UNIT 3 The Study of the. Universe. Chapter 7: The Night Sky. Chapter 8: Exploring Our Stellar Neighbourhood. Chapter 9:The Mysterious.

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1 UNIT 3 The Study of the Universe Chapter 7: The Night Sky Chapter 8: Exploring Our Stellar Neighbourhood Chapter 9:The Mysterious Universe

2 CHAPTER 9 The Mysterious Universe In this chapter, you will: identify the three main types of galaxies describe the shape and size of the Milky Way galaxy describe evidence that supports the big bang theory and an evolution model of the universe identify spinoff technologies that have resulted from studying space

3 Matter in Motion (Page 359) Galaxies are huge, rotating collections of stars, planets, gas, and dust. They are held together by gravity. How can you model galaxy rotation?

4 9.1 Galaxies (Page 361) A galaxy is a huge, rotating collection of stars, planets, gas, and dust held together by gravity. In 1780, William Herschel discovered that the Milky Way is made up of stars. Previously, many thought the hazy, white band in the night sky was made of clouds.

5 The Shapes of Galaxies (Page 362) There are three basic shapes of galaxies: spiral, elliptical, and irregular. Spiral galaxies, shown in images (A) and (B), look like pinwheels with spiralling arms when viewed from the top, and like plates with a middle bulge when viewed from the side. Elliptical galaxies (C) range from perfect spheres to stretched out ellipses. Irregular galaxies (D) make up all other shapes.

6 Understanding the Milky Way Galaxy William Herschel thought that the Milky Way was a huge disk of billions of stars, possibly with the Sun at its centre. In the early 20 th century the American astronomer Harlow Shapely studied star clusters (collections of star held together by gravity) within the Milky Way, proving the Sun is nowhere near its centre. Open clusters are collections of 50 to 1000 stars that appear along the main band of the Milky Way. (Page 363) Globular clusters are collections of to a million stars arranged in a distinctive spherical shape. They appear around the centre of the Milky Way.

7 The Diameter and Centre of the Milky Way (Pages 363-4) Scientists have mapped the Milky Way with radio waves. They found that its diameter is light-years and its shape is disk-like. The Sun is about light-years from the centre of the galaxy. The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy of about 200 billion solar masses. Using radio waves as well as infrared radiation, astronomers confirmed that the centre of the Milky Way is surrounded by a bulge of stars. Globular clusters form a sphere around its centre.

8 Reviewing The Milky Way and Galaxy Formation Click the Start buttons to review the Milky Way and galaxy formation.

9 The Local Group (Page 365) The Local Group is a small group of galaxies that includes the Milky Way. It has a diameter of about 10 million light-years. The Milky Way and Andromeda are the largest galaxies in the Local Group. Most of the other galaxies are small, elliptical companions to the larger galaxies.

10 Galaxy Superclusters (Page 366) Superclusters are gigantic clusters of 4 to 25 clusters of galaxies that are hundreds of millions of light-years in size. Astronomers hypothesize that there may be more than 125 billion galaxies, and nearly all of them are organized into clusters. Credit: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA-JPL)

11 Section 9.1 Review (Page 367) Concepts to be reviewed: How are galaxies classified? What major classifications are used? What type of galaxy is the Milky Way? How large is it? What group of galaxies does it belong to? How are astronomers able to determine the composition, size, and shape of galaxies?

12 9.2 The Universe (Page 368) Cosmology is the study of the universe, including its origin, how it is changing, and its future. The American astronomer Edwin Hubble ( ) photographed and recorded distant galaxies and studied their spectra. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was named in his honour. Using instruments such as the HST, astronomers can examine galaxies that must have formed shortly after the universe formed.

13 The Doppler Effect (Page 369) The Doppler effect is the change in frequency of a light source due to its motion relative to an observer. It is also the change in pitch of a sound due to the motion of the source related to an observer. The Doppler effect can be observed in spectral star data. In A the star is not moving; in B the star is moving towards the observer or blueshifted; and in C the star is moving away from the observer or redshifted. The redshift shown in image C is the effect in which objects moving away from an observer have their wavelengths lengthened, towards the red end of the spectrum. With a blueshift, shown in image B, wavelengths are shortened towards the blue end of the spectrum.

14 The Expanding Universe (Pages 370-1) In 1929, Edwin Hubble and Milton L. Humason discovered a relationship between a galaxy s redshift and its distance from Earth. A megaparsec (MPC) is equal to one million parsecs (3.26 million light-years) and is the unit of distance commonly used to measure the distance between galaxies. The graph on the left shows that the speed of a galaxy is proportional to the galaxy s distance from Earth. This relationship is called the Hubble law, and the slope of the line is known as the Hubble constant. Russian-American astronomer George Gamow realized the significance of this relationship and theorized that the universe is expanding.

15 Space Exploration Spinoffs (Pages 370-1) Spinoffs are products originally designed for one use that have been adapted for other everyday uses. The high cost of space exploration has been offset somewhat by the generation of unexpected and useful spinoffs. A few examples are: protective suits for racing crews, U.S. Navy divers, and firemen star mapping technology for use in detecting breast cancer eye-controlled switches for use by handicapped people thin, lightweight, and shiny insulation materials radiation monitors

16 The Big Bang Theory (Page 372) Cosmologist believe that at some time in the distant past, the universe was extremely compact, small, and unimaginably dense. Evidence from satellites suggest that the universe began expanding about 14 billion years ago. The big bang is the event that may have triggered the expansion of the universe. The Big Bang Theory states that the universe began expanding with unimaginable violence from a hot and incredibly dense state to its present state. There is now convincing evidence that the big bang may have occurred. (Images courtesy of NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

17 Evidence of the Big Bang (Page 372) Hubble and Humason s distance redshift relationship supports the idea of a big bang. A second piece of information that supports the theory is the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, which is radiation left over from the big bang. The universe was originally filled with gamma rays (radiation with very short wavelengths). As the universe expanded, the gamma radiation was stretched into visible light, and then eventually into microwaves. It is this background energy that we find today.

18 Uncovering the CMB Radiation Evidence (Page 373) In 1965, two American scientists working for Bell Telephone Labs, Robert Wilson and Arno Penzias, discovered the background radiation that Gamow predicted would be left over from the big bang. The discovery was made while trying to determine the source of radio static/noise. The scientists won the 1978 Nobel prize in physics for their efforts. Bell Labs horn radio antenna in New Jersey where the background radiation was discovered Credit: NASA

19 COBE and WMAP (Page 373) The COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer) and WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) are two NASA satellites that were designed to measure background radiation left over from the big bang. Credit: NASA/WMAP Science Team Credit: NASA/LAMBDA WMAP COBE The maps above show the CMB radiation (represented mostly in green) that the probes detected.

20 Looking Back in Time (Page 374) Modern telescopes can see enormous distances into the universe, which means they can see very far back into the past. Seeing stars that are 10 billion light-years away gives us a view of the universe as it was 10 billion years ago. The COBE and WMAP images represent the universe when it was only years old (0.002% of its current age). The timeline below represents the evolution of the universe.

21 Reviewing The Big Bang Click the Start button to review the evolution of the universe.

22 The James Webb Space Telescope (Page 375) NASA plans to launch the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in 2013 to replace the Hubble Space Telescope. With its much larger mirror, the JWST will be able to see much farther into space, back to when the first galaxies were formed. Credit: NASA The much larger JWST mirror is only half the mass of the HST mirror.

23 CERN (Page 375) CERN (The European Organization for Nuclear Research), located in Switzerland, operates the world s more powerful machine for studying particles at high energies. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can conduct experiments at energies found in the universe s after the big bang, revealing secrets of the early universe. Copyright CERN

24 Section 9.2 Review (Page 376) Concepts to be reviewed: What observations led to the discovery that the universe was expanding? What spinoff products have been developed due to space exploration? What is the most widely accepted theory of the beginning of the universe? What details describe this theory?

25 9.3 Unsolved Mysteries (Page 377) The universe still holds many mysteries and secrets. One of these mysteries is dark matter. Dark matter is the most abundant form of matter in the universe, but it is invisible to telescopes. The light blue areas in image (B) represent a computer generation of where the dark matter might be.

26 Dark Matter and the Andromeda Galaxy (Page 378) Using the estimated mass of the Andromeda galaxy, astronomers predicted the speeds of stars at various distances from its centre. They found that the stars were moving much faster than expected. The dark matter in and around Andromeda is represented by the blue sphere. The astronomers could explain the speed differences by assuming that the galaxy contained 90% more mass than what was visible. Since the missing mass did not emit any light, it could not be seen. For this reason the missing mass was given the name dark matter. Dark matter has yet to be detected, and its true identity remains unknown.

27 Dark Matter and the Milky Way Galaxy (Page 379) Astronomers believe that the Milky Way is sitting in a huge halo of dark matter. The mass of the Milky Way has been estimated at 200 billion solar masses. After observing the motion of galaxies within the local group, astronomers suggested its mass is at least 10 times larger. This means that only 10% of the Milky Way is composed of visible matter. The remaining 90% is, theoretically, dark matter. Astronomers believe that visible matter makes up only 4% of the universe; dark matter makes up 23%; and dark energy makes up the rest.

28 Dark Energy (Page 380) Dark energy is a form of energy that makes up nearly three-quarters of the universe. Dark energy has the effect of increasing the expansion of the universe. The expansion of the universe began accelerating about 7 billion years ago. Astronomers predicted that after the Big Bang, the expansion of the universe would be decreasing due to gravity. Instead, supernovae were found farther away than was expected. This meant that the opposite was actually true: expansion was accelerating. Something must be counteracting gravity and accelerating the expansion. That something was given the name dark energy.

29 Section 9.3 Review (Page 381) Concepts to be reviewed: What is dark matter? What observations made scientists hypothesize its existence? What portion of the universe is composed of dark matter? What is dark energy? How does it affect the expansion of the universe?

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