# Lesson Objectives. Core Content Objectives. Language Arts Objectives

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1 The Solar System, Part II 9 Lesson Objectives Core Content Objectives Students will: Identify the earth s rotation or spin as the cause of day and night Explain that Earth orbits the sun Explain that our solar system includes the sun and the planets that orbit around it Indicate that there are eight planets in our solar system (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) Classify Pluto as a dwarf planet Language Arts Objectives The following language arts objectives are addressed in this lesson. Objectives aligning with the Common Core State Standards are noted with the corresponding standard in parentheses. Refer to the Alignment Chart for additional standards addressed in all lessons in this domain. Students will: Describe the connection between the sun and the reason the last four planets are referred to as the outer planets (RI.1.3) With assistance, categorize and organize information about the eight planets (W.1.8) Describe what is unique about each of the eight planets with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly (SL.1.4) Prior to listening to The Solar System, Part II, identify orally what they know about the four inner planets Astronomy 9 The Solar System, Part II 117

2 Core Vocabulary categorize, v. Sort or put into a group with other similar objects Example: My teacher asked me to categorize this stack of books as fiction or nonfiction for our classroom library. Variation(s): categorizes, categorized, categorizing debris, n. The pieces left over when something is destroyed or broken Example: When I dropped my plate of food, I had to clean up the mess while my dad swept up the debris from the broken plate. Variation(s): none outer, adj. Far from the center; the outside of something Example: The outer part of the earth s surface is the part we live on. Variation(s): none probes, n. Tools designed to collect information in outer space and send it back to Earth Example: Probes have collected a lot of information about the surface of Mars. Variation(s): probe violent, adj. Dangerously rough Example: When I was wrestling with my brother and he got hurt, my mom said we were being too violent. Variation(s): none At a Glance Exercise Materials Minutes Introducing the Read-Aloud What Have We Already Learned? Planets Chart 10 Purpose for Listening Presenting the Read-Aloud The Solar System, Part II 15 Discussing the Read-Aloud Extensions Comprehension Questions 10 Word Work: Categorize Image Cards 1, Complete Remainder of the Lesson Later in the Day The Solar System Instructional Master 9B 1 Planets Chart Planets Chart; Image Cards 1, Astronomy 9 The Solar System, Part II

4 and what they might be like. Ask students how they might be different from the inner planets they learned about in the previous read-aloud. Purpose for Listening Tell students to listen carefully to learn the name of each planet and what makes it unique, so they can add these facts to the Planets Chart. 120 Astronomy 9A The Solar System, Part II

5 Presenting the Read-Aloud 15 minutes The Solar System, Part II Show image 9A-1: Solar system diagram 1 These planets are farthest from the sun, on the outside part of the solar system. 2 You learned about gases when we began our study of astronomy. What are gases? In the last read-aloud you learned about the four inner planets of our solar system: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. Now you will learn about the outer planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, as well as the famous dwarf planet, Pluto. 1 The first important difference between the inner planets and the outer planets is that the inner planets are all made up of rocks and metals, whereas the outer planets are made of different types of gases. 2 Show image 9A-2: Jupiter 3 Being the largest planet makes Jupiter unique. 4 a dangerously rough The planet Jupiter is the fifth planet from the sun. In Roman mythology, Jupiter was the king of the gods the strongest and most powerful of all. The largest planet in our solar system is named after him. 3 Jupiter is so big that you could stuff about 1300 planet Earths inside of it. It takes Jupiter nearly twelve Earth years to make one revolution around the sun. However, Jupiter rotates on its axis faster than any other planet in the solar system. This massive planet rotates all the way around on its axis in less than ten hours. Jupiter is made mostly of hydrogen and other gases. Because of its fast rotation and the mixing of its gases, Jupiter is an extremely violent, 4 stormy place. Show image 9A-3: Red spot 5 This stormy, red spot makes Jupiter unique, and it helps us remember what the planet looks like. The best-known feature on Jupiter is its large, red spot. This spot is actually a massive storm. 5 The storm is so big that you could fit three planet Earths inside of it! Jupiter can be seen with the naked eye from Earth, and sometimes you can see its red spot with an ordinary telescope. Astronomy 9A The Solar System, Part II 121

6 Show image 9A-4: Jupiter s moons 6 How many moons do you see from Earth? Jupiter has sixty-three moons going around it! 7 [Point to Europa.] 8 So far, the only place in the solar system that we know has life is our own planet Earth. There are at least sixty-three moons in orbit around Jupiter. 6 Most of them are very small. However, four of these moons are well-known. They were all discovered first by the famous astronomer Galileo. These are easily visible with a pair of binoculars. Each is interesting in its own way, particularly Europa, the small one in the upper right. 7 Europa is slightly smaller than our own moon, and yet for many astronomers it is one of the most fascinating celestial bodies in the solar system. Europa s surface is covered in ice, and its atmosphere contains a lot of oxygen. Many astronomers believe that beneath Europa s ice there is an ocean of liquid water. This means that maybe just maybe there is some form of life on this distant little moon. 8 Show image 9A-5: Saturn 9 Its rings make Saturn unique and easy to recognize. 10 These layers and clouds are part of the planet. Remember, outer planets are made of gases. What are inner planets made of? The next planet in the solar system is Saturn, the sixth planet from the sun. It is the second-largest planet in the solar system, although it is much smaller than Jupiter. Saturn is famous for its rings. It is not the only planet with rings, but no other planet has rings like Saturn s. 9 This incredible photo was taken by an unmanned orbiter in Saturn has several layers with different types of clouds, and it is quite stormy, though not as stormy as its neighbor Jupiter. 10 Because it is so far from the sun, it takes Saturn nearly thirty Earth years to make one complete orbit. Different parts of Saturn rotate at different speeds, but for the most part Saturn rotates on its axis very quickly, taking a little over ten hours to complete one rotation. Show image 9A-6: The rings, close-up The rings of Saturn are always moving around the planet. They are made up mainly of ice and a few other types of materials. The rings are basically huge collections of dust with some larger chunks here and there. Nobody is sure how the rings got there. Some astronomers believe the rings formed when one of Saturn s 122 Astronomy 9A The Solar System, Part II

7 11 or broken pieces moons exploded and the debris 11 became trapped in orbit. Others say the material in the rings is left over from the time when Saturn was formed billions of years ago. You can see Saturn from Earth during certain times of the year, and with an ordinary telescope you can see the rings. Show image 9A-7: Uranus 12 Its cold atmosphere makes Uranus unique. 13 Lying on its side makes Uranus unique. The seventh planet, Uranus, has the coldest atmosphere of any planet in the solar system. 12 Because it is so far from the sun, it takes Uranus eighty-four Earth years to make one complete orbit. Uranus is made of hydrogen, but its atmosphere also contains a lot of ice and other substances not found on Jupiter or Saturn. Uranus is named after a Greek god of the sky, making it the only planet other than Earth that is not named after a Roman god. Although it is possible to see Uranus from Earth with the naked eye, you really have to know where and when to look for it because it appears very dim, or not very bright, from here on Earth. Uranus has one very special characteristic: it rotates on its side! You can t see it in this image, but in comparison to Earth and the other planets, Uranus s axis is sideways, as though someone turned the planet on its side. 13 Show image 9A-8: Neptune 14 Its blue color and its distance from the sun make Neptune unique. What was the red planet you heard about yesterday? (Mars) 15 Probes are tools designed to collect information in outer space and send it back to Earth. The planet Neptune is the eighth and final major planet in the solar system. In Roman mythology, Neptune was the god of the sea, so this is a fitting name, given the planet s beautiful, blue color. 14 Astronomers still do not know exactly why Neptune is blue, and it will probably be a while before they figure it out. That is because Neptune is nearly three billion miles from the sun, making it very difficult and expensive to send unmanned probes to explore it. 15 It takes Neptune nearly 165 Earth years to orbit the sun. The planet is never visible to the naked eye from Earth, and you will need a fairly powerful telescope to get a good view of its beautiful color. Astronomy 9A The Solar System, Part II 123

8 Show image 9A-9: Pluto 16 They decided to sort planets into two groups: dwarf, meaning little ; and regular. Categorizing Pluto as a dwarf planet means they put Pluto in the dwarf planet group. 17 What do probes do? Not so very long ago, students in school were taught that there were nine planets in the solar system, including Pluto. In fact, ever since Pluto was discovered in 1930, it has been considered a planet. However, in 2006, astronomers decided to categorize Pluto as a dwarf planet, one of several such bodies in our solar system. 16 In Roman mythology, Pluto was the god of the underworld, a dark and dreary place. This is a good name for such a cold and distant dwarf planet. Pluto is about four billion miles from the sun, so it is extremely cold and dark out there. The planet is made almost entirely of frozen nitrogen. Nitrogen is a type of gas. It takes Pluto about 243 Earth years to orbit the sun. We have a lot to learn about Pluto and other celestial bodies in the outer reaches of the solar system, but it is not easy to explore this area. For now, this is about the best photo we have of Pluto, and it was taken from three billion miles away by a special spacecraft called the Hubble Space Telescope. So far, Pluto remains unexplored. A special probe was launched toward Pluto in the year 2003, but it will not reach the planet until Discussing the Read-Aloud Comprehension Questions 15 minutes 10 minutes 1. Inferential In the previous read-aloud, you learned that there are four inner planets, closest to the sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. In this read-aloud, we learned that Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are outer planets. What makes them outer planets? (They are farthest away from the sun, on the outside borders of the solar system.) 2. Literal You learned that the inner planets are all made of metal and rock. What are all the outer planets made of? (gases) Show image 9A-2: Jupiter 3. Literal This is the fifth planet in the solar system, known for being the largest planet, and having a red spot and sixty-three moons. What is the name of this planet? (Jupiter) 124 Astronomy 9A The Solar System, Part II

9 Show image 9A-5: Saturn 4. Literal This is the sixth planet in the solar system, known for the rings around it. What is the name of this planet? (Saturn) Show image 9A-7: Uranus 5. Literal This is the seventh planet in the solar system, known for being the coldest planet and for rotating on its side. What is the name of this planet? (Uranus) Show image 9A-8: Neptune 6. Literal This is the eighth or last planet in the solar system, known as the blue planet. What is the name of this planet? (Neptune) [Please continue to model the Think Pair Share process for students, as necessary, and scaffold students in their use of the process.] I am going to ask a question. I will give you a minute to think about the question, and then I will ask you to turn to your neighbor and discuss the question. Finally, I will call on several of you to share what you discussed with your partner. 7. Evaluative Think Pair Share: Astronomers believed for seventysix years that Pluto was the ninth planet in our solar system. Astronomers found other celestial bodies in deep space that were like Pluto, and they came up with a new category that they called dwarf, or small, planet. Why do you think they took so long to make this change? (Pluto is so far away; we haven t learned much about deep space.) Astronomy 9A The Solar System, Part II 125

10 Word Work: Categorize 1. In the read-aloud we heard, [A]stronomers decided to categorize Pluto as a dwarf planet. 2. Say the word categorize with me. 5 minutes 3. When you categorize something, you sort it or put it in a group with other things like it. 4. You might categorize your clothes by putting shirts in one drawer of your dresser and pants in another. 5. Pretend you had a collection of colorful buttons in different shapes and sizes. What is one way you could categorize them? Try to use the word categorize when you tell about it. [Ask two or three students. If necessary, guide and/or rephrase the students responses: I could categorize the buttons by... ]) 6. What s the word we ve been talking about? Use an Image Card activity for follow-up. Take Image Cards 1 and 7 13 and show them to students. Then show Flip Book image 8A-2, the diagram of the solar system, and show students that the images on the Image Cards are of the same planets that are on the diagram. Write two category names on chart paper, a chalkboard, or a whiteboard: Inner and Outer. Directions: We know that to categorize means to sort or put objects in groups based on what they have in common. Let s take these eight planet Image Cards and categorize them by inner planets (the ones you learned about yesterday that are closer to the sun) and outer planets (the ones you learned about today that are farther from the sun). We can use this diagram of the solar system if you forget where each planet goes. The groups we make will be called categories. Who would like to come up and categorize one of these planets, putting it in the right category? [Call on volunteers to sort the planets. During the activity, use the word categorize frequently and encourage each volunteer to use it in a sentence, such as I categorized Mercury as an inner planet. ] Complete Remainder of the Lesson Later in the Day 126 Astronomy 9A The Solar System, Part II

11 The Solar System, Part II 9B Extensions 20 minutes The Solar System (Instructional Master 9B-1) Give each student a copy of Instructional Master 9B-1. Explain that this is a worksheet about the solar system. Read the labels with students and discuss what the diagram shows. Guide students as needed to read and answer the questions. Invite students to color the diagram, reminding them that scientists often refer to Mars as the red planet, Neptune as the blue planet, and that Jupiter has a red spot on it. Planets Chart Sing with students the first two verses, and teach them the last two verses of the solar system song about all the planets, sung to the tune of Oh My Darling, Clementine : Do you know the solar system? It s our home in outer space. Planets orbit round the sun, while It shines brightly in one place. First is Mercury, small and speedy, Second, Venus, shining bright. Third is Earth, a home for people. Fourth is Mars, a rusty sight. Fifth is Jupiter, big and stormy. Sixth is Saturn, with its rings. Seventh, Uranus, is tilted. Astronomy 9B The Solar System, Part II 127

12 Eighth is Neptune, ocean king. Every planet is unique but They all orbit round the sun. I know all about the planets But the Earth s my favorite one. Tell students that today you will be completing the chart of the planets in our solar system. Remind students that you have already written down facts for the first four planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. Today you will write facts for the rest of the planets in the solar system. On the chart from yesterday, add rows for the final four planets in the solar system. Point out that these four are known as the outer planets. Complete the first column, and add Image Cards to the second column. Elicit two facts from students about each planet, and add them to the chart. You may want to turn back to the images in the read-aloud to help students recall facts for each planet. Sample responses are included as follows: 128 Astronomy 9B The Solar System, Part II

13 Position and Name Image Card Number Fact 1 Fact 2 1) Mercury 7 craters smallest planet 2) Venus 8 sister to Earth brightest planet in the sky 3) Earth 1 covered in water oxygen supports life 4) Mars 9 red we may visit one day 5) Jupiter 10 stormy, has red spot largest (with 63 moons) 6) Saturn 11 rings has lots of layers of clouds 7) Uranus 12 coldest atmosphere lies on its side 8) Neptune 13 blue farthest from sun Astronomy 9B The Solar System, Part II 129

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