BOOK 3 OUR PLANET SECTION 1 OUR PLANET IN THE UNIVERSE

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1 BOOK 3 OUR PLANET SECTION 1 OUR PLANET IN THE UNIVERSE

2 THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM (EMS) The Electromagnetic spectrum (EMS) is a range of wavelengths and frequencies which extend from gamma rays to radio waves. The EMS is very useful because it allows us carry out a wide array of tasks, including letting us see very far into the universe and show us things which might not be visible to the naked eye. The EMS is split into seven regions: 1. Radio waves. 2. Micro waves. 3. Infra-red. 4. Visible light. 5. Ultraviolet. 6. X-rays. 7. Gamma rays. EMS EM spectrum qualities, Wikimedia CC, 2

3 OUR PLANET - SECTION 1 - SEC 1 OBTAINING RESOURCES OUR PLANET IN THE UNIVERSE OBTAINING CLEAN WATER THE EMS AND SPACE Regions of the EMS are often used to record or photograph far regions of space. Parts of our solar system have also been photographed using different regions of the EMS, giving interesting effects. X-RAY IMAGES OF THE SUN X-ray of the Sun 2 X-ray of the Sun 1 NASA/NOAA/ Lockheed Martin NASA ULTRAVIOLET IMAGES UV of the Sun UV of a galaxy NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center NASA/ESA/Immer et al. 3

4 OUR PLANET - SECTION 1 - SEC 1 OBTAINING RESOURCES OUR PLANET IN THE UNIVERSE OBTAINING CLEAN WATER VISIBLE LIGHT IMAGES Visible light image of the Sun Visible light image of Earth NASA/SDO, HMI NASA/ GSFC/ NOAA/ USGS Visible light image of the Moon Visible light image of a galaxy 4

5 ACTIVITY Using the internet, research different space images using different regions of the EMS. Construct a table like the one below. Part of the electromagnetic spectrum X-rays Object Picture Ultraviolet visible infrared microwave radio waves 5

6 THE UNIVERSE The universe is massive and is continuing to expand. Our minds cannot fathom the enormous scope and size of the universe. The size for some of the objects in the universe is so large that they are measured in light years. A light year is the distance light will travel in one year. The speed of light is mph and there are hours in a year. The table below compares the size of different objects in the universe: Object Atom Dust particle Smallest asteroid Largest asteroid moon Dwarf planet Smallest planet Smallest star Largest planet Largest star Solar system Smallest galaxy Size Our Galaxy Largest galaxy 0.1 nm 5 μm 6 m billion 1.87 LY 200 LY LY 4 million LY Smallest Largest (known) 6

7 THE STRUCTURE OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM Our solar system is the collection of one star, eight planets, a dwarf planet and a collection of moons. There is also an asteroid belt. The planets are various sizes and distances from the Sun. They are found in this order as you move away from the sun. Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto The easiest way to remember the order of the planets is with a rhyme. Many Vampires Eat My Jam Sandwiches Under Neptune s Pub The asteroid belt is found within our solar system between Mars and Jupiter. This separates the inner and outer planets. The inner planets are rocky and the outer planets are gaseous. Some planets have many moons, but some have none. Solar system Ian McKinnell / Alamy Stock Photo 7

8 ACTIVITY Use only the words in the box below to fill in the blanks. Saturn asteroid Earth Neptune Moon inner planets outer planets dwarf planet planets Pluto moons Mars the Sun The solar system is made of one star called. Orbiting around the sun are eight and one. The first four planets are called Mercury, Venus, and. Together they are called the. The next four are called the, called Jupiter,, Uranus and. The inner and outer planets are separated by an belt. The final planet is a dwarf planet called. Some of the planets have. Earth has one, called the, while Saturn has 60! 8

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