Cosmic Rays in the Galaxy

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1 1, Over View Cosmic Rays in the Galaxy Discovery : Legendary baloon flight of Victor Hess Observation of Cosmic Rays : Satellite, Balloon (Direct), Air shower (Indirect) Energy Spectrum of Cosmic Rays : from ev to ev Source of Cosmic Rays : Probably Acceleration in Supernova Shock Arriving Direction : Very Uniform, anisotropy amplitude is at ev Time variation : => 4, Solar Modulation J E , Results of Direct Observation ( ev) Chemical Composition : Proton, Helium, and All Stable Nuclei 3, Some Results from AMS02 and Some Other Precision Measurements

2 1, Over View Cosmic Rays in the Galaxy Discovery : Legendary baloon flight of Victor Hess Observation of Cosmic Rays : Satellite, Balloon (Direct), Air shower (Indirect) Energy Spectrum of Cosmic Rays : from ev to ev Source of Cosmic Rays : Probably Acceleration in Supernova Shock Arriving Direction : Very Uniform, anisotropy amplitude is at ev Time variation : => 4, Solar Modulation J E , Results of Direct Observation ( ev) Chemical Composition : Proton, Helium, and All Stable Nuclei 3, Some Results from AMS02 and Some Other Precision Measurements

3 Legendary Balloon Flight of V.F. Hess

4 Expected was radiation of ground, then decrease of Ion Pair as Balloon Ascended. But, it increased! => Radiation is Coming from the Sky

5 1, Over View Cosmic Rays in the Galaxy Discovery : Legendary baloon flight of Victor Hess Observation of Cosmic Rays : Satellite, Balloon (Direct), Air shower (Indirect) Energy Spectrum of Cosmic Rays : from ev to ev Source of Cosmic Rays : Probably Acceleration in Supernova Shock Arriving Direction : Very Uniform, anisotropy amplitude is at ev Time variation : => 4, Solar Modulation J E , Results of Direct Observation ( ev) Chemical Composition : Proton, Helium, and All Stable Nuclei 3, Some Results from AMS02 and Some Other Precision Measurements

6 Direct (Balloon or Satellite) Indirect (Air Shower)

7 Direct Observation Balloon Borne (BESS) Satellite (ISS, AMS02)

8 Indirect Observation (Air Shower) Auger Array Yangbajing Tibet, China

9

10

11 The Energy spectrum of cosmic ray multiplied by E 2.5 (All particle) (2 nd knee) Ankle Knee

12 1, Over View Cosmic Rays in the Galaxy Discovery : Legendary baloon flight of Victor Hess Observation of Cosmic Rays : Satellite, Balloon (Direct), Air shower (Indirect) Energy Spectrum of Cosmic Rays : from ev to ev Source of Cosmic Rays : Probably Acceleration in Supernova Shock Arriving Direction : Very Uniform, anisotropy amplitude is at ev Time variation : => 4, Solar Modulation J E , Results of Direct Observation ( ev) Chemical Composition : Proton, Helium, and All Stable Nuclei 3, Some Results from AMS02 and Some Other Precision Measurements

13 LHC : Man Made Largest Accelerator For 14TeV and 10T,We get r g ~4.6km

14 Hillas Diagram (List of Cosmic Ray Accelerator) ev (proton) ev ev ev

15 Main Mechanism => Shock of Super Nova Energy gain in a round trip After l times round trip Survive Probability in l s round trip Finally formed energy spectra In strong shock M>1, then we get This is very close to spectral index of cosmic rays at low energies.

16

17 Observed Shock in Super Nova Remnant rr g 3.3 g = g But, is the mechanism same up to high energy end?

18 1, Over View Cosmic Rays in the Galaxy Discovery : Legendary baloon flight of Victor Hess Observation of Cosmic Rays : Satellite, Balloon (Direct), Air shower (Indirect) Energy Spectrum of Cosmic Rays : from ev to ev Source of Cosmic Rays : Probably Acceleration in Supernova Shock Arriving Direction : Very Uniform, anisotropy amplitude is at ev Time variation : => 4, Solar Modulation J E , Results of Direct Observation ( ev) Chemical Composition : Proton, Helium, and All Stable Nuclei 3, Some Results from AMS02 and Some Other Precision Measurements

19

20

21

22

23 Anisotropy Amplitude at Higher Energies Amplitude Large More Experimental Test Needed! 23

24 1, Over View Cosmic Rays in the Galaxy Discovery : Legendary baloon flight of Victor Hess Observation of Cosmic Rays : Satellite, Balloon (Direct), Air shower (Indirect) Energy Spectrum of Cosmic Rays : from ev to ev Source of Cosmic Rays : Probably Acceleration in Supernova Shock Arriving Direction : Very Uniform, anisotropy amplitude is at ev Time variation : => 4, Solar Modulation J E , Results of Direct Observation ( ev) Chemical Composition : Proton, Helium, and All Stable Nuclei 3, Some Results from AMS02 and Some Other Precision Measurements

25 Cosmic Rays Responsible to Atmospheric Neutrino 100 GeV ev ev Knee Ankle Our target 25

26 Chemical Composition of Cosmic Rays Created by Fisson of C, N, O

27 Solar Abundance ~ Cosmic Abundance Nucleon Synthesis Big Bang => P, He, Li (not all) Inside of Star Hydrogen Burning (D fusion PP chain, CNO sycle) => He He Burning => Be, C, O, Ne, Mg, Si S, Ar, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ne Li Burning => Be, (Breaking of Li in Brown Dwarf) Carbon Burning => He, O, Ne, Na, Mg, Oxygen Burning => Si, P, S, Mg Silicon Burning => S, Ar, Ca, Ti, Cr,Fe, Ni, Zn Super Nova or Brown Dwarf R-process, S-process for heavier then Fe

28 Nucleon Synthesis in Periodic Table

29 AMS02 observation of Li, Be, B

30 Energy Spectrum of Each Nucleon From E.S. ICRC2009 Other chemical compositions are also considered in the cal

31 1, Over View Cosmic Rays in the Galaxy Discovery : Legendary baloon flight of Victor Hess Observation of Cosmic Rays : Satellite, Balloon (Direct), Air shower (Indirect) Energy Spectrum of Cosmic Rays : from ev to ev Source of Cosmic Rays : Probably Acceleration in Supernova Shock Arriving Direction : Very Uniform, anisotropy amplitude is at ev Time variation : => 4, Solar Modulation J E , Results of Direct Observation ( ev) Chemical Composition : Proton, Helium, and All Stable Nuclei 3, Some Results from AMS02 and Some Other Precision Measurements

32 Some Results from Direct Observation

33 Cosmic Ray Spectra Model Based on AMS02 Observation

34 1, Over View Cosmic Rays in the Galaxy Discovery : Legendary baloon flight of Victor Hess Observation of Cosmic Rays : Satellite, Balloon (Direct), Air shower (Indirect) Energy Spectrum of Cosmic Rays : from ev to ev Source of Cosmic Rays : Probably Acceleration in Supernova Shock Arriving Direction : Very Uniform, anisotropy amplitude is at ev Time variation : => 4, Solar Modulation J E , Results of Direct Observation ( ev) Chemical Composition : Proton, Helium, and All Stable Nuclei 3, Some Results from AMS02 and Some Other Precision Measurements

35 Solar Modulation and Neutron Monitor

36 Solar Modulated Flux at Fixed Energy

37 Practical Formula for Solar Modulation Where a is from right figure, and N is the Count of Newark Neutron Monitor.

38

39 The Energy spectrum of cosmic ray (All particle) Indirect Observation Direct Observation

In the Beginning. After about three minutes the temperature had cooled even further, so that neutrons were able to combine with 1 H to form 2 H;

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