Science with Transiting Planets TIARA Winter School on Exoplanets 2008

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1 Science with Transiting Planets TIARA Winter School on Exoplanets 2008 Eric Agol University of Thanks to Josh Winn for slides 1

2 Venusian transit 2004 August 6, 2004 from Slovenia (Lajovic et al.) 2

3 History of Exoplanetary Transits Rosenblatt (1971) proposed that planets around other stars could be found by monitoring the colors of the star Borucki & Summers (1984) expanded on this idea, eventually proposal a space telescope With the discovery of planets via radial velocity (RV), starting with 51 Pegasi (Mayor & Queloz 1995), the question remained: were these really planets? Could they be other stellar phenomena? Could they be face-on brown dwarfs? Solution: planetary transits... 3

4 First Transiting planet: HD b First discovered with radial velocity; photometric follow-up revealed a dip right when expected (upper right): confirmed RV planets are real! HST data (right) gave exquisite precision: r planet /r star =0.1201± Charbonneau et al. (2000), Henry et al. (2000), Brown et al. (2001), Mandel & Agol (2002) 4

5 What can be learned from transits? Confirmed planets Orbital period Planetary mass Planetary radius Alignment between orbit, stellar spin Effective temperature Hints about atmospheric composition Crude IR spectrum Crude surface map Optical albedo Star spots Moons, additional planets (via timing) Planetary rings Planetary oblateness and spin rate Stellar differential rotation 5

6 Relative flux Time 6

7 Mid-infrared transit 8 micron transit of HD observed with Spitzer: no limb darkening! ΔF = R p R * 2 = Knutson et al R p R * = ±

8 Relative flux Time 8

9 Relative flux t F t T Time 9

10 ρ * = 24 π 2 PΔF 3 / 4 G(t T 2 t F 2 ) 3 / 2 Seager & Mallen- Ornelas 2003 Relative flux ΔF = (R p /R s ) 2 P t F t T Time 10

11 Derive: ρ * = 3 π 2 P Gt M 3 Kepler s laws + geometry: v 3 = 2πGM v P 2R * Relative flux t M Time 11

12 g p = 8 KP 4π π t 2 2 ΔF ( T t ) F P 2 2 ( ) ( t 2 2 T t ) F ΔF 2ΔF 1/ 2 Winn et al. (2007); Southworth et al. (2007); Beatty et al. (2007); Sozzetti et al. (2007) Relative flux ΔF = (R p /R s ) 2 P t F t T Time 12

13 Other physical quantities Transiting planets are like single-lined eclipsing binaries: extra information is needed to completely solve for the mass/radius of planet & star: 1. Assume mass-radius relation for the star, or 2. Measure stellar properties from spectrum From this can be derived the planet density (composition, core), inclination, semi-major axis 13

14 Discovering transiting planets Two challenges: 1) transit duty cycle is R * /πa 2) probability of transiting is R * /a The semi-major axis distribution of jupiter-mass RV planets predicts that 0.1% of stars should have transiting planets with transit depth >1% To discover one transiting planet, naively monitor ~10 3 stars for 2P ~ 6 days. In reality one transiting planet requires monitoring ~10 5 stars: giants, false positives (e.g. grazing binaries, Brown 2003), correlated noise (Pont et al. 2006), interruptions, & metallicity bias reduce efficiency (Gaudi 2006) stellar radius semimajor axis 14

15 1/21/2008 Eric Agol University of 15

16 1/21/2008 Eric Agol University of 16

17 Udalski et al. (the OGLE collaboration) 17

18 Udalski et al. (the OGLE collaboration) 18

19 Winn, Holman, & Fuentes (2007) 19

20 Effects of correlated noise Ground-based surveys have errors due to atmospheric fluctuations that can last ~hours at the few mmag level These can create false transit-shaped features in the lightcurve, so detection threshold has to be set higher, reducing # detected planets typical range from ground Pont et al

21 Planetary transit surveys Five transiting planets have first been detected with RV: Doppler shifts are present all the time at any inclination (N2K survey Fischer et al. 2004) Transiting planet discoveries are now dominated by photometric surveys. Successful surveys have thus monitored lots of stars at high precision: OGLE (Konacki et al. 2003), TrES (Alonso et al. 2004), XO (McCollough et al. 2006), WASP (Collier-Cameron et al. 2006), HAT (Bakos et al. 2007) Transit surveys are highly biased towards shortperiod, large planets (Gaudi et al. 2006) 21

22 Transit Discoveries 29 as of Jan 2008 (2 more submitted)

23 Mass-Period Correlation Mass inversely correlates with semi-major axis, except 2 eccentric long-period planets (Mazeh et al. 2005, Torres et al. 2008) - may relate to metallicity 23

24 Two classes? Hansen & Barman (2007) proposed Class I & II planets Θ = 1 2 V esc V orb 2 = a R p M p M * R T eq =T * eff 2a 1/ 2 Torres et al. (2008) 24

25 ρ=0.5 Saturn ρ=1 ρ=1.5 g/cc Jupiter Neptune Earth 25

26 The dense planet HD Sato et al G. Laughlin 26

27 ρ=0.5 Saturn ρ=1 ρ=1.5 g/cc Jupiter Neptune Earth 27

28 Bloated planets Early migration (Burrows et al. 2000) Insolation-driven, deeply penetrating gravity waves (Showman & Guillot 2002) Eccentricity tides (Bodenheimer et al. 2001, 2003) Obliquity tides (Winn & Holman 2005) Enhanced atmospheric opacity (Burrows et al. 2007) Inhibition of convection of planetary interior (Chabrier & Baraffe 2007) 28

29 Rossiter- McLaughlin effect Gaudi & Winn (2007) 29

30 β Lyrae: Rossiter 1924, ApJ, 60, 15 Algol: McLaughlin 1924, ApJ, 60, 22 R. A. Rossiter ( ) 30

31 Measuring spin-orbit alignment Ohta, Taruya, & Suto 2005; Gaudi & Winn

32 32

33 Phase variation of HD Observed planet for ~1/2 orbit (33 hours, 0.25M exposures) at 8 µm using Spitzer/IRAC Small size of observed phase variation indicates relatively efficient circulation between day/night sides Secondary eclipse indicates low (~30%) albedo Transit Secondary Eclipse Phase Function Knutson et al. (2007) 33

34 Mapping a Hot Jupiter Inversion: Divide the planet into longitudinal slices At each point in time, about half of the slices are visible As the planet rotates, each slice on terminus rotates into or out of view Regularized linear inversion allows us to determine face-on brightness of each slice 34

35 Mapping a Hot Jupiter Hot spot is ~30±10 degrees away from substellar point (~25 mbar level) - agrees with Fortney et al. (2006) prediction! Hot spot and cold spot occur in same hemisphere T b,max = 1200 K, T b,min = 973 K Bond albedo 0.3 P n 0.3 Cowan & Agol, in prep 35

36 Steam on an extrasolar planet Transit of HD b measured with Spitzer stronger absorption by water weaker absorption by water Beaulieu et al. (2007), Knutson et al (2007), Tinetti et al. (2007) 36

37 Known transiting planet Transit times are equally spaced. 37

38 Perturbed by second planet Unknown perturbing planet Known transiting planet Transit times are NOT equally spaced. 38

39 Time Transit Timing Variations (TTV) Transit Times _ Time Best-Fit Orbit Eclipse Number Timing Residuals Eclipse Number = Time Eclipse Number 39

40 Resonant libration 40

41 Resonant libration 41

42 Limits on second planets in HD HST observations of HD O - C (d) Transit Time (d) Agol & Steffen (2007) 42

43 Combined TTV and RV for HD Maximum allowed mass for companion in initially circular orbit TTV Analysis TTV Theory (1) TTV + RV (2) RV Theory (3) (1) Eqns. (A7-8) & (33) from Agol, Steffen, Sari, & Clarkson MNRAS 359, 567 (2005) (2) RV measurements from Laughlin et al. ApJ 629, L121 (2005) (3) Eqn. (2) from Steffen & Agol MNRAS 364, L96 (2005) 43

44 Future Prospects ESA Corot satellite: still waiting for publications NASA Kepler satellite: launch 2009; monitor 10 5 stars; should detect dozens of transiting planets EPOXI: 30 cm mirror on Deep Impact satellite will be used for optical imaging of a handful of transiting planet systems (PI Deming) TRACER: 60 cm infrared ( µm) for detailed studies of bright transiting systems (NASA SMEX, PI Clampin) Monitor 10 3 M dwarfs from ground: habitable zone is much closer & can detect smaller planets arxiv:

45 Possible thesis topics: Which (if any) is the correct explanation for bloated planets? dense planets? Do second, short-period planets exist? are they stable? Do planets have moons or rings? Can we detect transiting super-earths/earths? Can we detect reflected light from planets? What explains the mass/period correlation of transiting planets? What causes Safronov/T eq correlation? 45

46 Selected references: Jean Schneider s website - up-to-date & easy to query Greg Laughlin s exoplanet blog Charbonneau et al. When Extrasolar Planets Transit Their Parent Stars astro-ph/ Torres, Winn & Holman, 2008, arxiv: uniform reanalysis of most transiting planets & catalog of the derived properties 46

47 Exercises: 1. Derive the relation: (M p << M *, chord across star is straight, circular orbit, no limb-darkening) 2. Derive the relation: ρ * = 24 π 2 PΔF 3 / 4 G(t T 2 t F 2 ) 3 / 2 g p = 8 KP 2 4π π ( t T t ) F ΔF P 2 ΔF t T ( ) ( 2 2 t ) F 1 2 ΔF 1/ 2 47

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