Kepler s Laws Simulations


 Lily Banks
 8 months ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Kepler s Laws Simulations Goto: 1. Observe the speed of the planet as it orbits around the Sun. Change the speed to.50 and answer the questions. a. When is the planet moving the fastest? b. When is the planet moving the slowest? 2. Adjust the e (eccentricity) slider to its highest number. Record e a. How does the speed of the planet change? b. How does the orbit change? c. How did the spacing between foci change? d. Why can t the simulation run at e = 1? 3. Adjust the e (eccentricity) slider to its lowest number. Record e a. How does the speed of the planet change? b. How does the orbit change? c. How did the spacing between foci change? 4. Set the e to.01, which is close to the Earth s eccentricity, and write down the shape of the orbit. 5. Set e to.65 again and click show lines. The lines connect each focus to the same point on the ellipse. a. Does the value of r1 + r2 change? b. Change the eccentricity. Does the value change now? 6. The Mass of the Sun, M, is set to our Sun, 1 solar, record Period a. Increase the mass of the Sun to 10, which is 10x ours, record period b. Increase the mass of the Sun to 20, record period c. Increase the mass of the Sun to 30, record period d. Increase the mass of the Sun to 40, record period e. Increase the mass of the Sun to 50, record period f. What is the relationship between the mass of the Sun and the period of revolution?
2 Name Unit 2: The Copernican Revolution Vocabulary: Define each term below in a complete sentence on a separate sheet of paper. (Terms that are *, please illustrate) Cosmology Retrograde Motion* Geocentric* Epicycle* Deferent* Ptolemaic Model* Heliocentric* Copernican Revolution Ellipse* Focus* Semimajor axis* Eccentricity Perihelion* Aphelion* Sidereal orbital period Escape Velocity* Inertia Mass Newtonian Mechanics Gravitational Field Stonehenge* Acceleration Gravity* A. Ancient Astronomy 1.Where is Stonehenge? Salisbury Plain, When and who built it? Began 2800finished B.C. took 1700 years 2.What was Stonehenge s purpose? 3dimensional, for religious and agriculture purposes brought in large boulders (up to 50 tons) from miles away 1 3. What ancient cultures were accomplished in ancient astronomy? Mayans Temple in Mexico used for human sacrifices when the planet Venus appeared Plains Indians Big Horn Medicine Wheel, Chinese 12 th century, kept accurate records of comets, and a guest star later known as a supernova, visible during the Muslims a vital link between ancient Greece and the Renaissance (dark ages), saved astronomical data, developed trigonometry, names stars such as Rigel, and Vega B. The Geocentric Universe 1.What Greek word is the word planet derived from, why did they get this name?  meandering wanderer, stay close to ecliptic, why? 2. Explain the difference between retrograde and prograde motion: Prograde motion Retrograde motion 3. What did Aristotle mean by a geocentric universe? Geo= Earth  4. How was the geocentric Earth explained by epicycle and deferent?   small orbits   larger orbits C. Model of the Solar System 1.Who was Nicholas Copernicus?   rediscovered heliocentric model from ancient GreeceAristarchus 2. Describe the seven points of the Copernican Revolution in your own words: 1)Earth isn t the center of 2)Earth is only center to 3)All planets revolve around the Sun 4)Stars are much further away than the Sun 5)Any motions from the stars 6)Sun s motion due to 7)Retrograde motion can only be explained accurately through a 3.What was Copernicus s motivation for his geocentric model? Wanted a simpler model to explain the motion of planets
3 D. The Birth of Modern Astronomy 1.Who was Galileo Galilei? Italian mathematician/philosopher , saw conflict with Aristotle s geocentric model 2. What did Galileo see with one of the first telescopes? Moon Sun had blemishes (sunspots) inferred the Sun rotates Jupiter Strong support for Copernican model of solar system 3. What confrontation did Galileo face based on his observations? Galileo published Roman Catholic Church burned (astronomer) a few years before based on his strong belief in Copernican model Same for Galileo unless he takes back what was said in his book He denied his book and was placed under house arrest for life after the Was obviously correct, Catholic Church only recently admitted it was wrong in the 1980 s, over 300 years later E. Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion 1.Who was Johannes Kepler?  2.What did Kepler inherit?  position as Imperial Mathematician of Holy Roman Empire and all of his observations of planets 3. How did Kepler determine the shape of a planet s orbit? Thru of different part of Earth s orbit 4. What is Kepler s first law? All orbits of planets are 5. How is an ellipse different than a circle? An elongated circle focus major axis 6. What is a semimajor axis and eccentricity? Semimajor axis Eccentricity ratio of the distance between the foci to the length of the major axis Circle 7. What distances can we calculate from the semimajor axis and the eccentricity?   closest approach to the Sun   greatest distance to the Sun 8.Define Kepler s second law (in your own words): As objects approaches perihelion they 9.Define Kepler s third law (in your own words):  10.What are major points of the front cover: Orbital Properties of Planets: Almost all of the planets orbits except Pluto and Mercury are almost circles= eccentricity is close to 0 F. Dimensions of the Solar System? 1.What do Kepler s laws not tell us about the planets?  2. What are the two methods for determining the distance to the Sun? a. b. 2
4 3. What is an exact A.U., how do we know? 149,597,870 km, we ll just use 150,000,000 km, G. Newton s Laws 1.Why are Kepler s discoveries described as empirical? Came from analysis of observational data, not derived from in other words: Why did the planets orbit the Sun? 2. Who was Isaac Newton?  (same year Galileo died) Discovered laws of gravity 3.What are Newton s Three Laws (in your own words): 1). 2) 3) 4.How is gravity different on Earth than the Moon? The more massive an object = Moon its mass is less than Earth= less gravity 5.What is the inversesquare law?  6. What is the formula for Newton s law gravity?  = (Mass of object #1) x (Mass of object #2)/distance 2 7.What two forces are the reason for Earth s motion?  8.How fast is the Earth traveling around the Sun? 30 km/second or 9.How do you know the Earth is traveling this fast? Earth s circle of radius= 1 A.U.= circumference= 2(PIE)A.U.= 940 km 10.What is the mass of the Sun and Earth? Sun: Earth: 11. How are the masses of the Sun and Earth calculated? Need to know gravitational influence Earth need to know distance to moon and length of sidereal month Sun 12. How did Newton modify Kepler s third law, why? Both planet and Sun orbit their common center of mass= 2 foci Kepler= period(year) 2 = semimajor axis (A.U.) 3, / Newton= 13. Define escape velocity What is the formula for escape velocity? Escape Velocity = 15. What is the escape velocity of Earth? To stay in orbit = constant free fall but have inertia = 7.9 km/second or To escape Earth= 11.2 km/second or 3
5 TOPIC IV: Earth s Motions LAB 4 3: ELLIPSES Name Partner Astronomy Block Date INTRODUCTION: The earth revolves around the sun in a geometrically shaped orbit called an ellipse. An ellipse has two center points. Each one is called a focus. The sun is not in the exact middle of the earth s orbit, rather, it is found at one of the focal points. OBJECTIVE: You will be able to compare the shape of the earth s orbit and orbits of other planets with the shape of a circle. Focus 1 Focus 2 d (Distance) L (major axis) VOCABULARY: 1. Ellipse: 2. Eccentricity: 3. Focus (plural is foci): 4. Major axis: 5. Circle: PROCEDURE: 1. Cut a piece of string about cm in length and tie the ends together to form a loop. 2. On a plain white paper draw a straight line lengthwise down the middle of the paper. 3. Near the center of this line, draw two dots 3cm apart. 4. Placing the paper on a piece of cardboard put a thumbtack in each dot (focus). Page 1
6 5. Loop the string around the thumbtacks and draw the ellipse by placing your pencil inside and drawing around in a circular motion. 6. Label this ellipse #1. 7. Measure the distance between the thumbtack holes (foci). This is d. Record this on your Report Sheet. 8. Measure the length of the major axis (L) and record this on the Report Sheet. 9. Move one tack out another cm and center the tacks and draw a new ellipse. Label it #2 and measure and record d and L. 10. Move one tack out another cm and center the tacks and draw another ellipse. Label it #3 and measure and record d and L. 11. Move one tack out another cm and center the tacks and draw another ellipse. Label it #4 and measure and record d and L. 12. Place a dot in the middle of the first two foci. Using one thumb tack, construct a circle. The one thumb tack will be the radius of the circle you are to draw. 13. Using the Given equation, calculate the eccentricity (e) of each of the five figures. Show all work on you Report Sheet. ECCENTRICITIES OF THE PLANETS PLANET ECCENTRICITY Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Page 2
7 REPORT SHEET Note: Eccentricities may vary from student to student depending on where they tied the knot for the loop. However the eccentricities should be close to these values. Ellipse #1 Calculations d= L= e= Ellipse #2 Calculations d= L= e= Ellipse #3 Calculations d= L= e= Ellipse #4 Calculations d= L= e= Ellipse #5 (circle) Calculations d= L= e= Page 3
8 DISSCUSION QUESTIONS: (Answer in Complete Sentences) 1. What change takes place in the eccentricity of the ellipses when you increase the distance between the foci? 2. Which of the four ellipses you drew (not counting the circle) was the most eccentric? 3. Which of the four ellipses you drew (not counting the circle) was the least eccentric? 4. What is the minimum eccentricity an ellipse can have? 5. What is the name of the geometric figure which has the minimum eccentricity? 6. How does the numerical value of e change as the shape of the ellipse approaches a straight line? 7. Where is the sun located on a diagram of the earth s orbit? 8. What was the eccentricity you calculate for Ellipse #1? 9. Which is rounder (less eccentric), the orbit of Earth or your Ellipse #1? 10. In the table, Eccentricities of the Planets, the planets are listed in order by their distance from the sun. Is there a direct relationship between the eccentricity of its orbit and the distance a planet is from the sun? 11. List the planets in order of the increasing eccentricity of their orbits. CONCLUSION: Describe the true shape of earth s orbit? Page 4
9 Name Gravity Exploration Did you know that when the astronauts walked on the moon thirty years ago, they actually weighed less than they did when they left Earth? It wasn't because of any special diet or exercise, eitherit could happen to you in outer space, too! Here's an activity that explains why. To complete this activity, you'll need to know your current weight. Gravity is a universal, natural force that attracts objects to each other. Originally defined by Isaac Newton, and redefined by Albert Einstein, gravity is basically the natural force of attraction between two objects. Two factors determine the magnitude of the gravitational force between two objects: 1) their masses and 2) the separation distance between them. Gravity is the pull toward the center of an object; let s say, of a planet or a moon. When you weigh yourself, you are measuring the amount of gravitational attraction exerted on you by Earth. The Moon has a weaker gravitational attraction than Earth. So, you should weigh less on the Moon. Isaac Newton showed that the planets do not fly off into space because the gravitational attraction between the sun and each planet holds them close together. This attracting force exists between objects because of their mass. The greater the mass, the greater the attraction of gravity. Since every planet has mass, then every planet exerts a gravitational force on nearby objects. Part A: How much would you weigh on other planets and the moon? The more mass a planet has, the more gravity it has. Planets which have more mass than Earth would have more gravity than Earth. A person would weigh more on these planets than they do on Earth. Part B: How far could you jump on other planets and the moon? Determine how far you can jump on the Earth. To do this, place a piece of tape on the floor as a starting line. Jump as far as you can off of both feet. Have your partner mark where you land not where you end up! Measure the distance and record in the table.
10 Conclusion: 1. Complete each statement: A person would weigh more on than on, because. A person could jump further on than on, because. The force of gravity between two objects depends on.. 2. Identify a planet that has a similar gravitational attraction as Earth. 3. List the planets gravitational attraction from least to greatest. 4. Compare the multiplication factors in the chart. Judging from these factors, which planet do you think has the greatest mass? 5. Another student claims that the moon s gravity is 1/6 of the Earth s gravity. Is this a true statement? Look at the chart and use mathematics to support your answer. 6. What if your doctor told your aunt that weighing 165 pounds at 5 4 makes her 20 pounds overweightto what planet could she travel to be at an acceptable weight? Justify your answer.
11 Name Kelper s Laws Activity Part 1  Second Law A line joining a planet & the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal time In the ellipse below there are two areas, which represent the same time interval. Count up the number of blocks in area A and area B. Estimate to the best of your ability partial blocks. Blocks in A: Blocks in B: A B 1. If the time passed is the same for each segment, should the number of blocks covered also be the same? 2. In which region does the planet cover more of its orbit? In other words where is more distance covered? 3. If region is greater in length than region, and the time to travel those distances is the same, in which region is the planet moving faster? Explain. 4. Why doesn t our planet have large changes in orbital speed, even though Kepler s second law would indicate that the speed does change? Part 2: Third Law The squares of the periods of the planets are proportional to the cubes of their semi major axes: P 2 = A 3 1. Earth s period P = 1 year and the radius A = 1 AU, rewrite the above equation with the numbers substituted 2. Complete the table verifying that P 2 = A 3. Show work for conversions below the table. Planet P (days) P (yr) A (km) A (AU) P 2 A 3 Mercury ,343,169 Venus Earth ,597, Mars Jupiter ,908,924
12 Kepler Practice Quiz Name Date Directions: Show all work! Write out all equation with units. You will lose credit if these are not included. Equations: P=orbital period a= semimajor axis e=eccentricity Perihelion: a(1e) 1 A.U. 1.5 x 10 8 km Aphelion: a(1 + e) P 2 =a 3 1. What is the importance of Kepler s 2 nd Law? 2. How long will it take Saturn to go around the Sun (orbital period,p) if it s semimajor axis (a) is equal to 9.54 astronomical units (AU)? 3. Show that Pluto is closer to the Sun at perihelion than Neptune at Aphelion. Pluto s semimajor axis is x 10 9 km and has an eccentricity of.249. Neptune s semimajor axis is x 10 9 km and has an eccentricity of.009.
13 4. It takes Venus.62 (Earth) years to go around the Sun one time. How far on average is Venus from the Sun? 5. If Jupiter s orbital period is (Earth) years, find the distance Jupiter is from the Sun when it is moving slowest. Jupiter s eccentricity is equal to.048 (Hint: Use all Kepler s Laws)
14
15
Earth Science Unit 6: Astronomy Period: Date: Elliptical Orbits
Earth Science Name: Unit 6: Astronomy Period: Date: Lab # 5 Elliptical Orbits Objective: To compare the shape of the earth s orbit (eccentricity) with the orbits of and with a circle. other planets Focus
More informationGravitation Part I. Ptolemy, Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler
Gravitation Part I. Ptolemy, Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler Celestial motions The stars: Uniform daily motion about the celestial poles (rising and setting). The Sun: Daily motion around the celestial
More information9/12/2010. The Four Fundamental Forces of Nature. 1. Gravity 2. Electromagnetism 3. The Strong Nuclear Force 4. The Weak Nuclear Force
The Four Fundamental Forces of Nature 1. Gravity 2. Electromagnetism 3. The Strong Nuclear Force 4. The Weak Nuclear Force The Universe is made of matter Gravity the force of attraction between matter
More informationPlanetary Orbits: Kepler s Laws 1/18/07
Planetary Orbits: Kepler s Laws Announcements The correct link for the course webpage http://www.lpl.arizona.edu/undergrad/classes/spring2007/giacalone_2062 The first homework due Jan 25 (available for
More informationGravitation and the Motion of the Planets
Gravitation and the Motion of the Planets 1 Guiding Questions 1. How did ancient astronomers explain the motions of the planets? 2. Why did Copernicus think that the Earth and the other planets go around
More informationChapter 2. The Rise of Astronomy. Copyright (c) The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Chapter 2 The Rise of Astronomy Copyright (c) The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Periods of Western Astronomy Western astronomy divides into 4 periods Prehistoric
More informationASTRO 1050 LAB #3: Planetary Orbits and Kepler s Laws
ASTRO 1050 LAB #3: Planetary Orbits and Kepler s Laws ABSTRACT Johannes Kepler (15711630), a German mathematician and astronomer, was a man on a quest to discover order and harmony in the solar system.
More informationHow big is the Universe and where are we in it?
Announcements Results of clicker questions from Monday are on ICON. First homework is graded on ICON. Next homework due one minute before midnight on Tuesday, September 6. Labs start this week. All lab
More informationPHYS 155 Introductory Astronomy
PHYS 155 Introductory Astronomy  observing sessions: Sunday Thursday, 9pm, weather permitting http://www.phys.uconn.edu/observatory  Exam  Tuesday March 20,  Review Monday 6:309pm, PB 38 Marek Krasnansky
More informationJohannes Kepler ( ) German Mathematician and Astronomer Passionately convinced of the rightness of the Copernican view. Set out to prove it!
Johannes Kepler (15711630) German Mathematician and Astronomer Passionately convinced of the rightness of the Copernican view. Set out to prove it! Kepler s Life Work Kepler sought a unifying principle
More informationChapter 02 The Rise of Astronomy
Chapter 02 The Rise of Astronomy Multiple Choice Questions 1. The moon appears larger when it rises than when it is high in the sky because A. You are closer to it when it rises (angularsize relation).
More informationLecture 4: Kepler and Galileo. Astronomy 111 Wednesday September 6, 2017
Lecture 4: Kepler and Galileo Astronomy 111 Wednesday September 6, 2017 Reminders Online homework #2 due Monday at 3pm Johannes Kepler (15711630): German Was Tycho s assistant Used Tycho s data to discover
More informationEarly Theories. Early astronomers believed that the sun, planets and stars orbited Earth (geocentric model) Developed by Aristotle
Planetary Motion Early Theories Early astronomers believed that the sun, planets and stars orbited Earth (geocentric model) Developed by Aristotle Stars appear to move around Earth Observations showed
More information1. The Moon appears larger when it rises than when it is high in the sky because
21 Copyright 2016 All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of 1. The Moon appears larger when it rises than when it is high in the sky because A. you are
More informationChapter 2 The Science of Life in the Universe
In ancient times phenomena in the sky were not understood! Chapter 2 The Science of Life in the Universe The Ancient Greeks The Scientific Method Our ideas must always be consistent with our observations!
More informationObservational Astronomy  Lecture 4 Orbits, Motions, Kepler s and Newton s Laws
Observational Astronomy  Lecture 4 Orbits, Motions, Kepler s and Newton s Laws Craig Lage New York University  Department of Physics craig.lage@nyu.edu February 24, 2014 1 / 21 Tycho Brahe s Equatorial
More informationMotions of the Planets ASTR 2110 Sarazin
Motions of the Planets ASTR 2110 Sarazin Motion of Planets Retrograde Motion Inferior Planets: Mercury, Venus Always near Sun on Sky Retrograde motion when very close to Sun on sky (Every other time) Superior
More informationAstronomy The Original Science
Astronomy The Original Science Imagine that it is 5,000 years ago. Clocks and modern calendars have not been invented. How would you tell time or know what day it is? One way to tell the time is to study
More informationChapter. Origin of Modern Astronomy
Chapter Origin of Modern Astronomy 22.1 Early Astronomy Ancient Greeks Astronomy is the science that studies the universe. It includes the observation and interpretation of celestial bodies and phenomena.
More informationName Period Date Earth and Space Science. Solar System Review
Name Period Date Earth and Space Science Solar System Review 1. is the spinning a planetary object on its axis. 2. is the backward motion of planets. 3. The is a unit less number between 0 and 1 that describes
More informationReview of previous concepts!! Earth s orbit: Year, seasons, observed constellations, Polaris (North star), day/night lengths, equinoxes
Review of previous concepts!! Earth s orbit: Year, seasons, observed constellations, Polaris (North star), day/night lengths, equinoxes Celestial poles, celestial equator, ecliptic, ecliptic plane (Fig
More informationEarth Science, 11e. Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter 21. Early history of astronomy. Early history of astronomy. Early history of astronomy
2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 21 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors
More informationLecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System
Lecture 13 Gravity in the Solar System Guiding Questions 1. How was the heliocentric model established? What are monumental steps in the history of the heliocentric model? 2. How do Kepler s three laws
More information7.4 Universal Gravitation
Circular Motion Velocity is a vector quantity, which means that it involves both speed (magnitude) and direction. Therefore an object traveling at a constant speed can still accelerate if the direction
More informationAst ch 45 practice Test Multiple Choice
Ast ch 45 practice Test Multiple Choice 1. The distance from Alexandria to Syene is about 500 miles. On the summer solstice the sun is directly overhead at noon in Syene. At Alexandria on the summer solstice,
More informationEvidence that the Earth does not move: Greek Astronomy. Aristotelian Cosmology: Motions of the Planets. Ptolemy s Geocentric Model 21
Greek Astronomy Aristotelian Cosmology: Evidence that the Earth does not move: 1. Stars do not exhibit parallax: 21 At the center of the universe is the Earth: Changeable and imperfect. Above the Earth
More informationThe Revolution of the Moons of Jupiter
The Revolution of the Moons of Jupiter Overview: During this lab session you will make use of a CLEA (Contemporary Laboratory Experiences in Astronomy) computer program generously developed and supplied
More informationAstronomy Section 2 Solar System Test
is really cool! 1. The diagram below shows one model of a portion of the universe. Astronomy Section 2 Solar System Test 4. Which arrangement of the Sun, the Moon, and Earth results in the highest high
More informationEXAM #2. ANSWERS ASTR , Spring 2008
EXAM #2. ANSWERS ASTR 1101001, Spring 2008 1. In Copernicus s heliocentric model of the universe, which of the following astronomical objects was placed in an orbit around the Earth? The Moon 2. In his
More informationTycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe 15461601 At the time of Shakespeare and Elizabeth I and Champlain Lost part of his nose in a duel over who was the best mathematician At 27 he measured the distance of a supernova and a comet
More informationUnit: Planetary Science
Orbital Motion Kepler s Laws GETTING AN ACCOUNT: 1) go to www.explorelearning.com 2) click on Enroll in a class (top right hand area of screen). 3) Where it says Enter class Code enter the number: MLTWD2YAZH
More informationPatterns in the Solar System (Chapter 18)
GEOLOGY 306 Laboratory Instructor: TERRY J. BOROUGHS NAME: Patterns in the Solar System (Chapter 18) For this assignment you will require: a calculator, colored pencils, a metric ruler, and meter stick.
More informationToday. Planetary Motion. Tycho Brahe s Observations. Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion. Laws of Motion. in physics
Planetary Motion Today Tycho Brahe s Observations Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion Laws of Motion in physics Page from 1640 text in the KSL rare book collection That the Earth may be a Planet the seeming
More informationIf Earth had no tilt, what else would happen?
A more in depth explanation from last week: If Earth had no tilt, what else would happen? The equator would be much hotter due to the direct sunlight which would lead to a lower survival rate and little
More informationAST101: Our Corner of the Universe Lab 4: Planetary Orbits
AST101: Our Corner of the Universe Lab 4: Planetary Orbits Name: Partners: Student number (SUID): Lab section number: 1 Introduction Objectives The Planetary Orbits Lab reviews used the Planetary Orbit
More informationCoriolis Effect  the apparent curved paths of projectiles, winds, and ocean currents
Regents Earth Science Unit 5: Astronomy Models of the Universe Earliest models of the universe were based on the idea that the Sun, Moon, and planets all orbit the Earth models needed to explain how the
More informationKEPLER S LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION
KEPLER S LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION In the early 1600s, Johannes Kepler culminated his analysis of the extensive data taken by Tycho Brahe and published his three laws of planetary motion, which we know
More informationYou should have finished reading Chapter 3, and started on chapter 4 for next week.
Announcements Homework due on Sunday at 11:45pm. Thank your classmate! You should have finished reading Chapter 3, and started on chapter 4 for next week. Don t forget your out of class planetarium show
More informationHistory of Astronomy. PHYS 1411 Introduction to Astronomy. Tycho Brahe and Exploding Stars. Tycho Brahe ( ) Chapter 4. Renaissance Period
PHYS 1411 Introduction to Astronomy History of Astronomy Chapter 4 Renaissance Period Copernicus new (and correct) explanation for retrograde motion of the planets Copernicus new (and correct) explanation
More informationAP PhysicsB Universal Gravitation Introduction: Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion: Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation: Performance Objectives:
AP PhysicsB Universal Gravitation Introduction: Astronomy is the oldest science. Practical needs and imagination acted together to give astronomy an early importance. For thousands of years, the motions
More informationBy; Jarrick Serdar, Michael Broberg, Trevor Grey, Cameron Kearl, Claire DeCoste, and Kristian Fors
By; Jarrick Serdar, Michael Broberg, Trevor Grey, Cameron Kearl, Claire DeCoste, and Kristian Fors What is gravity? Gravity is defined as the force of attraction by which terrestrial bodies tend to fall
More informationThe Puzzle of Planetary Motion versus
The Puzzle of Planetary Motion versus Finding Earth s place in the Universe Observing the Planets Five of the planets are bright enough to be seen by the unaided eye. This view shows the sky after sunset
More informationSection 37 Kepler's Rules
Section 37 Kepler's Rules What is the universe made out of and how do the parts interact? That was our goal in this course While we ve learned that objects do what they do because of forces, energy, linear
More informationUnit 3 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Florida Benchmarks SC.8.N.1.4 Explain how hypotheses are valuable if they lead to further investigations, even if they turn out not to be supported by the data. SC.8.N.1.5 Analyze the methods used to develop
More informationReading Preview. Models of the Universe What is a geocentric model?
Section 1 Observing the Solar System 1 Observing the Solar System Objectives After this lesson, students will be able to J.3.1.1 Identify the geocentric and heliocentric systems. J.3.1.2 Recognize how
More information4. Gravitation & Planetary Motion. Mars Motion: 2005 to 2006
4. Gravitation & Planetary Motion Geocentric models of ancient times Heliocentric model of Copernicus Telescopic observations of Galileo Galilei Systematic observations of Tycho Brahe Three planetary laws
More informationPlanetary Mechanics:
Planetary Mechanics: Satellites A satellite is an object or a body that revolves around another body due to the gravitational attraction to the greater mass. Ex: The planets are natural satellites of the
More informationSatellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity
OpenStaxCNX module: m444 Satellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStaxCNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License.0 Abstract
More informationChapter 3 The Solar System
Name: Date: Period: Chapter 3 The Solar System Section 1 Observing the Solar System (pp. 7277) Key Concepts What are the geocentric and heliocentric systems? How did Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler contribute
More informationObserving the Solar System 201
Observing the Solar System 201 Ancient Observations The ancient Greeks observed the sky and noticed that the moon, sun, and stars seemed to move in a circle around the Earth. It seemed that the Earth
More information2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity
Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity 4.1 Describing Motion: Examples from Daily Life Some of the topics we will explore: How do we describe motion? (Speed,
More informationThe Science of Astronomy  Copernicus, Tycho, and Kepler. Reminder to take out your clicker and turn it on!
The Science of Astronomy  Copernicus, Tycho, and Kepler Reminder to take out your clicker and turn it on! Attendance Quiz Are you here today? Here! (a) yes (b) no (c) here? hear? hear, hear! Clicker Registration
More informationAPS 1030 Astronomy Lab 79 Kepler's Laws KEPLER'S LAWS
APS 1030 Astronomy Lab 79 Kepler's Laws KEPLER'S LAWS SYNOPSIS: Johannes Kepler formulated three laws that described how the planets orbit around the Sun. His work paved the way for Isaac Newton, who derived
More information2X CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY BIOGRAPHY 1260L
2X CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY BIOGRAPHY 1260L CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY AN EARTHCENTERED VIEW OF THE UNIVERSE Born 85 CE Hermiou, Egypt Died 165 CE Alexandria, Egypt By Cynthia Stokes Brown The Earth was the center of the
More informationAncient Astronomy. Lectures 56. Course website:
Ancient Astronomy Lectures 56 Course website: www.scs.fsu.edu/~dduke/lectures Lectures 56 Almagest Books 9 13 geocentric vs. heliocentric point of view the wandering stars, or planets the two anomalies
More informationWhat was once so mysterious about planetary motion in our sky? We see apparent retrograde motion when we pass by a planet
What was once so mysterious about planetary motion in our sky? Planets usually move slightly eastward from night to night relative to the stars. You cannot see this motion on a single night. But sometimes
More informationBenefit of astronomy to ancient cultures
Benefit of astronomy to ancient cultures Usefulness as a tool to predict the weather (seasons) Usefulness as a tool to tell time (sundials) Central Africa (6500 B.C.) Alignments Many ancient cultures built
More informationThe Scientific Revolution
The Scientific Revolution Consider the following. Put them in order from most true to least true. 1. That house is on fire. 2. God exists. 3. The earth moves around the sun. 4. 2 + 2 = 4 5. Michelangelo
More informationShattering the Celestial Sphere
Shattering the Celestial Sphere Shattering the Celestial Sphere Key Concepts 1) Thomas Digges discarded the celestial sphere, advocating an infinite universe. 2) Johannes Kepler discarded epicycles, and
More informationFinding Extrasolar Planets. I
ExtraSolar Planets Finding Extrasolar Planets. I Direct Searches Direct searches are difficult because stars are so bright. How Bright are Planets? Planets shine by reflected light. The amount reflected
More informationPedagogical information
SHOOTING STAR Shooting Star, an interactive computer simulation using calculation power of super computers. Students should investigate and become familiar with Kepler's laws, Newton's theory of gravitation,
More informationAstronomy 110 Lecture Fall, 2005 Astronomy 110 1
Astronomy 110 Lecture 5 + 6 Fall, 2005 Astronomy 110 1 Planets Known in Ancient Times Mercury difficult to see; always close to Sun in sky Venus very bright when visible morning or evening star Mars noticeably
More informationCHAPTER 8 PLANETARY MOTIONS
1 CHAPTER 8 PLANETARY MOTIONS 8.1 Introduction The word planet means wanderer (πλάνητες αστέρες wandering stars); in contrast to the fixed stars, the planets wander around on the celestial sphere, sometimes
More informationAstronomy, PART 2. Vocabulary. A. Universe  Our Milky Way Galaxy is one of of galaxies in an expanding universe.
Astronomy, PART 2 Vocabulary Aphelion Asteroid Astronomical Unit Comet Constellation Crater Eccentricity Eclipse Equinox Geocentric model Gravitation Heliocentric model Inertia Jovian Perihelion Revolution
More informationBasics of Kepler and Newton. Orbits of the planets, moons,
Basics of Kepler and Newton Orbits of the planets, moons, Kepler s Laws, as derived by Newton. Kepler s Laws Universal Law of Gravity Three Laws of Motion Deriving Kepler s Laws Recall: The Copernican
More informationWhich letter on the timeline best represents the time when scientists estimate that the Big Bang occurred? A) A B) B C) C D) D
1. The red shift of light from most galaxies is evidence that A) most galaxies are moving away from Earth B) a majority of stars in most galaxies are red giants C) the light slows down as it nears Earth
More informationExam 1 Astronomy 114. Part 1
Exam 1 Astronomy 114 Part 1 [140] Select the most appropriate answer among the choices given. 1. If the Moon is setting at 6AM, the phase of the Moon must be (A) first quarter. (B) third quarter. (C)
More informationAstronomy Our Solar System and Beyond Expanding Science Skills Series
Our Solar System and Beyond Expanding Science Skills Series By DON POWERS, Ph.D., and john B. Beaver, Ph.D. Consultants: Schyrlet Cameron and Carolyn Craig COPYRIGHT 2010 Mark Twain Media, Inc. ISBN 9781580379618
More informationThe Solar System CHAPTER 6. Vocabulary. star an object in space that makes its own light and heat. moon an object that circles around a planet
CHAPTER 6 The Solar System Vocabulary star an object in space that makes its own light and heat moon an object that circles around a planet Sun astronomical unit the distance between Earth and the Sun
More informationThe escape speed for an object leaving the surface of any celestial body of mass M and radius d is
83 Escape Speed Vocabulary Escape Speed: The minimum speed an object must possess in order to escape from the gravitational pull of a body. In Chapter 6, you worked with gravitational potential energy
More informationEarth Science Lesson Plan Quarter 4, Week 5, Day 1
Earth Science Lesson Plan Quarter 4, Week 5, Day 1 Outcomes for Today Standard Focus: Earth Sciences 1.d students know the evidence indicating that the planets are much closer to Earth than are the stars
More informationPrelab 4: Revolution of the Moons of Jupiter
Name: Section: Date: Prelab 4: Revolution of the Moons of Jupiter Many of the parameters astronomers study cannot be directly measured; rather, they are inferred from properties or other observations of
More informationEvolution of the Solar System
DATE DUE: Name: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 Section: Evolution of the Solar System Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer or option. Use GEOLOGIC vocabulary where
More informationUNIT 1: EARTH AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM.
UNIT 1: EARTH AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM. 1) A BRIEF HISTORY Theories of the Universe In the second century BC, the astronomer Ptolemy proposed that the Earth was the centre of the Universe, and that the Sun,
More informationg = Gm / r 2 The Big Idea
The Big Idea Over 2500 years ago Aristotle proposed two laws of physics governing motion. One for Earthly bodies (objects on Earth) that states objects naturally go in straight lines and one for Heavenly
More informationKepler s Laws of Orbital Motion. Lecture 5 January 24, 2013
Kepler s Laws of Orbital Motion Lecture 5 January 24, 2013 Team Extra Credit Two teams: Io & Genius Every class (that is not an exam/exam review) will have a question asked to a random member of each team
More informationNotes: The Solar System
Notes: The Solar System The Formation of the Solar System 1. A gas cloud collapses under the influence of gravity. 2. Solids condense at the center, forming a protostar. 3. A falttened disk of matter surrounds
More informationChapter 3 The Science of Astronomy
Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy 3.1 The Ancient Roots of Science Our goals for learning: In what ways do all humans employ scientific thinking? How did astronomical observations benefit ancient societies?
More informationChapter 5 Part 2. Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation, Satellites, and Weightlessness
Chapter 5 Part 2 Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation, Satellites, and Weightlessness Newton s ideas about gravity Newton knew that a force exerted on an object causes an acceleration. Most forces occurred
More informationTHE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION REVOLUTION: a sudden, extreme, or complete change in the way people live, work, etc. (MerriamWebster) THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Time of advancements in math and science during
More informationOrbital Paths. the Solar System
Purpose To compare the lengths of the terrestrial planets orbital paths and revolution times. Process Skills Measure, form a hypothesis, predict, observe, collect data, interpret data, communicate, draw
More informationImprisoned For the Truth
Imprisoned For the Truth Written by Boey Good day, my name is Galileo Galilei, and I'm not in a very good mood because I don't have much freedom. Read on and find out why. I was born in 1564, February
More informationEdmonds Community College ASTRONOMY 100 Sample Test #2 Fall Quarter 2006
Edmonds Community College ASTRONOMY 100 Sample Test #2 Fall Quarter 2006 Instructor: L. M. Khandro 10/19/06 Please Note: the following test derives from a course and text that covers the entire topic of
More informationknown since prehistoric times almost 10 times larger than Jupiter
Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune 40.32940774.667345 Sun Mercury Length of rotation Temperature at surface 8 official planets large number of smaller objects including Pluto, asteroids,
More informationPtolemy (125 A.D.) Ptolemy s Model. Ptolemy s Equant. Ptolemy s Model. Copernicus Model. Copernicus ( )
Ptolemy (125 A.D.) Designed a complete geometrical model of the universe that accurately predicted planetary motions with errors within 5 0 Most of the geometric devices and basic foundations of his model
More informationNewton s Three Law of Motion
Born in England on Christmas day 1643. Overview Chapter 2b Copernican Revolution Bubonic Plague 1665 While home for 2 years with nothing to do he made his most profound discoveries and proposed his most
More informationiclicker Astronomy 122 Outline
Astronomy 1 This Class (Lecture 8): How to make a jump shot? Next Class: What is a star? iclicker There are about 5 people without iclicker registration. Register now! After Friday, only registered grades
More information6 TH GRADE ACCURATE PLANET SIZES AND DISTANCE FROM THE SUN ACTIVITY
6 TH GRADE ACCURATE PLANET SIZES AND DISTANCE FROM THE SUN ACTIVITY Summary: Accurate planet size and distance from the Sun is studied in this lesson. Each student constructs a correctly scaled diagram
More informationWhich of the following planets are all made up of gas? When a planets orbit around the Sun looks like an oval, it s called a(n)
When a planets orbit around the Sun looks like an oval, it s called a(n)  ellipse  circle  axis  rotation Which of the following planets are all made up of gas?  Venus, Mars, Saturn and Pluto  Jupiter,
More informationTeaching the Geocentric Model Dr. David H Bradstreet Distributed by Spitz, Inc
Epicycles Dome Teaching the Geocentric Model Dr. David H Bradstreet Distributed by Spitz, Inc Copyright 2017  Contact Software This presentation offers details on how to use the Epicycles Dome program
More information1. thought the earth was at the center of the solar system and the planets move on small circles that move on bigger circles
Earth Science Chapter 20: Observing the Solar System Match the observations or discoveries with the correct scientist. Answers may be used more than once. Answers that cannot be read will be counted as
More informationThe Origin of Modern Astronomy. Nicolai Copernicus ( )
The Origin of Modern Astronomy Nicolai Copernicus (14731543) Goals for Today Complete our study of the Moon: lunar phases, the SunEarthMoon geometry, and the eclipses Tides and their origin Earth's
More informationD. most intense and of longest duration C. D.
Astronomy Take Home Test Answer on a separate sheet of paper In complete sentences justify your answer Name: 1. The Moon s cycle of phases can be observed from Earth because the Moon 4. The accompanying
More informationDescribing Motion. Newton Newton s Laws of Motion. Position Velocity. Acceleration. Key Concepts: Lecture 9
Key Concepts: Lecture 9 Newton Newton s Laws of Motion More on Kepler s Laws Describing Motion Position Velocity Rate of change of position (speed & direction) 80 km/hr Acceleration 40 km/hr Rate of change
More informationLearning About Our Solar System
Learning About Our Solar System By debbie Routh COPYRIGHT 2004 Mark Twain Media, Inc. ISBN 9781580378765 Printing No. 404007EB Mark Twain Media, Inc., Publishers Distributed by CarsonDellosa Publishing
More informationChapter 18: Studying Space Astronomy: The Original Science
Chapter 18: Studying Space 18.1 Astronomy: The Original Science What is Astronomy? Astronomy is the study of the universe People in ancient cultures used the seasonal cycles of the stars, planets, and
More informationEarth in Space. Guide for Reading How does Earth move in space? What causes the cycle of seasons on Earth?
Earth in Space How does Earth move in space? What causes the cycle of seasons on Earth? The study of the moon, stars, and other objects in space is called astronomy. Ancient astronomers studied the movements
More informationCopyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson AddisonWesley.
Chapter 13. Newton s Theory of Gravity The beautiful rings of Saturn consist of countless centimetersized ice crystals, all orbiting the planet under the influence of gravity. Chapter Goal: To use Newton
More informationUnderstanding Motion, Energy & Gravity
Speed, Velocity & Acceleration Understanding Motion, Energy & Gravity Chapter 4 speed: distance traveled per unit time (e.g., m/s, mph, km/ hr) velocity: speed & direction acceleration: change in velocity
More informationPlease turn on your clickers
Please turn on your clickers HW #1, due 1 week from today Quiz in class Wednesday Sections meet in Planetarium Honors meeting tonight in my office Sterling 5520 at 5:306pm Newton s First Law An object
More information