude

25 A Standard H-R Diagram

26 iclicker Question Compared with other stars, our Sun is: A an unusually large star B not a star at all C a rather ordinary star

27 iclicker Question The outer part of the Sun, the part that actually emits most of the light we see, is called the: A chromosphere B convective zone C photosphere D core E radiative zone

28 iclicker Question The solar wind is composed of: A bits of neutral gas B all kinds of organic substances C air D charged particles including hydrogen and helium ions

29 iclicker Question Northern lights result from interactions of: A the Sun s magnetic field with Earth s gravity B UV light from the Sun with Earth s ozone layer C the solar wind with the Earth s magnetic field

30 iclicker Question The Sun s peak output of energy is in: A the ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum B the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum C the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum

31 iclicker Question What is the Sun s energy source? A combustion of hydrogen rich chemical fuels B fusion of hydrogen C fission of hydrogen D radioactive decay E gravitational collapse

32 The Life Cycles of Stars

33 The Birth of Stars Nebular Hypothesis Laplace

34 The Main Sequence and the Death of Stars Stars much less massive than the sun Brown dwarf Glows 100 billion years No change in size, temperature, energy output

35 The Main Sequence and Stars about the mass of the sun Hydrogen burning at faster rate Move off main sequence Helium burning Red giant Begin collapse White dwarf the Death of Stars

36 The Life Cycle of a Star Like the Sun Gas cloud Fragmentation Protostar Kelvin-Helmholz contraction Hayashi Track Ignition Adjustment to Main Sequence Hydrogen Core Depletion Hydrogen shell burning Helium flash Helium core burning Helium core depletion Helium shell burning Helium shell flashes Planetary nebula White Dwarf

37 Sun s Life Cycle on H-R Diagram H-R Diagram with annotations for Stellar Stages Temperature (log) Planetary Nebula Horizontal Branch Asymptotic Branch Helium Flash Kelvin-Helm holtz Contraction -5 Adjust to Main Sequence Sub Giant Core Contraction Hayashi Track 0 5 Absolute Magnitude White Dwarf

38 The Main Sequence and Very Large Stars Successive collapses and burnings Iron core Catastrophic collapse supernova the Death of Stars

39 Layers of Massive Star Layers H -> He He -> C C -> O of O -> Ne Nuclear Fusion in Ne -> Mg Mg -> Si High Mass Stars Fe Si -> Fe

40 Neutron Stars and Pulsars Neutron Star Dense and small High rotation rate Little light Pulsar Special neutron star Electromagnetic radiation End state of supernova

41 Black Holes Black Hole Result of collapse large star Nothing escapes from surface Cannot see them See impact on other stars Detect x-rays, gamma rays

42 iclicker Question It is estimated that the total lifetime of our Sun is 11 billion years. How far is it through its hydrogen-burning phase now? A 10% B 25% C 50% D 90%

43 iclicker Question Triangulation and Cepheid variable are methods to measure: A distances to stars B energy output of stars C lifetime of stars D composition of stars

44 iclicker Question A Hertzsprung-Russell diagram plots a star s temperature versus its: A energy output B distance C age

45 iclicker Question Large dust and gas clouds are commonly found throughout space. They are called: A red giants B galaxies C nebulae D supernovae E white dwarfs

46 iclicker Question The fusion process in very large stars produces chemical elements up to: A He B C C Fe D U E Pb

47 iclicker Question All natural elements beyond iron are created in: A supernova explosions B fusion of very large stars C the big bang

48 iclicker Question An object that is so dense and massive that nothing, including light can escape from its surface is called: A a supernova B a red giant C a white dwarf D a black hole E a neutron star

49 iclicker Question Are you surprised that the chemical elements about you were made in a supernova? A yes B no

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