# Outer Solar System. Jupiter. PHY outer-solar-system - J. Hedberg

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1 Outer Solar System 1. Jupiter 1. Pressure & Density & size 2. Jupiter's Magnetosphere 3. Juno Mission 4. Jovian Satellites 2. Saturn 1. The Rings! 2. Saturn's Moons 3. Titan 3. Uranus 4. Neptune 5. Dwarf Planets 1. Pluto 2. Ceres Jupiter Fig. 1 Jupiter, half illuminated Based on textures from NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute Jupiter has been observed since the 7th or 8th century BC. The first flyby was in Page 1

2 Fig. 3 Voyager's Grand Tour By Voyager_Path.jpg: created by NASAderivative work: Hazmat2 (talk) - Original from Fig. 4 Voyager 1 approaching Jupiter in IM_ID=2143This file was derived fromvoyager Path.jpg:, Public Domain, curid= Fig. 5 Pressure & Density & size Let's start with Hydrostatic equilibrium dp dr GM r ρ = (1) r 2 Page 2

3 T [K] PHY outer-solar-system - J. Hedberg where is the mass contained within a radius r. M r We can find the total mass within a radius r by integrating the density times the volume of a single shell: To a first approximation, let us take the average density which makes is a constant: ρ(r) = ρ Thus we can do the integral above and get allowing us to rewrite hydrostatic equilibrium as: We can integrate both sides of this, going from the center out to R: M r = 4π ρ(r) r 2 dr (2) M r = 0 r 4π 3 ρr3 (3) 4π dp = ρ 2 Grdr (4) 3 P c 0 4π dp = ρ 2 G rdr 3 0 R (5) and then obtain an expression for the pressure at the center P c 2π = ρ 2 GR 2 (6) 3 The center of Jupiter based on this comes out to be 11.2 times that of the earth's core, or 10 7 atm Jupiter Liquid Metallic H 5000 Liquid H 2 He rainout? 2000 Solid Metallic H P [Mbar] Fig. 6 The Phase Diagram of Hydrogen Based on Figure Ryden & Peterson Page 3

4 Fig. 7 The internal structure of Jupiter Hydrogen will become a metal at very high pressures. Jupiter's Magnetosphere Fig. 8 Artistic Impression of Jupiter's Magnetic Field lines NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Images courtesy of NASA/JPL/SwRI Fig. 9 Jupiter's magnetic field extends up to nearly 2 million miles from the planet. Its influence likely reaches beyond the orbit of Saturn. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Images courtesy of NASA/JPL/SwRI Page 4

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6 Fig. 10 Jupiter's Auroras from the Juno spacecraft. NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/Bertrand Bonfond Our understanding of the Auroras is still being developed. Juno Mission Page 6

7 Fig. 11 By National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) - Juno Mission to Jupiter (2010 Artist's Concept) at the official NASA website., Public Domain, curid= Fig. 12 The instruments onboard Juno. Credit: NASA/JPL Fig. 13 The cube in between the dish and the main hexagonal region is the Juno Radiation Vault. 1 cm thick titanium prevents some radiation from reaching the sensitive electronics inside the vault. Page 7

8 Jovian Satellites First four discovered by Galaleo in 1610 Timeline of Discovery for the Moons of Jupiter: 69 as of Galileo Fig. 14 For a long time, there were only 4... Now we have found 69. Amalthea Fig. 15 Amalthea, as photographed by the Galileo spacecraft. The left photograph is from August 12, 1999 at a range of 446,000 kilometers. The right photo is from November 26, 1999 at a range of 374,000. By NASA / JPL - Public Domain, curid= Dimensions: km Mean radius: 83.5±2.0 km Not very big... The pressure a the center of the moon will be given by: P c 2π = G 3 ρ2 R 2 (7) Whatever the moon is made out of will have a compression strength, S. If the pressure is comparable to this value, then the object will begin to become spherical: solving for R sph 2π G S 3 ρ2 R 2 (8) 3S R sph = ( ) 2πG 1/2 1 ρ (9) Page 8

9 Material Strength (S) Density (kg/m 3 ) R sph Iron Rock Iron Fig. 16 A lot of moons ref The vast majority are rather small, 2-3 km in diameter, are farther out, have more eccentric orbits. Some are prograde, some retrograde. Fig. 17 The four Galilean Moons of Jupiter: left to right: Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto NASA/JPL/DLR Europa Page 9

10 Fig. 18 Possible water plume erupting from Europa's surface. NASA/ESA/W. Sparks (STScI)/USGS Astrogeology Science Center Saturn Fig. 19 Saturn and its rings. NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute Page 10

11 Fig. 20 The internal structure of Saturn Similar to Jupiter, but smaller. The Rings! Fig. 21 The rings of Saturn illuminated by the sun. NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute They are individual orbiting bodies, ranging in size from micrometers to about 10 meters. Mostly waterice. They are very thin, < 10 meters. Page 11

12 Fig. 22 NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute About the rings Origin is still being debated. Theory A: Existing moon get smashed (either through tidal forces, or collision). Theory B: Rings formed when Saturn did. Fig. 23 J.C. Maxwell - On the stability of the motion of Saturn's rings. Cassini-Huygens Page 12

13 Fig. 24 This graphic depicts Cassini's interplanetary flight path beginning with launch from Earth on 15 October 1997, followed by gravity assist flybys of Venus (26 April 1998 and 21 June 1999), Earth (18 August 1999), and Jupiter (30 December 2000). Saturn arrival was on 1 July NASA / Jet Propulsion Laboratory - Caltech Fig. 25 Speed (heliocentric) of Cassini as a function of time. Saturn's Moons Fig. 26 This is an artist's concept of Saturn's rings and major icy moons. NASA/JPL Page 13

14 Fig. 27 Never-before-seen looming vertical structures created by the tiny moon Daphnis cast long shadows across the rings in this startling image taken as Saturn approaches its mid-august 2009 equinox. NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute Daphnis and Pan are shepherd moons. They clear out a section of the rings. Titan Fig. 28 Natural color view of Titan from the Cassini spacecraft. NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute Page 14

15 In 2005, the Huygens probe landed on the surface of Titan. It is still the farthest landing away from earth. Fig. 29 The color x2 super-resolution image of the Titan's surface as seen by the Huygens probe. ESA/NASA/JPL/University of Arizona; processed by Andrey Pivovarov Uranus Page 15

16 Fig. 30 Arriving at Uranus in 1986, Voyager 2 observed a bluish orb with extremely subtle features. A haze layer hid most of the planet's cloud features from view. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech Neptune Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Carroll and Ostlie, figure 21.6 Dwarf Planets Page 16

17 Fig. 33 Pluto and its largest moon Charon. Credits: NASA Pluto Pluto's Moons: Charon, Styx, Nix, Kerberos, Hydra Ceres Ceres lies between Mars and Jupiter in the asteroid belt. Dawn spacecraft is in orbit. (ion drive) Fig. 34 The dwarf Planet ceres. NASA/JPL- Caltech/UCLA/MPS/DLR/IDA Page 17

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