Origin, early history, and fate of the Universe Does the Universe have a beginning? An end? What physics processes caused the Universe to be what it

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Origin, early history, and fate of the Universe Does the Universe have a beginning? An end? What physics processes caused the Universe to be what it"

Transcription

1 Cosmology Origin, early history, and fate of the Universe Does the Universe have a beginning? An end? What physics processes caused the Universe to be what it is? Are other universes possible? Would they look like ours (have the same physics)? Olber s Paradox: sky dark at night Universe is finite in time and/or space now know finite in time Cosmological Principle - the Universe appears the same from any location - Isotropic - no center, no edge but is it finite or infinite in space? (don t know) what is the curvature of space (don t know) 1

2 Isotropic Universe the Universe appears the same from any location on any large scale - no center, no edge size is unknown infinite vs finite - same number of galaxies, same types, in any large box A civilization on a planet 12 BLY away we see exactly what we do expanding Universe and same Hubble law Fluctuations in galaxy distributions due to small differences in matter/energy concentrations at very early times partially explained by inflation at extremely early times. We ll skip in this course 2

3 Beginning of Universe Called the Big Bang but not normal explosion moving outward into existing 3D space explosion occurred everywhere at same time and expanding universe creates its own space as it expands outward Einstein predicted in 1915 General Theory of relativity (though he initially thought it was a mistake) 3

4 Course Content: History of Universe Local planets exoplanets Sun stars Milky Way galaxy other galaxies Known physics help explain the Universe 4

5 Dark energy acceleration Expanding Universe Dark matter slowing 5

6 Expanding Universe Finite in Space? We can observe galaxies which are 12 billion light years away. As velocity of light is finite that means we are looking back in time to 12 billion years ago. As Universe is expanding, the galaxies we observe are moving away from us and so now that are further away, and doing all of the relativistic arithmetic correctly gives the radius of the observable universe to be about 45 billion light years. But it is bigger as parts are so far away the light can t reach us. Do not know if it is finite or infinite. 6

7 Shape of the Universe Whether the Universe is finite or infinite in space, it will still have a shape which is determined by the mass-energy density. Studies of the Hubble constant varying with time may be able to determine this. Philosophically nice to think of the Universe is being the surface of a larger dimensional space but may or may not be the case. Current measurements are close to flat. 7

8 Expanding Universe if finite in size Time 1 Red = void = nothingness (hard to picture). Space just gets bigger with time Time 2 Time 3 8

9 Expanding Universe No edge, no center to Universe Consider balloon. 2D surface in 3D space. All points moving away from each other with v = Ad. All points are the same: no edge or center (for D. Adams fans, there is not a restaurant at the end of the Universe though 42 might be the correct answer to the number of dimensions) Universe is 3D surface which can be thought of as on a 4D manifold (not really, the curvature doesn t require an extra dimension) with v=hd 9

10 Expanding Universe As Universe expands it cools Physical processes at any time depend on: -Temperature -Nature of forces and particles Current Temperature is 3 degrees K 10

11 Temperature vs Time 11

12 Cosmic Microwave Background Temperature > 3000 degrees Universe opaque atoms ionized - free H, He nuclei plus free electrons T<3000 atoms form transparent Universe ,000 to 1,000,000 years after Big Bang Burst of light everywhere - now observed as 3 degree microwave background -- (1964: Bell Labs) 12

13 Recombination Occurs at ~400,000 years 13

14 Microwave Background When emitted at time = 400,000 years Temp = 3000 degrees wavelength = 1 micron (visible) Same photons observed now. Universe has expanded/stretched by about 1000 (all directions) Temp = 3 degrees wavelength = 1 mm (microwave) 14

15 Cosmic Microwave Background COBE satellite 15

16 Blue=colder Red=hotter Cosmic Microwave Background photons permeate Universe Very small fluctuations in temperature granularity in early Universe (fossil record) galaxy formation from primordial clumps of matter/energy Can tell shape of Universe; measure dark matter vs dark energy South Pole Telescope is looking at details of this cosmic radiation 16

17 Studies of Cosmic Background Radiation also can (maybe) measure the shape of the Universe Don t ask me to explain how temperature fluctuations give different shapes as I don t know! 17

18 Creation of Matter early Universe hot enough to make particle-antiparticle pairs out of very high energy photons. Examples photon photon photon electron positron quark antiquark proton antiproton Protons and neutrons made from quarks 18

19 after seconds, too cool to make protons and antiprotons neutrons and antineutrons 19

20 Matter Antimatter Asymmetry early universe: very hot, makes matter-antimatter For some reason matter becomes more abundant in the early stages of Universe 1,000,000,001 protons (matter) 1,000,000,000 antiprotons (antimatter) Antimatter completely annihilated Hence we're left only with matter today: (0.25 protons, ~10 9 photons, ~10 8 neutrinos+antineutrinos)/m 3 One of major challenges of particle physics explain the dominance of matter in our Universe. Very high priority at Fermilab t 0 antimatter t t 1 antimatter t today antimatter matter matter matter 20

21 Symmetries vs Asymmetries Ancient scientists (e.g. Archimedes): Universe is made from perfectly symmetric objects like circles and spheres wrong models of the orbits of the planets Now know: perfect symmetry gives a lifeless Universe it is the asymmetries that give it complexity - Differences in DNA (you vs me, humans vs clams) - Difference in particle properties: neutron mass is larger then proton mass n decays while p is stable we exist - matter is slightly different than antimatter we exist 21

22 Observations 50 Years ago 1 Universe is mostly matter, need matter-antimatter differences in very early Universe. Andrei Sakharov 2 matter-antimatter differences observed in strange quarks Jim Cronin and Val Fitch 3 matter-antimatter differences observed in electron and muon charge asymmetries in strange quark decays. Mel Schwartz Sakharov, 1975 Nobel Peace Prize Cronin and Fitch, 1980 Nobel Prize for Physics Schwartz, 1988 Nobel Prize for Physics (for discovering the muon type neutrino) 22

23 Matterantimatter difference experiment at Fermilab Proposed in

24 Experimental Observation vs Matter in Universe All observations of matter-antimatter differences BEFORE 2017 are much, much lower than the amount needed in the first instance of creation to explain the amount of matter in the Universe Need something new. High priority for past 40 years. Still no definitive answer. One of primary reason for future muon (heavy electron, common in cosmic rays) and neutrino program at Fermilab. 24

25 Creation of Light Nuclei During first few minutes have about the same number of protons and neutrons and can have the following reactions p + n pn (deuterium) + gamma pn + n pnn (tritium) + gamma pn + p ppn (Helium-3) + gamma pn + pn Helium-4 + gamma pnn + pn He-4 + n 25

26 Creation of Light Nuclei Protons and neutrons combine to make Helium: first 10 minutes Relative number of protons and neutrons depends on: - neutron being a little heavier than the proton - neutron decays with 15 minute lifetime - how quickly Helium is made We end up with #n/#p = 14% or 2 neutrons for every 14 protons Almost all the neutrons are in He giving about 75% H and 25% He after first 3 minutes (and still mostly today) fraction of H, He, H2, He3, Li are fossil record from this time. Tell temperature of Universe at t=1 minute 26

27 - neutron decays with 15 minute lifetime - What if lifetime was 15 hours? Neutron Lifetime About same number of protons and neutrons and all go into making Helium Universe is mostly composed of He and Hydrogen relatively rare Stars are very different Life as we know it does not exist 27

28 Evidence for Big Bang galaxies all moving away from us (Hubble Law) cosmic microwave background at 3 degrees K relative amount of Hydrogen to Helium (plus other light elements) seen throughout the Universe moment of Creation about billion years ago But somehow 40% of Americans don t believe in this as it is against their religious views. Which seems to deny the wonder of the Universe that was created!! (I don t get it ) 28

29 Test 3 Overview Formation of planets. temperature of solar nebula, and how it varies with distance type of planet formed. Heavy elements freeze out first. Extrasolar planets detected in a number of ways (motion of stars, planet eclipsing star, directly). Planetary atmospheres: high temp and/or low surface gravity prevent the planet from holding on to light gases like hydrogen. Life in the Universe. Need star to be long-lived and not in binary system. Need planet to be the right distance from its star. Communicate with ET by radio with Drake equation giving estimate of number of possible civilizations in Milky Way. 29

30 Galaxies. Ellipticals:little rotation, little gas/dust or active star formation Spiral: rotation/gas/dust and active star formation, and irregulars active star formation but indistinct shape. Galaxies are moving away from us with v=hd v=velocity, d=distance, and H=Hubble constant. Milky Way has inner nucleus, spiral arms (active star formation, halo of old stars (early shape) Cosmology. Hubble law Universe is expanding, gives universe s age, depends on Hubble constant changes with time. Closed universe has gravity slowing the expansion so it starts to contract. Open universe expands forever. Early universe was very hot and when matter was created. First electrons, protons and neutrons, then protons and neutrons give hydrogen and helium nuclei minutes after the Big Bang. 400,000 years later atoms form, Universe became transparent, and light appeared, seen as the cosmic microwave blackbody radiation temperature of 3 degrees K. 30

31 Measuring Distances summary Type Ia supernovas are best for distant objects as always about the same absolute luminosity. Note once Hubble Law v=hd is determined, can then use this to measure distance to any galaxy by measuring v through the Doppler shift 31

32 Dark Matter Dark Energy Unsolved Mysteries: Include Domination of Matter earlier lecture earlier lecture this lecture Why the strength of the forces and the masses of particles seem to be just right multiple universes - Multiverse?? Weakness of Gravity Extra Dimensions?? Look at Multiverse and Extra Dimensions though won t be on exams 32

33 Forces and Particles Multiverse? the 4 forces and the particles (electrons, protons, etc) are just right for the formation of intelligent life EXAMPLES if gravity were stronger then stars lifetimes would be shorter if the neutron mass were lighter then the proton mass then normal Hydrogen would be unstable and rare let s look at this in greater detail PHYS

34 How Many Universes are There? Answer: 1 or infinite What if?? many different universes exist each forms its own space each has own starting conditions and possibly different physics Our Universe: proton stable, Hydrogen Life Other Universe: proton decays, Hydrogen rare No life 34

35 Snowflakes (universe analogy) each snowflake is unique do to the slight variations in the conditions when they formed PHYS

36 Anthropic Principle and Multiverse intelligent life in our universe depends on having the physics just right. Why? anthropic principle holds that with an infinite number of universes, there is a nonzero probability that one is just right That s ours where the masses of the neutron, proton and electron, and the strengths of the forces are just right PHYS

37 Goldilocks and the Three Bears This universe has the matter-antimatter variation too small This universe has the electron mass too small This universe has the weak nuclear force too weak This universe has the proton mass too large This universe has the strong nuclear force too strong Our Universe is just right PHYS

38 What if Multiverse many (infinite??) universes in a multiverse not really next to each other. nothingness separates no communication between universes artist conceptions mostly meaningless PHYS

39 Extra Slides 39

40 Exploring Very Early Times Fossil evidence available to astronomy are remnants from the first few minutes and later after the Big Bang For earlier times use physics Particle accelerators can briefly reproduce the Temperature of early times. The highest energy machine is equivalent to about 1 picosecond ( ) after the universe began Understood earlier by extrapolation. Going back to the moment of Creation needs a complete knowledge of gravity and a more complete understanding of time itself PHYS

41 Neutrons and Protons Neutron s mass is slightly more than proton s mass neutrons decay, lifetime of 15 minutes If flip n and p mass then protons decay m m p n 938.3MeV MeV / c / c 2 2 n p e e m e 0.5MeV / c 2 PHYS

42 Hydrogen Life Hydrogen bonding allows complicated molecules to form and readily change forms amino acids, proteins, RNA, DNA etc pure Carbon is biologically inert; need hydrocarbons, water, ammonia for biology CH 2 CH 4 H 2 O NH 3 PHYS

Beginning of Universe

Beginning of Universe Cosmology Origin, early history, and fate of the Universe Does the Universe have a beginning? An end? What physics processes caused the Universe to be what it is? Are other universes possible? Would they

More information

The Expanding Universe

The Expanding Universe Cosmology Expanding Universe History of the Universe Cosmic Background Radiation The Cosmological Principle Cosmology and General Relativity Dark Matter and Dark Energy Primitive Cosmology If the universe

More information

Homework 6 Name: Due Date: June 9, 2008

Homework 6 Name: Due Date: June 9, 2008 Homework 6 Name: Due Date: June 9, 2008 1. Where in the universe does the general expansion occur? A) everywhere in the universe, including our local space upon Earth, the solar system, our galaxy and

More information

26. Cosmology. Significance of a dark night sky. The Universe Is Expanding

26. Cosmology. Significance of a dark night sky. The Universe Is Expanding 26. Cosmology Significance of a dark night sky The Universe is expanding The Big Bang initiated the expanding Universe Microwave radiation evidence of the Big Bang The Universe was initially hot & opaque

More information

2. The evolution and structure of the universe is governed by General Relativity (GR).

2. The evolution and structure of the universe is governed by General Relativity (GR). 7/11 Chapter 12 Cosmology Cosmology is the study of the origin, evolution, and structure of the universe. We start with two assumptions: 1. Cosmological Principle: On a large enough scale (large compared

More information

Implications of the Hubble Law: - it is not static, unchanging - Universe had a beginning!! - could not have been expanding forever HUBBLE LAW:

Implications of the Hubble Law: - it is not static, unchanging - Universe had a beginning!! - could not have been expanding forever HUBBLE LAW: Cosmology and the Evolution of the Universe Edwin Hubble, 1929: -almost all galaxies have a redshift -moving away from us -greater distance greater redshift Implications of the Hubble Law: - Universe is

More information

Cosmology. Big Bang and Inflation

Cosmology. Big Bang and Inflation Cosmology Big Bang and Inflation What is the Universe? Everything we can know about is part of the universe. Everything we do know about is part of the universe. Everything! The Universe is expanding If

More information

What is the evidence that Big Bang really occurred

What is the evidence that Big Bang really occurred What is the evidence that Big Bang really occurred Hubble expansion of galaxies Microwave Background Abundance of light elements but perhaps most fundamentally... Darkness of the night sky!! The very darkness

More information

Hubble's Law. H o = 71 km/s / Mpc. The further a galaxy is away, the faster it s moving away from us. V = H 0 D. Modern Data.

Hubble's Law. H o = 71 km/s / Mpc. The further a galaxy is away, the faster it s moving away from us. V = H 0 D. Modern Data. Cosmology Cosmology is the study of the origin and evolution of the Universe, addressing the grandest issues: How "big" is the Universe? Does it have an "edge"? What is its large-scale structure? How did

More information

Cosmology: The History of the Universe

Cosmology: The History of the Universe Cosmology: The History of the Universe The Universe originated in an explosion called the Big Bang. Everything started out 13.7 billion years ago with zero size and infinite temperature. Since then, it

More information

3. It is expanding: the galaxies are moving apart, accelerating slightly The mystery of Dark Energy

3. It is expanding: the galaxies are moving apart, accelerating slightly The mystery of Dark Energy II. Cosmology: How the universe developed Outstanding features of the universe today: 1. It is big, and full of galaxies. 2. It has structure: the galaxies are clumped in filaments and sheets The structure

More information

Galaxy A has a redshift of 0.3. Galaxy B has a redshift of 0.6. From this information and the existence of the Hubble Law you can conclude that

Galaxy A has a redshift of 0.3. Galaxy B has a redshift of 0.6. From this information and the existence of the Hubble Law you can conclude that Galaxy A has a redshift of 0.3. Galaxy B has a redshift of 0.6. From this information and the existence of the Hubble Law you can conclude that A) Galaxy B is two times further away than Galaxy A. B) Galaxy

More information

The Big Bang The Beginning of Time

The Big Bang The Beginning of Time The Big Bang The Beginning of Time What were conditions like in the early universe? The early universe must have been extremely hot and dense Photons converted into particle-antiparticle pairs and vice-versa

More information

Astronomy 1504 Section 10 Final Exam Version 1 May 6, 1999

Astronomy 1504 Section 10 Final Exam Version 1 May 6, 1999 Astronomy 1504 Section 10 Final Exam Version 1 May 6, 1999 Reminder: When I write these questions, I believe that there is one one correct answer. The questions consist of all parts a e. Read the entire

More information

The Night Sky. The Universe. The Celestial Sphere. Stars. Chapter 14

The Night Sky. The Universe. The Celestial Sphere. Stars. Chapter 14 The Night Sky The Universe Chapter 14 Homework: All the multiple choice questions in Applying the Concepts and Group A questions in Parallel Exercises. Celestial observation dates to ancient civilizations

More information

Chapter 26: Cosmology

Chapter 26: Cosmology Chapter 26: Cosmology Cosmology means the study of the structure and evolution of the entire universe as a whole. First of all, we need to know whether the universe has changed with time, or if it has

More information

If there is an edge to the universe, we should be able to see our way out of the woods. Olber s Paradox. This is called Olber s Paradox

If there is an edge to the universe, we should be able to see our way out of the woods. Olber s Paradox. This is called Olber s Paradox Suppose the Universe were not expanding, but was in some kind of steady state. How should galaxy recession velocities correlate with distance? They should a) be directly proportional to distance. b) reverse

More information

It is possible for a couple of elliptical galaxies to collide and become a spiral and for two spiral galaxies to collide and form an elliptical.

It is possible for a couple of elliptical galaxies to collide and become a spiral and for two spiral galaxies to collide and form an elliptical. 7/16 Ellipticals: 1. Very little gas and dust an no star formation. 2. Composed of old stars. 3. Masses range from hundreds of thousands to 10's of trillions of solar masses. 4. Sizes range from 3000 ly

More information

Astronomy 114. Lecture35:TheBigBang. Martin D. Weinberg. UMass/Astronomy Department

Astronomy 114. Lecture35:TheBigBang. Martin D. Weinberg. UMass/Astronomy Department Astronomy 114 Lecture35:TheBigBang Martin D. Weinberg weinberg@astro.umass.edu UMass/Astronomy Department A114: Lecture 35 09 May 2005 Read: Ch. 28,29 Astronomy 114 1/18 Announcements PS#8 due Monday!

More information

Olbers Paradox. Lecture 14: Cosmology. Resolutions of Olbers paradox. Cosmic redshift

Olbers Paradox. Lecture 14: Cosmology. Resolutions of Olbers paradox. Cosmic redshift Lecture 14: Cosmology Olbers paradox Redshift and the expansion of the Universe The Cosmological Principle Ω and the curvature of space The Big Bang model Primordial nucleosynthesis The Cosmic Microwave

More information

Astronomy Hour Exam 2 March 10, 2011 QUESTION 1: The half-life of Ra 226 (radium) is 1600 years. If you started with a sample of 100 Ra 226

Astronomy Hour Exam 2 March 10, 2011 QUESTION 1: The half-life of Ra 226 (radium) is 1600 years. If you started with a sample of 100 Ra 226 Astronomy 101.003 Hour Exam 2 March 10, 2011 QUESTION 1: The half-life of Ra 226 (radium) is 1600 years. If you started with a sample of 100 Ra 226 atoms, approximately how many Ra 226 atoms would be left

More information

ASTR Final Examination Phil Armitage, Bruce Ferguson

ASTR Final Examination Phil Armitage, Bruce Ferguson ASTR 1120-001 Final Examination Phil Armitage, Bruce Ferguson FINAL EXAM MAY 6 th 2006: Closed books and notes, 1.5 hours. Please PRINT your name and student ID on the places provided on the scan sheet.

More information

Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time. Agenda. Presentation Tips. What were conditions like in the early universe? 23.1 The Big Bang.

Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time. Agenda. Presentation Tips. What were conditions like in the early universe? 23.1 The Big Bang. Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time Agenda Announce: Observation April 19 Thursday 8pm APS Meeting April 17 no class (instead Fate of the Universe tutorial Presentation Tips Ch. 23 Presentation Tips Limit

More information

What is the 'cosmological principle'?

What is the 'cosmological principle'? What is the 'cosmological principle'? Modern cosmology always starts from this basic assumption the Universe is homogeneous and isotropic. This idea seems strange there's empty space between me and the

More information

The expansion of the Universe, and the big bang

The expansion of the Universe, and the big bang The expansion of the Universe, and the big bang Q: What is Hubble s law? A. The larger the galaxy, the faster it is moving way from us. B. The farther away the galaxy, the faster it is moving away from

More information

Lecture 25: Cosmology: The end of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy. Astronomy 111 Wednesday November 29, 2017

Lecture 25: Cosmology: The end of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy. Astronomy 111 Wednesday November 29, 2017 Lecture 25: Cosmology: The end of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy Astronomy 111 Wednesday November 29, 2017 Reminders Online homework #11 due Monday at 3pm One more lecture after today Monday

More information

The Big Bang Theory PRESS Chung Wai Man Camus, Wong Lai Yin Rita, Kum Kit Ying Cathy, Yeung Shuet Wah Sarah, Yu Wai Sze Alice

The Big Bang Theory PRESS Chung Wai Man Camus, Wong Lai Yin Rita, Kum Kit Ying Cathy, Yeung Shuet Wah Sarah, Yu Wai Sze Alice The Big Bang Theory PRESS-2002 Chung Wai Man Camus, Wong Lai Yin Rita, Kum Kit Ying Cathy, Yeung Shuet Wah Sarah, Yu Wai Sze Alice Supervised by: Dr KY Szeto, HKUST Abstract: We did a survey at our current

More information

One of elements driving cosmological evolution is the presence of radiation (photons) Early universe

One of elements driving cosmological evolution is the presence of radiation (photons) Early universe The Frontier Matter and Antimatter One of elements driving cosmological evolution is the presence of radiation (photons) Early universe Matter and antimatter But we live in universe full of matter -- where

More information

BIG BANG SUMMARY NOTES

BIG BANG SUMMARY NOTES BIG BANG SUMMARY NOTES BIG BANG THEORY Studies of red-shifts of distant galaxies show that the universe is expanding. This and other observations has led to the Big Bang Theory The Big Bang Theory claims

More information

Lecture 32: Astronomy 101

Lecture 32: Astronomy 101 Lecture 32: Evidence for the Big Bang Astronomy 101 The Three Pillars of the Big Bang Threefundamental pieces of evidence: Expansion of the Universe: Explains Hubble s Law Primordial Nucleosynthesis: Formation

More information

The Big Bang. Olber s Paradox. Hubble s Law. Why is the night sky dark? The Universe is expanding and We cannot see an infinite Universe

The Big Bang. Olber s Paradox. Hubble s Law. Why is the night sky dark? The Universe is expanding and We cannot see an infinite Universe The Big Bang Olber s Paradox Why is the night sky dark? The Universe is expanding and We cannot see an infinite Universe Hubble s Law v = H0 d v = recession velocity in km/sec d = distance in Mpc H 0 =

More information

1PRELUDE: THE MYSTERY OF

1PRELUDE: THE MYSTERY OF 1PRELUDE: THE MYSTERY OF THE MISSING ANTIMATTER In the beginning what was the beginning? Every culture asks this question. Traditionally each finds some answer, a creation myth, a cosmology. These stories

More information

Figure 19.19: HST photo called Hubble Deep Field.

Figure 19.19: HST photo called Hubble Deep Field. 19.3 Galaxies and the Universe Early civilizations thought that Earth was the center of the universe. In the sixteenth century, we became aware that Earth is a small planet orbiting a medium-sized star.

More information

o Terms to know o Big Bang Theory o Doppler Effect o Redshift o Universe

o Terms to know o Big Bang Theory o Doppler Effect o Redshift o Universe Standard 1: Students will understand the scientific evidence that supports theories that explain how the universe and the solar system developed. They will compare Earth to other objects in the solar system.

More information

Astro 101 Fall 2013 Lecture 12. Cosmology. T. Howard

Astro 101 Fall 2013 Lecture 12. Cosmology. T. Howard Astro 101 Fall 2013 Lecture 12 Cosmology T. Howard Cosmology = study of the Universe as a whole? What is it like overall?? What is its history? How old is it?? What is its future?? How do we find these

More information

Inflationary Universe and. Quick survey about iclickers Review of Big Bang model of universe Review of Evidence for Big Bang Examining Inflation

Inflationary Universe and. Quick survey about iclickers Review of Big Bang model of universe Review of Evidence for Big Bang Examining Inflation Inflationary Universe and Quick survey about iclickers Review of Big Bang model of universe Review of Evidence for Big Bang Examining Inflation Survey questions 1. The iclickers used in class encouraged

More information

The best evidence so far in support of the Big Bang theory is:

The best evidence so far in support of the Big Bang theory is: Notes about the final exam: Saturday May 17th, 7:45 AM-9:45 AM Chamberlain 2103 If you have a CONFLICT email me or Ella before the end of this week. No excuses accepted after exam. Comprehensive, covering

More information

Hubble s Law. Our goals for learning. What is Hubble s Law? How do distance measurements tell us the age of the universe?

Hubble s Law. Our goals for learning. What is Hubble s Law? How do distance measurements tell us the age of the universe? Hubble s Law Our goals for learning What is Hubble s Law? How do distance measurements tell us the age of the universe? How does the universe s expansion affect our distance measurements? We measure speeds

More information

Lecture 17: the CMB and BBN

Lecture 17: the CMB and BBN Lecture 17: the CMB and BBN As with all course material (including homework, exams), these lecture notes are not be reproduced, redistributed, or sold in any form. Peering out/back into the Universe As

More information

Lecture 37 Cosmology [not on exam] January 16b, 2014

Lecture 37 Cosmology [not on exam] January 16b, 2014 1 Lecture 37 Cosmology [not on exam] January 16b, 2014 2 Structure of the Universe Does clustering of galaxies go on forever? Looked at very narrow regions of space to far distances. On large scales the

More information

Chapter 22 Back to the Beginning of Time

Chapter 22 Back to the Beginning of Time Chapter 22 Back to the Beginning of Time Expansion of Universe implies dense, hot start: Big Bang Back to the Big Bang The early Universe was both dense and hot. Equivalent mass density of radiation (E=mc

More information

ASTRONOMY 5 Final Exam Spring 2001 (Edited for questions relevant to Astronomy Final)

ASTRONOMY 5 Final Exam Spring 2001 (Edited for questions relevant to Astronomy Final) ASTRONOMY 5 Final Exam Spring 2001 (Edited for questions relevant to Astronomy 5 2007 Final) Follow the directions in each section. Write all answers on this examination paper. Feel free to ask for clarification

More information

The Big Bang. Mr. Mike Partridge Earth & Space Science J.H. Reagan High School, Houston, TX

The Big Bang. Mr. Mike Partridge Earth & Space Science J.H. Reagan High School, Houston, TX The Big Bang Mr. Mike Partridge Earth & Space Science J.H. Reagan High School, Houston, TX Notes Outlines Theories of the Universe Static Universe What is the Big Bang Theory What is the evidence supporting

More information

The Science Missions of Columbia

The Science Missions of Columbia The Science Missions of Columbia Tools for Viewing The Universe Tools for Viewing The Universe & Columbia Shuttle Added Corrective Optics to the Hubble Space Telescope Hubble Discovers a New View of The

More information

Spectrographs: instrument to separate white light into the bands of color.

Spectrographs: instrument to separate white light into the bands of color. (BIG BANG PACKET 2) Name: Period: wavelength and lowest frequencies Broadcast waves and microwaves Infrared Rays Wavelength shorter than radio waves The invisible you feel Visible Light You can see The

More information

Astro-2: History of the Universe

Astro-2: History of the Universe Astro-2: History of the Universe Lecture 13; May 30 2013 Previously on astro-2 Energy and mass are equivalent through Einstein s equation and can be converted into each other (pair production and annihilations)

More information

Galaxies and the Universe

Galaxies and the Universe Standard 7.3.1: Recognize and describe that the Sun is a medium-sized star located near the edge of a diskshaped galaxy of stars and that the universe contains many billions of galaxies and each galaxy

More information

UNIT 3 The Study of the. Universe. Chapter 7: The Night Sky. Chapter 8: Exploring Our Stellar Neighbourhood. Chapter 9:The Mysterious.

UNIT 3 The Study of the. Universe. Chapter 7: The Night Sky. Chapter 8: Exploring Our Stellar Neighbourhood. Chapter 9:The Mysterious. UNIT 3 The Study of the Universe Chapter 7: The Night Sky Chapter 8: Exploring Our Stellar Neighbourhood Chapter 9:The Mysterious Universe CHAPTER 9 The Mysterious Universe In this chapter, you will: identify

More information

Chapter 25: Beyond our Solar System The Universe pp

Chapter 25: Beyond our Solar System The Universe pp Chapter 25: Beyond our Solar System 25.3 The Universe pp 715-721 The Milky Way Galaxy On a clear and moonless night, away from city lights, you might see a a band of light in the sky. This band is The

More information

Cosmology, Galaxies, and Stars OUR VISIBLE UNIVERSE

Cosmology, Galaxies, and Stars OUR VISIBLE UNIVERSE Cosmology, Galaxies, and Stars OUR VISIBLE UNIVERSE Cosmology Cosmology is the study of the universe; its nature, origin and evolution. General Relativity is the mathematical basis of cosmology from which

More information

Astronomy 182: Origin and Evolution of the Universe

Astronomy 182: Origin and Evolution of the Universe Astronomy 182: Origin and Evolution of the Universe Prof. Josh Frieman Lecture 11 Nov. 13, 2015 Today Cosmic Microwave Background Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Assignments This week: read Hawley and Holcomb,

More information

The Beginning of the Universe 8/11/09. Astronomy 101

The Beginning of the Universe 8/11/09. Astronomy 101 The Beginning of the Universe 8/11/09 Astronomy 101 Astronomy Picture of the Day Astronomy 101 Outline for Today Astronomy Picture of the Day Return Lab 11 Astro News Q&A Session Dark Energy Cosmic Microwave

More information

Astroparticle physics the History of the Universe

Astroparticle physics the History of the Universe Astroparticle physics the History of the Universe Manfred Jeitler and Wolfgang Waltenberger Institute of High Energy Physics, Vienna TU Vienna, CERN, Geneva Wintersemester 2016 / 2017 1 The History of

More information

2) On a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, where would you find red giant stars? A) upper right B) lower right C) upper left D) lower left

2) On a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, where would you find red giant stars? A) upper right B) lower right C) upper left D) lower left Multiple choice test questions 2, Winter Semester 2015. Based on parts covered after mid term. Essentially on Ch. 12-2.3,13.1-3,14,16.1-2,17,18.1-2,4,19.5. You may use a calculator and the useful formulae

More information

Astronomy 122 Outline

Astronomy 122 Outline Astronomy 122 Outline This Class (Lecture 26): The Primeval Fireball Next Class: Dark Matter & Dark Energy ICES Form!!! HW10 due Friday Hubble s Law implications An expanding Universe! Run in movie in

More information

Chapter 22 Reading Quiz Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. The Birth of the Universe Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 22 Reading Quiz Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. The Birth of the Universe Pearson Education, Inc. Reading Quiz Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition The Birth of the Universe 22.1 The Big Bang Theory What were conditions like in the early universe? How did the early universe change with time?

More information

Nucleosíntesis primordial

Nucleosíntesis primordial Tema 5 Nucleosíntesis primordial Asignatura de Física Nuclear Curso académico 2009/2010 Universidad de Santiago de Compostela Big Bang cosmology 1.1 The Universe today The present state of the Universe

More information

VU lecture Introduction to Particle Physics. Thomas Gajdosik, FI & VU. Big Bang (model)

VU lecture Introduction to Particle Physics. Thomas Gajdosik, FI & VU. Big Bang (model) Big Bang (model) What can be seen / measured? basically only light _ (and a few particles: e ±, p, p, ν x ) in different wave lengths: microwave to γ-rays in different intensities (measured in magnitudes)

More information

Chapter 5. Periodic Law.

Chapter 5. Periodic Law. Chapter 5 Periodic Law http://www.sciencedump.com/content/new-periodic-table-song Chapter 5.1 History of the Periodic Table 5.1 Objectives Explain the roles of Mendeleev and Moseley in the development

More information

Brock University. Test 1, February, 2017 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P02 Number of Students: 480 Date of Examination: February 6, 2017

Brock University. Test 1, February, 2017 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P02 Number of Students: 480 Date of Examination: February 6, 2017 Brock University Test 1, February, 2017 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P02 Number of Students: 480 Date of Examination: February 6, 2017 Number of hours: 50 min Time of Examination: 18:00 18:50 Instructor:

More information

Review of Lecture 15 3/17/10. Lecture 15: Dark Matter and the Cosmic Web (plus Gamma Ray Bursts) Prof. Tom Megeath

Review of Lecture 15 3/17/10. Lecture 15: Dark Matter and the Cosmic Web (plus Gamma Ray Bursts) Prof. Tom Megeath Lecture 15: Dark Matter and the Cosmic Web (plus Gamma Ray Bursts) Prof. Tom Megeath A2020 Disk Component: stars of all ages, many gas clouds Review of Lecture 15 Spheroidal Component: bulge & halo, old

More information

FXA ρ 0 = 3(H 0 ) 2. UNIT G485 Module Universe Evolution. Candidates should be able to : age of the universe 1/H 0

FXA ρ 0 = 3(H 0 ) 2. UNIT G485 Module Universe Evolution. Candidates should be able to : age of the universe 1/H 0 1 Candidates should be able to : Explain that the standard (hot big bang) model of the universe implies a finite age for the universe. Select and use the expression : age of the universe 1/H 0 Describe

More information

Study Guide Chapter 2

Study Guide Chapter 2 Section: Stars Pages 32-38 Study Guide Chapter 2 Circle the letter of the best answer for each question. 1. What do scientists study to learn about stars? a. gravity c. space b. starlight d. colors COLOR

More information

29:50 Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe Final Exam December 13, 2010 Form A

29:50 Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe Final Exam December 13, 2010 Form A 29:50 Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe Final Exam December 13, 2010 Form A There are 40 questions. Read each question and all of the choices before choosing. Budget your time. No whining. Walk with Ursus!

More information

COSMOLOGY The Universe what is its age and origin?

COSMOLOGY The Universe what is its age and origin? COSMOLOGY The Universe what is its age and origin? REVIEW (SUMMARY) Oppenheimer Volkhoff limit: upper limit to mass of neutron star remnant more than 1.4 M à neutron degeneracy Supernova à extremely dense

More information

Exam #3. Median: 83.8% High: 100% If you d like to see/discuss your exam, come to my office hours, or make an appointment.

Exam #3. Median: 83.8% High: 100% If you d like to see/discuss your exam, come to my office hours, or make an appointment. Exam #3 Average: 80.1% Median: 83.8% High: 100% Scores available on Blackboard If you d like to see/discuss your exam, come to my office hours, or make an appointment. Exam #3 The Sun is made of A) all

More information

Physics 133: Extragalactic Astronomy ad Cosmology

Physics 133: Extragalactic Astronomy ad Cosmology Physics 133: Extragalactic Astronomy ad Cosmology Lecture 2; January 8 2014 Previously on PHYS133 Units in astrophysics Olbers paradox The night sky is dark. Inconsistent with and eternal, static and infinite

More information

32 IONIZING RADIATION, NUCLEAR ENERGY, AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLES

32 IONIZING RADIATION, NUCLEAR ENERGY, AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLES 32 IONIZING RADIATION, NUCLEAR ENERGY, AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLES 32.1 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation γ-rays (high-energy photons) can penetrate almost anything, but do comparatively little damage.

More information

Brock University. Test 1, January, 2015 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P02 Number of Students: 500 Date of Examination: January 29, 2015

Brock University. Test 1, January, 2015 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P02 Number of Students: 500 Date of Examination: January 29, 2015 Brock University Test 1, January, 2015 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P02 Number of Students: 500 Date of Examination: January 29, 2015 Number of hours: 50 min Time of Examination: 18:00 15:50 Instructor:

More information

Five pieces of evidence for a Big Bang 1. Expanding Universe

Five pieces of evidence for a Big Bang 1. Expanding Universe Five pieces of evidence for a Big Bang 1. Expanding Universe More distant galaxies have larger doppler shifts to the red, so moving faster away from us redshift = z = (λ λ 0 )/λ 0 λ 0 = wavelength at rest

More information

FURTHER COSMOLOGY Book page T H E M A K E U P O F T H E U N I V E R S E

FURTHER COSMOLOGY Book page T H E M A K E U P O F T H E U N I V E R S E FURTHER COSMOLOGY Book page 675-683 T H E M A K E U P O F T H E U N I V E R S E COSMOLOGICAL PRINCIPLE Is the Universe isotropic or homogeneous? There is no place in the Universe that would be considered

More information

The Cosmic Microwave Background

The Cosmic Microwave Background The Cosmic Microwave Background The Cosmic Microwave Background Key Concepts 1) The universe is filled with a Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). 2) The microwave radiation that fills the universe is nearly

More information

Chapter 19: Our Galaxy

Chapter 19: Our Galaxy Chapter 19 Lecture Chapter 19: Our Galaxy Our Galaxy 19.1 The Milky Way Revealed Our goals for learning: What does our galaxy look like? How do stars orbit in our galaxy? What does our galaxy look like?

More information

BROCK UNIVERSITY. Test 2, March 2015 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P02 Number of Students: 420 Date of Examination: March 5, 2015

BROCK UNIVERSITY. Test 2, March 2015 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P02 Number of Students: 420 Date of Examination: March 5, 2015 BROCK UNIVERSITY Page 1 of 9 Test 2, March 2015 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P02 Number of Students: 420 Date of Examination: March 5, 2015 Number of hours: 50 min Time of Examination: 18:00 18:50

More information

AST 301 Introduction to Astronomy

AST 301 Introduction to Astronomy AST 301 Introduction to Astronomy John Lacy RLM 16.332 471-1469 lacy@astro.as.utexas.edu Myoungwon Jeon RLM 16.216 471-0445 myjeon@astro.as.utexas.edu Bohua Li RLM 16.212 471-8443 bohuali@astro.as.utexas.edu

More information

Unity in the Whole Structure

Unity in the Whole Structure Cosmology II Unity in the Whole Structure How is it possible by any methods of observation yet known to the astronomer to learn anything about the universe as a whole? It is possible only because the universe,

More information

Big Galaxies Are Rare! Cepheid Distance Measurement. Clusters of Galaxies. The Nature of Galaxies

Big Galaxies Are Rare! Cepheid Distance Measurement. Clusters of Galaxies. The Nature of Galaxies Big Galaxies Are Rare! Potato Chip Rule: More small things than large things Big, bright spirals are easy to see, but least common Dwarf ellipticals & irregulars are most common Faint, hard to see Mostly

More information

I intend this lecture to be an overview of the big bang model of the universe from the standpoint of the observational motivation.

I intend this lecture to be an overview of the big bang model of the universe from the standpoint of the observational motivation. I intend this lecture to be an overview of the big bang model of the universe from the standpoint of the observational motivation. Nowadays, the big bang model is overwhelmingly preferred over other alternatives;

More information

COSMOLOGY AND THE EARLY UNIVERSE

COSMOLOGY AND THE EARLY UNIVERSE COSMOLOGY AND THE EARLY UNIVERSE [Note: these notes and the lectures cover chapters 26 and 27 together, with topics discussed in a somewhat different order than in the textbook. References to textbook

More information

Exploring the Early Universe. Chapter Twenty-Nine. Guiding Questions. The Isotropy Problem

Exploring the Early Universe. Chapter Twenty-Nine. Guiding Questions. The Isotropy Problem Exploring the Early Universe Chapter Twenty-Nine Guiding Questions 1. Has the universe always expanded as it does today, or might it have suddenly inflated? 2. How did the fundamental forces of nature

More information

Big Bang, Black Holes, No Math

Big Bang, Black Holes, No Math ASTR/PHYS 109 Dr. David Toback Lecture 26 & 27 Early Times & Fate of the Universe Topic 1: Possibilities 1 Was due Today L27 Last day of Class Reading: (Unit 6) Pre-Lecture Reading Questions (PLRQ) Unit

More information

The Universe and Galaxies

The Universe and Galaxies The Universe and Galaxies 16.1 http://dingo.care-mail.com/cards/flash/5409/galaxy.swf Universe The sum of all matter and energy that exists, that has ever existed, and that will ever exist. We will focus

More information

Astronomy Ch. 21 Stellar Explosions. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Astronomy Ch. 21 Stellar Explosions. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Period: Date: Astronomy Ch. 21 Stellar Explosions MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A surface explosion on a white dwarf, caused

More information

The Mystery of Dark Matter

The Mystery of Dark Matter The Mystery of Dark Matter Maxim Perelstein, LEPP/Cornell U. CIPT Fall Workshop, Ithaca NY, September 28 2013 Introduction Last Fall workshop focused on physics of the very small - elementary particles

More information

Hubble Ultra Deep Space View PHYS 162 2

Hubble Ultra Deep Space View PHYS 162 2 Galaxies stars come in large groups (20-200 billion stars) called Galaxies >2 trillion observable galaxies. Come in Shapes and Sizes depending on how they were formed Elliptical (football shape) Spirals

More information

Dark Matter. About 90% of the mass in the universe is dark matter Initial proposals: MACHOs: massive compact halo objects

Dark Matter. About 90% of the mass in the universe is dark matter Initial proposals: MACHOs: massive compact halo objects 1 Dark Matter About 90% of the mass in the universe is dark matter Initial proposals: MACHOs: massive compact halo objects Things like small black holes, planets, other big objects They must be dark (so

More information

Dark Energy & other Flaws of the Universe

Dark Energy & other Flaws of the Universe Dark Energy & other Flaws of the Universe Peter Hoeflich Dept. of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, USA Questions: - What is the structure of 'Space and the Universe'? - How was the 'Past'

More information

Our goals for learning: 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. We see our galaxy edge-on. Primary features: disk, bulge, halo, globular clusters All-Sky View

Our goals for learning: 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. We see our galaxy edge-on. Primary features: disk, bulge, halo, globular clusters All-Sky View Our Galaxy Chapter 19 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective 19.1 The Milky Way Revealed What does our galaxy look like? What does our galaxy look like? How do stars orbit in our galaxy? Seventh Edition Our Galaxy

More information

The Earth in the Universe

The Earth in the Universe The Earth in the Universe (OCR) Evidence for the age of the Earth Scientists once thought that the Earth was only 6000 years old. Rocks have provided lots of evidence for the world being older. 1) Erosion

More information

Recall what you know about the Big Bang.

Recall what you know about the Big Bang. What is this? Recall what you know about the Big Bang. Most of the normal matter in the universe is made of what elements? Where do we find most of this normal matter? Interstellar medium (ISM) The universe

More information

Notes for Wednesday, July 16; Sample questions start on page 2 7/16/2008

Notes for Wednesday, July 16; Sample questions start on page 2 7/16/2008 Notes for Wednesday, July 16; Sample questions start on page 2 7/16/2008 Wed, July 16 MW galaxy, then review. Start with ECP3Ch14 2 through 8 Then Ch23 # 8 & Ch 19 # 27 & 28 Allowed Harlow Shapely to locate

More information

The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handiwork. Psalm 19:1

The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handiwork. Psalm 19:1 The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handiwork. Psalm 19:1 If you look up at the sky at night, the heavens appear to be unchanging. In 1917 Einstein wrote down the theory

More information

Stellar Explosions (ch. 21)

Stellar Explosions (ch. 21) Stellar Explosions (ch. 21) First, a review of low-mass stellar evolution by means of an illustration I showed in class. You should be able to talk your way through this diagram and it should take at least

More information

Ari Schjelderup David Schaffer PHYS /30/11 The Big Bang Theory

Ari Schjelderup David Schaffer PHYS /30/11 The Big Bang Theory Schjelderup 1 Ari Schjelderup David Schaffer PHYS-1040-009 10/30/11 The Big Bang Theory When I was a little girl I asked my mom how long God had been around. She told me he had been around forever. When

More information

Exam 3 Astronomy 114

Exam 3 Astronomy 114 Exam 3 Astronomy 114 Select the answer that is the most appropriate among the choices given. 1. What is the Hubble law? (A) a relation between a galaxy s mass and radius. (B) a rule that describes the

More information

Topics Covered in Chapter. Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation. A Subatomic Interlude II. A Subatomic Interlude. A Subatomic Interlude III

Topics Covered in Chapter. Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation. A Subatomic Interlude II. A Subatomic Interlude. A Subatomic Interlude III Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation Topics Covered in Chapter 1.Structure of Atoms 2.Origins of Electromagnetic Radiation 3.Objects with Different Temperature and their Electromagnetic Radiation

More information

Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation

Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation 1 Topics Covered in Chapter 1.Structure of Atoms 2.Origins of Electromagnetic Radiation 3.Objects with Different Temperature and their Electromagnetic Radiation

More information

Directed Reading A. Section: The Life Cycle of Stars TYPES OF STARS THE LIFE CYCLE OF SUNLIKE STARS A TOOL FOR STUDYING STARS.

Directed Reading A. Section: The Life Cycle of Stars TYPES OF STARS THE LIFE CYCLE OF SUNLIKE STARS A TOOL FOR STUDYING STARS. Skills Worksheet Directed Reading A Section: The Life Cycle of Stars TYPES OF STARS (pp. 444 449) 1. Besides by mass, size, brightness, color, temperature, and composition, how are stars classified? a.

More information

Astronomy 10 Test #2 Practice Version

Astronomy 10 Test #2 Practice Version Given (a.k.a. `First ) Name(s): Family (a.k.a. `Last ) name: ON YOUR PARSCORE: `Bubble your name, your student I.D. number, and your multiple-choice answers. I will keep the Parscore forms. ON THIS TEST

More information