# The Earth in the Universe

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1 The Earth in the Universe (OCR)

2 Evidence for the age of the Earth Scientists once thought that the Earth was only 6000 years old. Rocks have provided lots of evidence for the world being older. 1) Erosion 2) Craters 3) Mountains 4) Fossils 5) Folding 6) Radioactive dating

3 The Structure of the Earth A thin crust km thick and not very dense A mantle extends almost halfway to the centre, hot and dense A core made of molten nickel and iron. Outer part is liquid and inner part is solid. Gets hot due to radioactive decay. The Earth is believed to be 4500 million years old

4 Continental Drift Look at the coastlines of South America and Africa. I wonder of they used to fit together Alfred Wegener I m going to call this my Theory of Continental Drift

5 Tectonic theory What s my evidence for this? Three things: 1) The jigsaw fit 2) Each continent has similar rocks and fossils 3) Each continent has similar animal species

6 Another Example of Continental Drift The formation of mountain ranges can be explained by tectonic theory. Consider the Himalayas at the top of India: This is where India is now This is where India was millions of years ago

7 The Evidence: Tectonic theory 1) Some continents look like they used to fit together 2) Similar rock patterns and fossil records The Problems: Wegener couldn't explain how continental drift happened or provide evidence so nobody believed him. Also, he wasn t a geologist so he had no credibility. The Answer: Scientists discovered 50 years later that the Earth generates massive amounts of heat through radioactive decay in the core. This heat generated convection currents in the mantle causing the crust to move. Conclusion scientists now believe Wegener s Tectonic Theory

8 Movement of the Lithosphere The Earth s LITHOSPHERE (i.e. the ) is split up into different sections called plates: These plates are moving from each other a few centimetres every. They can slide past each other, move apart from each other or move towards each other, causing volcanoes and. Words earthquakes, crust, apart, tectonic, year

9 Geohazards A geohazard is a natural hazard associated with the Earth, e.g. Earthquakes Landslide Volcano Flood

10 Sea Floor Spreading Igneous Rock Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions can be common here Oceanic Crust Mantle Convection Currents Magma

11 More on Plate Movements Subduction Thin, dense oceanic plate Thick, less dense continental plate Convection Currents

12 Solar systems, galaxies and the Universe Our planet (around 13,000km diameter and 4500 million years old) is pretty small compared to... OUR SUN (100 times wider), which is small compared to THE UNIVERSE, which contains billions of galaxies and is 14,000 million years old. THE MILKY WAY, which contains at least 200 billion stars and is 100,000 light years across, which is small compared to

13 The Light Year Distances in space are so big that they are measured in units called light years : 1 light year = the distance travelled by light in one yar If light travels at 300,000,000m/s how far is one light year?

14 The Earth s Orbit Ellipse

15 Comets Comets are balls of dust and frozen gas. They have very elliptical orbits:

16 How to make a solar system

17 Stage 1: Nebulae A nebulae is a collection of dust, gas and rock. Some examples of nebulae

18 Dark nebula

19 Emission nebula

20 Planetary nebula

21 Reflection nebula

22 Stage 2: Throw the nebula together Gravity will slowly pull these particles together As they move inwards their gravitational potential energy is converted into heat and a big object (PROTOSTAR) or smaller objects (planets, asteroids etc) are formed

23 Stage 3: Make a star In a star the forces of gravitational attraction pulling the particles inwards are by forces acting outwards due to the huge inside the star. Stars are basically reactors that use as a fuel. During its main sequence a star will release energy by combining hydrogen and helium nuclei (light elements) into elements. Our sun is an example of a main sequence star it s in the middle of a 10 billion year life span Words heavier, balanced, hydrogen, nuclear, temperatures

24 Measuring distances to stars 1) Relative Brightness The further away a star is the dimmer it is. Simple. Nearby star Distant stars 2) The Parallax

25 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Launched in 1990, due to finish operating in 2010 Takes images in the visible light, ultra-violet and near infra red regions Orbits the Earth every 97 minutes at a distance of 600km

26 How stars die Recall how a star produces energy by converting hydrogen and helium into heavier elements: What happens when the hydrogen and helium run out?

27 Red Giant When the hydrogen and helium run out the star will become colder and redder and start to swell If the star is relatively small (like our sun) the star will become a RED GIANT If the star is big (at least 4 times the size of our sun) it will become a RED SUPERGIANT

28 White and Black Dwarfs What happens at this point depends on the size of the star 1) For SMALL stars the red giant will collapse under its own gravity and form a very dense white dwarf: Red giant White dwarf Black dwarf Planetary Nebula

29 2) If the star was a RED SUPERGIANT it will shrink and then EXPLODE, releasing massive amounts of energy, dust and gas. This explosion is called a SUPERNOVA Before After

30 The dust and gas on the outside of the supernova are thrown away by the explosion and the remaining core turns into a NEUTRON STAR. If the star is big enough (bigger than ten times our sun) it could become a BLACK HOLE.

31 Second generation stars The dust and gas thrown out by a supernova can be used to form a new star Our sun is believed to be a star this is because it contains some elements along with hydrogen and. These heavier elements would have been the products of a previous star that have been thrown out by a. These heavier elements are also found on planets, indicating that they might have been made from remains of previous as well. Words helium, heavier, second generation, stars, supernova

32 Evidence about the origins of the universe

33 Source of light Spectra

34 If you pass the light through a gas something different is seen helium Some wavelengths of light are absorbed by the gas an absorption spectrum.

35 If the light source is moving away the absorption spectra look a little different Before helium After

36 The absorption lines have all been shifted towards the longer wavelength end (red end) This is called red shift. The faster the light source moves the further its light will be shifted Before After A similar effect happens with sound this is called The Doppler Effect

37 Light from different stars and from the edge of the universe also shows this red-shift. This suggests that everything in the universe is moving away from a single point. This is the BIG BANG theory

38 Red shift summary Light from other galaxies has a longer than expected. This shows that these galaxies are moving from us very quickly. This effect is seen to a greater extent in galaxies that are away from us. This indicates that the further away the galaxy is, the it is moving. This evidence seems to suggest that everything in the universe is moving away from a single point, and that this process started around 15 years ago. This is the Theory. Words to use faster, away, big bang, billion, wavelength, further

39 Hubble s Law The speed at which galaxies are moving away from us is proportional to their distance from us. In other words, the further away they are, the faster they go. Edwin Hubble

40 The formation of the universe There are two main theories about how the universe started: The Steady State theory This theory states that the universe has always existed as it does now and hasn t changed. The trouble is that the night sky would be completely lit up because of the billions of stars, but it s not, so The Big Bang theory This theory states that the universe started off with an explosion and everything has been moving away ever since. There are two main pieces of evidence for this: background microwave radiation and red shift.

41 The end of the Universe There are some theories about how the universe will end: The big crunch if there is too much mass (i.e. too much matter) the universe will collapse under its own gravity. It may then do another big bang this is the oscillating universe theory. Expanding Universe if there isn t enough mass in the universe then it will just keep on expending forever. If there is just the right mass in the universe then it will reach a fixed size.

42 SETI

43 Does other life exist? ET is it possible?

44 What killed the dinosaurs? Growl The Chicxulub crater, Mexico (10km in diameter, formed 65 million years ago and with the power of all the world s nuclear weapons combined times 10,000) Oh no!

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