DARK MATTER. Martti Raidal NICPB & University of Helsinki Tvärminne summer school 1

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1 DARK MATTER Martti Raidal NICPB & University of Helsinki Tvärminne summer school 1

2 Energy budget of the Universe 73,4% - Dark Energy WMAP fits to the ΛCDM model Distant supernova 23% - Dark Matter 4,6% - Baryonic Matter WMAP Nuchleosynthesis WMAP CMB fluctuations at level Tvärminne summer school 2

3 What do we know about DM? DM does exist! SM does not have a Cold DM candidate Evidence is all gravitational Rotation curves of galaxies and clusters Bullet clusters Gravitational lensing Formation of structure Baryon acoustic oscillations All the evidences consistent with CDM Tvärminne summer school 3

4 What is Dark Matter? No evidence whatsoever Too many candidates Massive neutrinos Axions WIMPs (neutralinos, gravitinos etc) WIMPZillas Proposed masses vary some orders of magnitude Theory? Tvärminne summer school 4

5 How is dark matter generated? DM is symmetric thermal relic DM + DM -> SM + SM The annihilations occur also today DM is due to asymmetry X-> SM + DM DM abundance related to baryon asymmetry of the Universe Ω DM =5 Ω b, m p =1 GeV M DM =5 GeV Tvärminne summer school 5

6 Decoupling of a thermal relic Tvärminne summer school 6

7 How to detect DM? Direct detection Search for DM recoils on nuclei in very sensitive underground experiments XENON, CDMS, DAMA, COGENT etc Indirect detection Search for cosmological signals of DM annihilations today PAMELA, FERMI, ATIC, HESS Search for DM particles at LHC Tvärminne summer school 7

8 Rotation curves of galaxies Historically Zwicky postulated missing mass in % of galactic mass is invisible was proven in early 80-s Cannot be baryonic MOND in trouble Tvärminne summer school 8

9 Gravitational lensing in galaxy clusters Most of mass is missing in galaxy clusters DM is observed using gravitational lensing Tvärminne summer school 9

10 Bullet cluster Collisions of galaxy clusters Observable matter collides and stops (red) DM passes through (blue) Mass and light distributions differ Tvärminne summer school 10

11 DM candidates massive neutrinos Neutrinos do exist and are massive! Σ m=90ev neutrinos can overclose the Universe, Ω=1 The SM neutrinos hot (ultrarelativistic) DM Sterile neutrinos warm (relativistic) DM Neutrinos cannot be Cold DM Tvärminne summer school 11

12 Axions almost massless CDM Axions are pseudo-goldstone bosons Related to extended Higgs sector Solve strong CP-problem Original axion is ruled out Invisible axion is (almost) invisible Very weak interaction can be CDM even with a mass of ev Can always made to escape detection Tvärminne summer school 12

13 WIMP miracle an accident? DM must be neutral but can have weak interaction For a typical 100GeV weak scale WIMP with a typical weak interaction cross section the prediction for thermal freeze-out abundance gives an observed DM abundance Tvärminne summer school 13

14 WIMP models - supersymmetry SUSY is the most popular model beyond the SM and most DM studies concentrate on SUSY DM SUSY models have many WIMP candidates (stable due to R-parity) Neutralino Sneutrino Gravitino Axino Tvärminne summer school 14

15 WIMP models Higgs portal DM may be related to the existence of Higgs boson Inert scalar DM motivated by Higgs m 2 H 2 S 2 H 2 Stability imposed by hand (appear pairwise) Tvärminne summer school 15

16 WIMP models Little Higgs Little Higgs models are motivated to solve little hierarchy problem why there is no SUSY at 100GeV scale Introduce many new particles above 1 TeV scale (model dependent) Their stability imposed by hand (Tparity) Tvärminne summer school 16

17 WIMP models extra dimensions Extra dimensions are motivated to solve the hierarchy problem an alternative to SUSY Every particle in the bulk has infinite number of Kaluza-Klein copies in our 4-dimensional world Stability (parity) imposed by hand Tvärminne summer school 17

18 A general comment on the existence of DM in those models In none of the models DM is stable because of the initial motivation of the model Those models provide you new particles which are made stable by hand The explain the existence of DM one must go beyond those models The Z 2 symmetries may be discrete gauge symmetries Tvärminne summer school 18

19 Direct detection experiments Search for WIMP recoils on nuclei Must be reduce background (deep underground) Different materials are used XENON, CDMS, DAMA, COGENT Tvärminne summer school 19

20 Experimental status positive hints excluded by other experiments Tvärminne summer school 20

21 Indirect detection search for cosmic ray antimatter Indirect search look for DM annihilation product today Look at dense DM objects like Galactic center Detect anti-particles in cosmic rays because of smaller background PAMELA (e -, e +, p), FERMI (e - +e +, photons), AMS (also heavier antinuclei) Tvärminne summer school 21

22 A lot of excitement in last 2 years PAMELA saw e + excess Tvärminne summer school 22

23 FERMI has not seen photons associated with PAMELA excess Photon flux must be associated with the e + flux FERMI has searched for those photons PAMELA favoured DM parameters are ruled out PAMELA sees pulsars? Tvärminne summer school 23

24 Conclusions We do not know what is DM, why it is stable, how is it produced and how to search for it We need an experimental hint to proceed in a right way Keep searching! Tvärminne summer school 24

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