Chapter 2. Heating Earth's Surface & Atmosphere

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 2. Heating Earth's Surface & Atmosphere"

Transcription

1 Chapter 2 Heating Earth's Surface & Atmosphere

2 Topics Earth-Sun Relationships Energy, Heat and Temperature Mechanisms of Heat Transfer What happens to Incoming Solar Radiation? Radiation Emitted by the Earth Heat Budget

3 Two Questions We need to address two questions: 1.Why do different latitudes receive different amount of solar energy? 2.Why does the amount of solar energy change to produce the seasons?

4 Earth's Motions 1. The Earth rotates on its axis, once a day (24 hours) 2. The Earth revolves around the Sun, taking 365 1/4 days on average. 3. The Earth is about 150 million km from the Sun, and travels in an elliptical orbit, with the Sun at one focus.

5 Earth's Motions - 2 Closest approach of Earth to Sun (147 million km), called Perihelion, occurs in January. Furthest distance from the Sun (152 million km), called Aphelion, occurs in July.

6

7 The Seasons 1. The seasons arise because the Earth's axis of rotation is tilted (23.5 degrees) away from the perpendicular to the plane of the Earth's rotation (plane of the ecliptic). 2. Other factors that are less important - (1) the days are longer in summer, so the Earth is heated for a longer time, (2) the sun's rays have to pass through more atmosphere in the winter. 3. The Earth's axis always points to the same point in space (currently the Pole Star).

8

9

10

11

12

13 The Seasons Heat provided by the Sun is greatest when the Sun is overhead. (Greater insolation, less absorption by the atmosphere). 2. Energy is spread over smaller area.

14 The Seasons Solstice - Sun is vertically overhead at noon at a latitude of 23.5 degrees (Tropic of Cancer) or degrees (Tropic of Capricorn). Have Summer and Winter solstices degrees is the inclination (tilt) of the Earth's axis. 2. Equinoxes - Sun is vertically overhead at noon at the equator. March/September 3. Sun Angle is the angle from the horizon to the Sun (complement of zenith angle)

15

16

17

18

19

20 The Seasons Noon sun angle depends on latitude and day of year 2. Length of day can be determined from the Circle of Illumination. Length of day for a particular latitude depends on what fraction of the circle of latitude is in daylight. 3. Days are shortest at mid-winter, longest at mid-summer, and equal to 12 hours in the Equinoxes (and nights are also 12 hours long)

21

22

23

24

25 The Analemma Shows the latitude where the noon Sun is directly overhead for each day of the year. Used for estimating the angle of the Sun for any location and any day of the year. For example, what is the noon Sun angle for Boston (40N) on April 20? Sun is overhead at 11 degrees N. Noon Sun angle at Boston is 90 - (40-11) = = 61 degrees

26

27

28 Energy, Heat & Temperature 1. Energy is the capacity to do work. 2. Many different types of Energy (mechanical, chemical, nuclear, heat, kinetic, electromagnetic radiation) 3. Total energy of a closed system is always conserved, but energy can change to another form.

29 Energy, Heat & Temp Kinetic energy is energy due to motion. If a gas is heated, its molecules move faster. For a mass m, KE = (1/2)mv Potential energy is energy possessed by a system of objects that act on each other. i.e. a ball at the top of a hill has gravitational potential energy.

30 Latent Heat Latent Heat - heat energy that is transferred to or from a body, thereby changing its state, but not its temperature. For example, solid to liquid, liquid to gas - ice to water, water to steam. Very important! when water vapor in clouds condenses into liquid form, and when water in clouds freezes, large amounts of heat are released. Heat is a form of energy.

31 Energy, Heat & Temp Heat energy of a system of particles is the total kinetic energy of all the particles 2. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the constituents.

32 When two bodies are in contact, heat flows from the one with the higher temperature to the one with the lower temperature.

33 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer 1. Conduction - transfer of heat through matter by molecular motion 2. Convection - transfer of heat by mass motion or circulation 3. Radiation - transfer of electromagnetic energy by electromagnetic waves

34

35 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer Metals are good conductors. Poor conductors such as cork, wood, foam, and air are good insulators. The more air in a substance, the better the insulation. 2. Convection is very important in the atmosphere. Large "parcels" of air warmed by the Sun will rise in altitude, while cooler air rushes in to take its place. 3. The horizontal part of any convective flow (in a loop) is called advection, or wind.

36 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer For example, hot air rises in the tropical zones, flows polewards (as a wind), while cool air from the polar regions moves towards the tropics and closes the loop.

37 The sun s rays reach the earth through radiation. The energy received is re-circulated throughout the atmosphere by convection. The surface of the Earth not including the water is heated through conduction.

38 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer Solar radiation is the ultimate source of energy that drives the weather machine. 2. The Sun emits EM radiation at all wavelengths, from very short gamma rays to very long radio waves. The intensity is greatest between 0.4 and 0.7 micrometers, i.e., in the visible band of the spectrum.

39 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer EM radiation travels (at the speed of light) 3x10 8 m/s 2. Infrared radiation has a wavelength longer than visible red light. 3. Ultra-violet radiation has shorter wavelengths than the visible blue light.

40

41

42 The Ultraviolet Index Determined from The sun angle Predicted cloud cover Reflectivity of surface Extent of ozone layer Ranges 0 to 12 Avoid exposure to Sun on high UV Index days

43

44

45 Outgoing radiation from the Sun and Earth based upon their temperature

46 Fate of Incoming Solar Radiation as it interacts with Earth Radiation may be absorbed, transmitted, or redirected 1. 50% of sunlight reaches the Earth's surface 2. 20% absorbed by atmosphere and clouds 3. 20% reflected by clouds 4. 5% reflected from land-sea surface 5. 5% scattered back into space by the atmosphere

47

48 Reflection and Scattering 1. Reflection is the process whereby light bounces back from an object at the same angle at which it encounters that surface, and with the same intensity. Law of Reflection, i = r. Surface is much larger than the wavelength of the light. 2. Scattering occurs when light encounters an object with a rough surface, or a collection of particles. Energy is scattered in all directions, but mainly in the forward direction. Surface is much smaller than the wavelength of the light.

49

50 Reflection & Scattering Scattering by the atmosphere - depends on 1/λ 4. Blue light scattered more than red. 2. Blue sky is caused by scattering of the blue part of the Sun's white light by nitrogen molecules. 3. Red sunsets are caused by the scattering of the blue light out of the Sun-observer path. Light passes through a lot of atmosphere.

51

52

53 Color of the Sky The color of the sky gives an indication of the numbers of small and large particles present. Numerous small particles produce red sunsets. Large particles produce white/gray skies. The bluer the sky, the cleaner the air.

54

55 Reflection & Scattering Albedo of a surface is the fraction of incident radiation that is reflected by that surface. 2. Albedo of the Earth varies from place to place, and from time to time. On average, it is 30% (reflections - 20% by clouds; 5% by land/sea; 5% back-scatter) 3. Fresh snow has the highest albedo, water the lowest when the Sun is nearly overhead)

56

57 Crepuscular rays haze scatters light

58 Radiation Emitted by Earth 1. Gases are selective absorbers - they absorb radiation at only particular wavelengths, and get hotter (move faster) 2. Most absorption is due to water vapor, oxygen and ozone (not nitrogen) 3. Atmosphere is almost transparent to visible light, which therefore does not heat the atmosphere 4. Oxygen & ozone absorb UV radiation 5. Water vapor absorbs infrared radiation

59 Radiation from Earth Infrared radiation at 8 to 11μm can escape from the Earth (the atmospheric window) - can also reach the Earth from space; used by "infrared astronomers" 2. Sunlight heats the Earth, then the Earth heats the atmosphere from below, hence the temperature decrease with altitude (normal lapse rate of 6.5 O C/km)

60

61 The Greenhouse Effect 1. Most of the energy reradiated by the Earth's surface is in the infrared 2. This radiation is absorbed by water vapor, carbon dioxide, and a few trace gases 3. These gases get hot, so radiate heat back to the Earth (but some to space) 4. Earth gets hotter, emits more radiation (Stefan- Boltzmann), and cycle goes on

62 The Greenhouse Effect This effect is called the Greenhouse Effect, which keeps the Earth's average temperature 30 C warmer than it otherwise would be - a good thing 2. Not the same process as occurs in garden greenhouses

63

64

65

66 Why is Venus so hot? 1. Venus has a runaway greenhouse effect 2. Surface temperature 480 C 3. Atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide, and has no water or life to change the carbon dioxide to oxygen 4. Will the burning of fossil fuel (carbon) on the Earth raise the Earth's temperature?

67 Role of Clouds in Heating the Earth 1. Daytime - High thin clouds (thin) trap the Earth's radiation, and make the Earth warmer 2. Daytime - Thick clouds (dark) reflect solar radiation, so Earth is cooler 3. Night - Thick cloud cover absorbs heat from Earth, re-radiates it back to Earth, so Earth keeps warm

68 Role of Clouds in Heating the Earth Night - Clear skies mean that the Earth's radiation can escape to space, cooling the Earth 2. Day and night temperatures can be very close during cloudy weather

69 Infrared Imaging We look at the world at different wavelengths Visible animals Infrared astronomers, meteorologists Ultra-violet astronomers X-rays astronomers (Hubble)

70

71 Heat Budget The Earth is not getting hotter or cooler. Therefore, the incoming and outgoing radiation must balance

72

73 Latitudinal Heat Balance 1. Average temperature of Earth remains "constant" because the Earth re-emits almost all incoming solar radiation 2. Earth's Heat Budget is balanced 3. Tropical regions actually lose less energy than they gain from the Sun, while polar regions lose more energy.

74 Latitudinal Heat Balance Difference between incoming and outgoing radiation is called the heat surplus 2. Latitude of heat surplus changes with the seasons - e.g., large in northern hemisphere in June (summer) 3. Tropics are not getting hotter and hotter, and the poles are not getting colder and colder, because heat is carried from the tropics towards the poles (and v.v.) by winds (general atmospheric circulation)

75

76

77

78 Longitude Longitude is measured EAST from Greenwich, U.K., which is 0 o E. Americans sometimes use WEST longitude, which is measured west from Greenwich. Thus Boston is at 285 o E, or 75 o W. The figures in the textbook should be labeled W on the left, E on the right.

79 End Chapter 2 Homework for Chapter 2: GIST: (end of chapter questions labeled: Give it some thought ) 1, 4, 13 and problems: 1, 3, 5

HEATING THE ATMOSPHERE

HEATING THE ATMOSPHERE HEATING THE ATMOSPHERE Earth and Sun 99.9% of Earth s heat comes from Sun But

More information

Meteorology Pretest on Chapter 2

Meteorology Pretest on Chapter 2 Meteorology Pretest on Chapter 2 MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The earth emits terrestrial radiation a) only at night b) all the time c) only during winter d) only over the continents 2. If an imbalance occurs between

More information

9/1/14. Chapter 2: Heating Earth s Surface and Atmosphere. The Atmosphere: An Introduction to Meteorology, 12 th. Lutgens Tarbuck

9/1/14. Chapter 2: Heating Earth s Surface and Atmosphere. The Atmosphere: An Introduction to Meteorology, 12 th. Lutgens Tarbuck Chapter 2: Heating Earth s Surface and Atmosphere The Atmosphere: An Introduction to Meteorology, 12 th Lutgens Tarbuck Lectures by: Heather Gallacher, Cleveland State University! Earth s two principal

More information

Chapter 11 Lecture Outline. Heating the Atmosphere

Chapter 11 Lecture Outline. Heating the Atmosphere Chapter 11 Lecture Outline Heating the Atmosphere They are still here! Focus on the Atmosphere Weather Occurs over a short period of time Constantly changing Climate Averaged over a long period of time

More information

1. The frequency of an electromagnetic wave is proportional to its wavelength. a. directly *b. inversely

1. The frequency of an electromagnetic wave is proportional to its wavelength. a. directly *b. inversely CHAPTER 3 SOLAR AND TERRESTRIAL RADIATION MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. The frequency of an electromagnetic wave is proportional to its wavelength. a. directly *b. inversely 2. is the distance between successive

More information

Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle

Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Vertical energy balance Solar Flux and Flux Density Solar Luminosity (L) the constant flux of energy put out by the sun L = 3.9

More information

2/22/ Atmospheric Characteristics

2/22/ Atmospheric Characteristics 17.1 Atmospheric Characteristics Atmosphere: the gaseous layer that surrounds the Earth I. In the past, gases came from volcanic eruptions A. Water vapor was a major component of outgassing B. Other gases

More information

Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle

Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Vertical energy balance Latitudinal energy balance Seasonal and diurnal cycles Solar Flux and Flux Density Solar Luminosity (L)

More information

Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle

Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Selective absorption Vertical energy balance Solar Flux and Flux Density Solar Luminosity (L) the constant flux of energy put out

More information

Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth

Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle Solar Flux and Flux Density Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Selective absorption Vertical energy balance Solar Luminosity (L) the constant flux of energy put out

More information

Directed Reading. Section: Solar Energy and the Atmosphere RADIATION. identical point on the next wave. waves

Directed Reading. Section: Solar Energy and the Atmosphere RADIATION. identical point on the next wave. waves Skills Worksheet Directed Reading Section: Solar Energy and the Atmosphere 1. How is Earth s atmosphere heated? 2. Name the two primary sources of heat in the atmosphere. RADIATION In the space provided,

More information

Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE. Tarbuck Lutgens

Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE. Tarbuck Lutgens Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens Chapter 17 The Atmosphere: Structure and Temperature 17.1 Atmosphere Characteristics Composition of the Atmosphere Weather is constantly changing, and it refers

More information

Chapter 02 Energy and Matter in the Atmosphere

Chapter 02 Energy and Matter in the Atmosphere Chapter 02 Energy and Matter in the Atmosphere Multiple Choice Questions 1. The most common gas in the atmosphere is. A. oxygen (O2). B. carbon dioxide (CO2). C. nitrogen (N2). D. methane (CH4). Section:

More information

Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds 10.1 Atmospheric Basics Our goals for learning: What is an atmosphere? How does the greenhouse effect warm a planet? Why do atmospheric

More information

Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds. What is an atmosphere? Planetary Atmospheres

Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds. What is an atmosphere? Planetary Atmospheres Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds What is an atmosphere? Planetary Atmospheres Pressure Composition Greenhouse effect Atmospheric structure Color of the sky 1 Atmospheres

More information

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 16 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 16 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 16 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors

More information

Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds

Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds What is an atmosphere? 10.1 Atmospheric Basics Our goals for learning:! What is an atmosphere?! How does the greenhouse effect warm

More information

MAPH & & & & & & 02 LECTURE

MAPH & & & & & & 02 LECTURE Climate & Earth System Science Introduction to Meteorology & Climate MAPH 10050 Peter Lynch Peter Lynch Meteorology & Climate Centre School of Mathematical Sciences University College Dublin Meteorology

More information

Atmospheric Radiation

Atmospheric Radiation Atmospheric Radiation NASA photo gallery Introduction The major source of earth is the sun. The sun transfer energy through the earth by radiated electromagnetic wave. In vacuum, electromagnetic waves

More information

3. Which color of the visible light has the shortest wavelength? A) violet B) green C) yellow D) red

3. Which color of the visible light has the shortest wavelength? A) violet B) green C) yellow D) red Name: Topic 6 Test 1. Which process is responsible for the greatest loss of energy from Earth's surface into space on a clear night? A) condensation B) conduction C) radiation D) convection 2. Base your

More information

Page 1. Name:

Page 1. Name: Name: 1) What is the primary reason New York State is warmer in July than in February? A) The altitude of the noon Sun is greater in February. B) The insolation in New York is greater in July. C) The Earth

More information

Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds Pearson Education, Inc.

Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds Pearson Education, Inc. Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds 10.1 Atmospheric Basics Our goals for learning: What is an atmosphere? How does the greenhouse effect warm a planet? Why do atmospheric properties

More information

Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds

Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds 10.1 Atmospheric Basics Our goals for learning: What is an atmosphere? How does the greenhouse effect warm a planet? Why do atmospheric

More information

AT350 EXAM #1 September 23, 2003

AT350 EXAM #1 September 23, 2003 AT350 EXAM #1 September 23, 2003 Name and ID: Enter your name and student ID number on the answer sheet and on this exam. Record your answers to the questions by using a No. 2 pencil to completely fill

More information

Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds. What is an atmosphere? Earth s Atmosphere. Atmospheric Pressure

Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds. What is an atmosphere? Earth s Atmosphere. Atmospheric Pressure Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds 10.1 Atmospheric Basics Our goals for learning What is an atmosphere? How does the greenhouse effect warm a planet? Why do atmospheric

More information

Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds

Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds 10.1 Atmospheric Basics Our goals for learning What is an atmosphere? How does the greenhouse effect warm a planet? Why do atmospheric

More information

November 20, NOTES ES Rotation, Rev, Tilt.notebook. vertically. night. night. counterclockwise. counterclockwise. East. Foucault.

November 20, NOTES ES Rotation, Rev, Tilt.notebook. vertically. night. night. counterclockwise. counterclockwise. East. Foucault. NOTES ES, Rev,.notebook, and Rotates on an imaginary axis that runs from the to the South North Pole Pole vertically North The of the axis points to a point in space near day Pole Polaris night Responsible

More information

Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds. What is an atmosphere? About 10 km thick

Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds. What is an atmosphere? About 10 km thick Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds What is an atmosphere? Sources of Gas Losses of Gas Thermal Escape Earth s Atmosphere About 10 km thick Consists mostly of molecular

More information

Chapter 3. Multiple Choice Questions

Chapter 3. Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 3 Multiple Choice Questions 1. In the case of electromagnetic energy, an object that is hot: a. radiates much more energy than a cool object b. radiates much less energy than a cool object c. radiates

More information

Topic # 12 How Climate Works

Topic # 12 How Climate Works Topic # 12 How Climate Works A Primer on How the Energy Balance Drives Atmospheric & Oceanic Circulation, Natural Climatic Processes pp 63-68 in Class Notes How do we get energy from this........ to drive

More information

The Atmosphere: Structure and Temperature

The Atmosphere: Structure and Temperature Chapter The Atmosphere: Structure and Temperature Geologists have uncovered evidence of when Earth was first able to support oxygenrich atmosphere similar to what we experience today and more so, take

More information

Chapter 2--Warming the Earth and the Atmosphere

Chapter 2--Warming the Earth and the Atmosphere Chapter 2--Warming the Earth and the Atmosphere Student: 1. Which of the following provides a measure of the average speed of air molecules? A. pressure B. temperature C. density D. heat 2. A change of

More information

ATMOSPHERIC ENERGY and GLOBAL TEMPERATURES. Physical Geography (Geog. 300) Prof. Hugh Howard American River College

ATMOSPHERIC ENERGY and GLOBAL TEMPERATURES. Physical Geography (Geog. 300) Prof. Hugh Howard American River College ATMOSPHERIC ENERGY and GLOBAL TEMPERATURES Physical Geography (Geog. 300) Prof. Hugh Howard American River College RADIATION FROM the SUN SOLAR RADIATION Primarily shortwave (UV-SIR) Insolation Incoming

More information

5. In which diagram is the observer experiencing the greatest intensity of insolation? A) B)

5. In which diagram is the observer experiencing the greatest intensity of insolation? A) B) 1. Which factor has the greatest influence on the number of daylight hours that a particular Earth surface location receives? A) longitude B) latitude C) diameter of Earth D) distance from the Sun 2. In

More information

Science Chapter 13,14,15

Science Chapter 13,14,15 Science 1206 Chapter 13,14,15 1 Weather dynamics is the study of how the motion of water and air causes weather patterns. Energy from the Sun drives the motion of clouds, air, and water. Earth s tilt at

More information

Topic 5 Practice Test

Topic 5 Practice Test Base your answers to questions 1 and 2 on the diagram below, which represents the greenhouse effect in which heat energy is trapped in Earth's atmosphere 1. The Earth surface that best absorbs short-wave

More information

Topic # 11 HOW CLIMATE WORKS continued (Part II) pp in Class Notes

Topic # 11 HOW CLIMATE WORKS continued (Part II) pp in Class Notes Topic # 11 HOW CLIMATE WORKS continued (Part II) pp 61-67 in Class Notes To drive the circulation, the initial source of energy is from the Sun: Not to scale! EARTH- SUN Relationships 4 Things to Know

More information

The Cosmic Perspective Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds

The Cosmic Perspective Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds Chapter 10 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds 10.1 Atmospheric Basics

More information

Lecture 4: Radiation Transfer

Lecture 4: Radiation Transfer Lecture 4: Radiation Transfer Spectrum of radiation Stefan-Boltzmann law Selective absorption and emission Reflection and scattering Remote sensing Importance of Radiation Transfer Virtually all the exchange

More information

Warming Earth and its Atmosphere The Diurnal and Seasonal Cycles

Warming Earth and its Atmosphere The Diurnal and Seasonal Cycles Warming Earth and its Atmosphere The Diurnal and Seasonal Cycles Or, what happens to the energy received from the sun? First We Need to Understand The Ways in Which Heat Can be Transferred in the Atmosphere

More information

Which graph best shows the relationship between intensity of insolation and position on the Earth's surface? A) B) C) D)

Which graph best shows the relationship between intensity of insolation and position on the Earth's surface? A) B) C) D) 1. The hottest climates on Earth are located near the Equator because this region A) is usually closest to the Sun B) reflects the greatest amount of insolation C) receives the most hours of daylight D)

More information

Topic # 12 Natural Climate Processes

Topic # 12 Natural Climate Processes Topic # 12 Natural Climate Processes A Primer on How the Energy Balance Drives Atmospheric & Oceanic Circulation, Natural Climatic Processes pp 63-68 in Class Notes RADIATION / ENERGY BALANCE Radiation

More information

Which Earth latitude receives the greatest intensity of insolation when Earth is at the position shown in the diagram? A) 0 B) 23 N C) 55 N D) 90 N

Which Earth latitude receives the greatest intensity of insolation when Earth is at the position shown in the diagram? A) 0 B) 23 N C) 55 N D) 90 N 1. In which list are the forms of electromagnetic energy arranged in order from longest to shortest wavelengths? A) gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet rays, visible light B) radio waves, infrared rays, visible

More information

Energy, Temperature, & Heat. Energy, Temperature, & Heat. Temperature Scales 1/17/11

Energy, Temperature, & Heat. Energy, Temperature, & Heat. Temperature Scales 1/17/11 Energy, Temperature, & Heat Energy is the ability to do work (push, pull, lift) on some form of matter. Chapter 2 Potential energy is the potential for work (mass x gravity x height) Kinetic energy is

More information

MIDTERM REVIEW QUESTIONS - PACKET #2 (75 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS)

MIDTERM REVIEW QUESTIONS - PACKET #2 (75 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS) MIDTERM REVIEW QUESTIONS - PACKET #2 (75 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS) 1. Which graph best represents the effect that heating has on air density in the atmosphere? 2. An empty 250-milliliter beaker has a

More information

Lecture # 04 January 27, 2010, Wednesday Energy & Radiation

Lecture # 04 January 27, 2010, Wednesday Energy & Radiation Lecture # 04 January 27, 2010, Wednesday Energy & Radiation Kinds of energy Energy transfer mechanisms Radiation: electromagnetic spectrum, properties & principles Solar constant Atmospheric influence

More information

Seasonal & Diurnal Temp Variations. Earth-Sun Distance. Eccentricity 2/2/2010. ATS351 Lecture 3

Seasonal & Diurnal Temp Variations. Earth-Sun Distance. Eccentricity 2/2/2010. ATS351 Lecture 3 Seasonal & Diurnal Temp Variations ATS351 Lecture 3 Earth-Sun Distance Change in distance has only a minimal effect on seasonal temperature. Note that during the N. hemisphere winter, we are CLOSER to

More information

Insolation and Temperature variation. The Sun & Insolation. The Sun (cont.) The Sun

Insolation and Temperature variation. The Sun & Insolation. The Sun (cont.) The Sun Insolation and Temperature variation Atmosphere: blanket of air surrounding earth Without our atmosphere: cold, quiet, cratered place Dynamic: currents and circulation cells June 23, 2008 Atmosphere important

More information

ATMOSPHERE PACKET CHAPTER 22 PAGES Section 1 page 546

ATMOSPHERE PACKET CHAPTER 22 PAGES Section 1 page 546 Name: Period: ATMOSPHERE PACKET CHAPTER 22 PAGES 546-564 Section 1 page 546 1. Identify five main components of the atmosphere 2. Explain the cause of atmospheric pressure. 3. Why is atmospheric pressure

More information

Energy: Warming the earth and Atmosphere. air temperature. Overview of the Earth s Atmosphere 9/10/2012. Composition. Chapter 3.

Energy: Warming the earth and Atmosphere. air temperature. Overview of the Earth s Atmosphere 9/10/2012. Composition. Chapter 3. Overview of the Earth s Atmosphere Composition 99% of the atmosphere is within 30km of the Earth s surface. N 2 78% and O 2 21% The percentages represent a constant amount of gas but cycles of destruction

More information

A) usually less B) dark colored and rough D) light colored with a smooth surface A) transparency of the atmosphere D) rough, black surface

A) usually less B) dark colored and rough D) light colored with a smooth surface A) transparency of the atmosphere D) rough, black surface 1. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below which shows two identical houses, A and B, in a city in North Carolina. One house was built on the east side of a factory, and the other

More information

11/18/2010. Only part of the spectrum we can see. A rainbow of colors, each corresponding to a different wavelength.

11/18/2010. Only part of the spectrum we can see. A rainbow of colors, each corresponding to a different wavelength. The sun is the source of energy to heat the Earth s surface. Solar energy makes it s way to Earth by an energy transfer mechanism called radiation. Energy transferred this way travels outwards in all directions

More information

Energy Balance and Temperature. Ch. 3: Energy Balance. Ch. 3: Temperature. Controls of Temperature

Energy Balance and Temperature. Ch. 3: Energy Balance. Ch. 3: Temperature. Controls of Temperature Energy Balance and Temperature 1 Ch. 3: Energy Balance Propagation of Radiation Transmission, Absorption, Reflection, Scattering Incoming Sunlight Outgoing Terrestrial Radiation and Energy Balance Net

More information

Energy Balance and Temperature

Energy Balance and Temperature Energy Balance and Temperature 1 Ch. 3: Energy Balance Propagation of Radiation Transmission, Absorption, Reflection, Scattering Incoming Sunlight Outgoing Terrestrial Radiation and Energy Balance Net

More information

Topic 6: Insolation and the Seasons

Topic 6: Insolation and the Seasons Topic 6: Insolation and the Seasons Solar Radiation and Insolation Insolation: In Sol ation The Sun is the primary source of energy for the earth. The rate at which energy is radiated is called Intensity

More information

Lecture #03. January 20, 2010, Wednesday

Lecture #03. January 20, 2010, Wednesday Lecture #03 January 20, 2010, Wednesday Causes of Earth s Seasons Earth-Sun geometry Day length Solar angle (beam spread) Atmospheric beam depletion Shape and Size of the Earth North Pole E Geoid: not

More information

Fluid Circulation Review. Vocabulary. - Dark colored surfaces absorb more energy.

Fluid Circulation Review. Vocabulary. - Dark colored surfaces absorb more energy. Fluid Circulation Review Vocabulary Absorption - taking in energy as in radiation. For example, the ground will absorb the sun s radiation faster than the ocean water. Air pressure Albedo - Dark colored

More information

In the News: &id= &m=

In the News:  &id= &m= In the News: http://www.npr.org/templates/player/mediaplayer.html?action=1&t=1&islist=false &id=112755481&m=112805055 1 In the News: http://www.economist.com/scien cetechnology/displaystory.cfm?st ory_id=14302001

More information

The Atmosphere. Importance of our. 4 Layers of the Atmosphere. Introduction to atmosphere, weather, and climate. What makes up the atmosphere?

The Atmosphere. Importance of our. 4 Layers of the Atmosphere. Introduction to atmosphere, weather, and climate. What makes up the atmosphere? The Atmosphere Introduction to atmosphere, weather, and climate Where is the atmosphere? Everywhere! Completely surrounds Earth February 20, 2010 What makes up the atmosphere? Argon Inert gas 1% Variable

More information

ATM S 111: Global Warming Solar Radiation. Jennifer Fletcher Day 2: June

ATM S 111: Global Warming Solar Radiation. Jennifer Fletcher Day 2: June ATM S 111: Global Warming Solar Radiation Jennifer Fletcher Day 2: June 22 2010 Yesterday We Asked What factors influence climate at a given place? Sunshine (and latitude) Topography/mountains Proximity

More information

Chapter 2 Solar and Infrared Radiation

Chapter 2 Solar and Infrared Radiation Chapter 2 Solar and Infrared Radiation Chapter overview: Fluxes Energy transfer Seasonal and daily changes in radiation Surface radiation budget Fluxes Flux (F): The transfer of a quantity per unit area

More information

The following terms are some of the vocabulary that students should be familiar with in order to fully master this lesson.

The following terms are some of the vocabulary that students should be familiar with in order to fully master this lesson. Lesson 211: EARTH'S SEASONS Students learn the complex geometry and planetary motions that cause Earth to have four distinct seasons. Fundamental Questions Attempting to give thorough and reasonable answers

More information

The inputs and outputs of energy within the earth-atmosphere system that determines the net energy available for surface processes is the Energy

The inputs and outputs of energy within the earth-atmosphere system that determines the net energy available for surface processes is the Energy Energy Balance The inputs and outputs of energy within the earth-atmosphere system that determines the net energy available for surface processes is the Energy Balance Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic

More information

Earth s Atmosphere. Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere. 3. All the energy from the Sun reaches Earth s surface.

Earth s Atmosphere. Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere. 3. All the energy from the Sun reaches Earth s surface. CHAPTER 11 LESSON 2 Earth s Atmosphere Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Key Concepts How does energy transfer from the Sun to Earth and to the atmosphere? How are air circulation patterns within the atmosphere

More information

Topic # 12 HOW CLIMATE WORKS

Topic # 12 HOW CLIMATE WORKS Topic # 12 HOW CLIMATE WORKS A Primer on How the Energy Balance Drives Atmospheric & Oceanic Circulation, Natural Climatic Processes Starts on p 67 in Class Notes Evidently, not scary enough. How do we

More information

G109 Alternate Midterm Exam October, 2004 Instructor: Dr C.M. Brown

G109 Alternate Midterm Exam October, 2004 Instructor: Dr C.M. Brown 1 Time allowed 50 mins. Answer ALL questions Total possible points;50 Number of pages:8 Part A: Multiple Choice (1 point each) [total 24] Answer all Questions by marking the corresponding number on the

More information

Lecture 4: Heat, and Radiation

Lecture 4: Heat, and Radiation Lecture 4: Heat, and Radiation Heat Heat is a transfer of energy from one object to another. Heat makes things warmer. Heat is measured in units called calories. A calorie is the heat (energy) required

More information

( 1 d 2 ) (Inverse Square law);

( 1 d 2 ) (Inverse Square law); ATMO 336 -- Exam 3 120 total points including take-home essay Name The following equations and relationships may prove useful. F d1 =F d2 d 2 2 ( 1 d 2 ) (Inverse Square law);! MAX = 0.29 " 104 µmk (Wien's

More information

Planetary Atmospheres (Chapter 10)

Planetary Atmospheres (Chapter 10) Planetary Atmospheres (Chapter 10) Based on Chapter 10 This material will be useful for understanding Chapters 11 and 13 on Jovian planet systems and Extrasolar planets Chapters 4, 5, and 8 on Momentum,

More information

1 A 3 C 2 B 4 D. 5. During which month does the minimum duration of insolation occur in New York State? 1 February 3 September 2 July 4 December

1 A 3 C 2 B 4 D. 5. During which month does the minimum duration of insolation occur in New York State? 1 February 3 September 2 July 4 December INSOLATION REVIEW 1. The map below shows isolines of average daily insolation received in calories per square centimeter per minute at the Earth s surface. If identical solar collectors are placed at the

More information

ME 476 Solar Energy UNIT THREE SOLAR RADIATION

ME 476 Solar Energy UNIT THREE SOLAR RADIATION ME 476 Solar Energy UNIT THREE SOLAR RADIATION Unit Outline 2 What is the sun? Radiation from the sun Factors affecting solar radiation Atmospheric effects Solar radiation intensity Air mass Seasonal variations

More information

L.O: THE ANGLE OF INSOLATION ANGLE INSOLATION: THE ANGLE SUNLIGHT HITS THE EARTH

L.O: THE ANGLE OF INSOLATION ANGLE INSOLATION: THE ANGLE SUNLIGHT HITS THE EARTH L.O: THE ANGLE OF INSOLATION ANGLE INSOLATION: THE ANGLE SUNLIGHT HITS THE EARTH 1. The graph below shows air temperatures on a clear summer day from 7 a.m. to 12 noon at two locations, one in Florida

More information

2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres: Mars, Venus, Earth What is an atmosphere? An atmosphere is a (usually very thin) layer of gas that surrounds a world. How does the greenhouse effect warm a planet? No

More information

Earth s Atmosphere About 10 km thick

Earth s Atmosphere About 10 km thick 10.1 Atmospheric Basics Our goals for learning: What is an atmosphere? How does the greenhouse effect warm a planet? Why do atmospheric properties vary with altitude? Earth s Atmosphere About 10 km thick

More information

Spectrum of Radiation. Importance of Radiation Transfer. Radiation Intensity and Wavelength. Lecture 3: Atmospheric Radiative Transfer and Climate

Spectrum of Radiation. Importance of Radiation Transfer. Radiation Intensity and Wavelength. Lecture 3: Atmospheric Radiative Transfer and Climate Lecture 3: Atmospheric Radiative Transfer and Climate Radiation Intensity and Wavelength frequency Planck s constant Solar and infrared radiation selective absorption and emission Selective absorption

More information

Earth-Sun Relationships. The Reasons for the Seasons

Earth-Sun Relationships. The Reasons for the Seasons Earth-Sun Relationships The Reasons for the Seasons Solar Radiation The earth intercepts less than one two-billionth of the energy given off by the sun. However, the radiation is sufficient to provide

More information

Lecture 3: Atmospheric Radiative Transfer and Climate

Lecture 3: Atmospheric Radiative Transfer and Climate Lecture 3: Atmospheric Radiative Transfer and Climate Solar and infrared radiation selective absorption and emission Selective absorption and emission Cloud and radiation Radiative-convective equilibrium

More information

Lecture 6: Radiation Transfer. Global Energy Balance. Reflection and Scattering. Atmospheric Influences on Insolation

Lecture 6: Radiation Transfer. Global Energy Balance. Reflection and Scattering. Atmospheric Influences on Insolation Lecture 6: Radiation Transfer Global Energy Balance terrestrial radiation cooling Solar radiation warming Global Temperature atmosphere Vertical and latitudinal energy distributions Absorption, Reflection,

More information

Lecture 6: Radiation Transfer

Lecture 6: Radiation Transfer Lecture 6: Radiation Transfer Vertical and latitudinal energy distributions Absorption, Reflection, and Transmission Global Energy Balance terrestrial radiation cooling Solar radiation warming Global Temperature

More information

Earth s Heat Budget. What causes the seasons? Seasons

Earth s Heat Budget. What causes the seasons? Seasons Earth s Heat Budget Solar energy and the global heat budget Transfer of heat drives weather and climate Ocean circulation A. Rotation of the Earth B. Distance from the Sun C. Variations of Earth s orbit

More information

Surface Processes and the Hydrosphere Unit Heating the Earth s Atmosphere Chapter 11 (pg )

Surface Processes and the Hydrosphere Unit Heating the Earth s Atmosphere Chapter 11 (pg ) Name: Block: Surface Processes and the Hydrosphere Unit Heating the Earth s Atmosphere Chapter 11 (pg. 352 385) 11.1: Focus on the Atmosphere: Weather and Climate What is the difference between the weather

More information

COMPOSITION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

COMPOSITION OF THE ATMOSPHERE Skills Worksheet Directed Reading Section: Characteristics of the Atmosphere 1. Define atmosphere. 2. Describe two important functions served by Earth s atmosphere. COMPOSITION OF THE ATMOSPHERE 3. The

More information

Key Concept Heat in Earth s atmosphere is transferred by radiation, conduction, and convection.

Key Concept Heat in Earth s atmosphere is transferred by radiation, conduction, and convection. Section 2 Atmospheric Heating Key Concept Heat in Earth s atmosphere is transferred by radiation, conduction, and convection. What You Will Learn Solar energy travels through space as radiation and passes

More information

Energy Transfer Packet 9

Energy Transfer Packet 9 Energy Transfer Packet 9 Your Name Group Members Score Minutes Standard 4 Key Idea 2 Performance Indicator 2.2 Explain how incoming solar radiation, ocean currents, and land masses affect weather and climate.

More information

MIDTERM PRACTICE EXAM ANSWERS

MIDTERM PRACTICE EXAM ANSWERS MIDTERM PRACTICE EXAM ANSWERS 1. (2) Location B shows that the altitude of the noon Sun increases between Dec 21. and June 21. Location B also shows that the Dec. 21 noon Sun is at an altitude of approximately

More information

C) wavelength C) eastern horizon B) the angle of insolation is high B) increases, only D) thermosphere D) receive low-angle insolation

C) wavelength C) eastern horizon B) the angle of insolation is high B) increases, only D) thermosphere D) receive low-angle insolation 1. What is the basic difference between ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation? A) half-life B) temperature C) wavelength D) wave velocity 2. In New York State, the risk of sunburn is greatest between

More information

Energy and Insolation Review 2

Energy and Insolation Review 2 Energy and Insolation Review 2 The diagram below shows a container of water that is being heated. 1. The movement of water shown by the arrows is most likely caused by (1) density differences (2) insolation

More information

Earth s Heat Budget. What causes the seasons? Seasons

Earth s Heat Budget. What causes the seasons? Seasons Earth s Heat Budget Solar energy and the global heat budget Transfer of heat drives weather and climate Ocean circulation A. Rotation of the Earth B. Distance from the Sun C. Variations of Earth s orbit

More information

RR#3- Multiple Choice

RR#3- Multiple Choice 1. Which type of land surface will most likely absorb the greatest amount of incoming solar radiation? 1) rough, dark-colored surface 2) rough, light-colored surface 3) smooth, dark-colored surface 4)

More information

The Cosmic Perspective Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds

The Cosmic Perspective Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds Chapter 10 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial

More information

NATS 101 Section 13: Lecture 7. The Seasons

NATS 101 Section 13: Lecture 7. The Seasons NATS 101 Section 13: Lecture 7 The Seasons The Importance of Seasons The seasons govern both natural and human patterns of behavior. Some big and small examples: Planting and harvesting of crops Migratory

More information

The Atmosphere. Characteristics of the Atmosphere. Section 23.1 Objectives. Chapter 23. Chapter 23 Modern Earth Science. Section 1

The Atmosphere. Characteristics of the Atmosphere. Section 23.1 Objectives. Chapter 23. Chapter 23 Modern Earth Science. Section 1 The Atmosphere Chapter 23 Modern Earth Science Characteristics of the Atmosphere Chapter 23 Section 1 Section 23.1 Objectives Describe the composition of Earth s atmosphere. Explain how two types of barometers

More information

Unit 3 Review Guide: Atmosphere

Unit 3 Review Guide: Atmosphere Unit 3 Review Guide: Atmosphere Atmosphere: A thin layer of gases that forms a protective covering around the Earth. Photosynthesis: Process where plants take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen. Trace

More information

Energy. Kinetic and Potential Energy. Kinetic Energy. Kinetic energy the energy of motion

Energy. Kinetic and Potential Energy. Kinetic Energy. Kinetic energy the energy of motion Introduction to Climatology GEOGRAPHY 300 Tom Giambelluca University of Hawai i at Mānoa Solar Radiation and the Seasons Energy Energy: The ability to do work Energy: Force applied over a distance kg m

More information

- matter-energy interactions. - global radiation balance. Further Reading: Chapter 04 of the text book. Outline. - shortwave radiation balance

- matter-energy interactions. - global radiation balance. Further Reading: Chapter 04 of the text book. Outline. - shortwave radiation balance (1 of 12) Further Reading: Chapter 04 of the text book Outline - matter-energy interactions - shortwave radiation balance - longwave radiation balance - global radiation balance (2 of 12) Previously, we

More information

Electromagnetic Radiation. Radiation and the Planetary Energy Balance. Electromagnetic Spectrum of the Sun

Electromagnetic Radiation. Radiation and the Planetary Energy Balance. Electromagnetic Spectrum of the Sun Radiation and the Planetary Energy Balance Electromagnetic Radiation Solar radiation warms the planet Conversion of solar energy at the surface Absorption and emission by the atmosphere The greenhouse

More information

1. Weather and climate.

1. Weather and climate. Lecture 31. Introduction to climate and climate change. Part 1. Objectives: 1. Weather and climate. 2. Earth s radiation budget. 3. Clouds and radiation field. Readings: Turco: p. 320-349; Brimblecombe:

More information