DETECTING TRANSITING PLANETS WITH COROT. Stefania Carpano ESAC (25th of November 2009)

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1 DETECTING TRANSITING PLANETS WITH COROT Stefania Carpano ESAC (25th of November 2009)

2 Outline 1) Introduction: Exoplanet science and detection methods Detection of exoplanets using the transit method The CoRoT mission and CoRoT light curves 2) Results from the CoRoT mission 3) Comparison of CoRoT with Kepler and Plato missions

3 Why to look for extra-solar planets? Study formation and evolution of planetary systems (How unique are we? How common are planets?) need to measure the distribution of planet sizes, masses, orbits and age Search for life around other habitable planets small rocky planets with liquid water in benign temperature

4 Relatively a new field First extra-solar planet (giant) discovered by Mayor & Queloz in 1995 using radial-velocity technique. Found close to parent star has probably migrate there. Since 1995, about 400 extrasolar planets have been reported: most of them of Jupiter size but few of them of Neptune size and now even a low-mass rocky planet (CoRoT-7b). (Prediction)

5 Most common detection methods Radial-velocity: star moves back and forth along line-of-sight due to gravitational influence of planet blue/red-shift of spectral lines by Doppler-effect. Today can discover planets down to few Earth masses. Micro-lensing method: gravitational lensing of a star +planet enhancing the light of a background object. First extragalactic planet, discovered in M31?? (ask Achille Nucita!)

6 Transit method If the orbital plane intersect the line-of-sight to the star, the planet will obscure part of the star light. From the transit depth we can derive the ratio of the size of parent star to size of planet. Transit depth: ~1% for Jupiter-size 0.01% for Earth-size

7 If more than one transit is visible, the orbital period is known. It is possible to simultaneously monitor a large number of sources (10, ,000) The probability of transit varies from 0.5% for 1R planet at 1AU around solar type stars to several % for giant planets close to red dwarf stars (prob period (-2/3) ).

8 Secondary transits Secondary transits correspond to the occultation of the planet by the star provide information about the heat redistribution in the atmosphere and the eccentricity of the orbit

9 False positives Troublesome configurations that can lead to photometric signatures similar to planetary transits Main contributors: eclipsing binaries at grazing angles or in background stars (when source confusion)

10 Ground-based follow-up observations Confirm or infirm the presence of a potential planets detected in light curves. High spatial resolution photometric follow-up: in case of source confusion determine if the eclipse is on target or on a fainter neighbouring star with deeper flux drop. Spectroscopic follow-up: to discriminate between a planet and an eclipsing binary at grazing angle, by measuring the mass of the companion object.

11 The CoRoT mission Launched on the 27th of December 2006 Devoted to the analysis of stellar variability and photometric observations of extrasolar planets Continuously monitoring ~11,000 stars per observing field with magnitudes [ ] Mission duration: 3 years+3 years extension ( March 2013)

12 CoRoT observing regions Observes a 2 x2 field within a circular region of 10 of diameter in two different regions of the sky (galactic center and anti-center)

13 CoRoT fields Year divided into two period of 6 months of observations toward galactic center and anticenter Each of these six months is divided between a short run (20 days) and a long run (150 days), except for the initial run (60 days) Observed runs: IRa01, LRc01, SRc01, LRa01, SRa01, LRc02, SRc02, SRa02, LRa02 (IR=initial run, SR=short run, LR=long run, a=galactic anti-center, c=galactic center)

14 Focal plane and new observing strategy (?) 2 CCDs dedicated to astero-seismology (A1- A2) and 2 for extra-solar planets (E1-E2) Last September anomaly detected in 2 of the 4 CCDs temporary change in observing strategy to keep the same number of observed stars: long runs get split into 2 medium runs of 75 days each (ex: LRc03 and LRc04). Might change again for future runs.

15 CoRoT PSF PSF: 50% of the flux is contained in a elongated shape of about 35 x23, to get colour information source confusion

16 CoRoT light curves Each observed field records the light curve of 10,000-12,000 stars (with magnitude between 11.5 and 16) Time sampling: 512s (or 32 s for a limited number of stars) For bright stars the flux is measured in 3 separated channel: red, green and blue Role of the detection teams: filter the light curves, detect periodic transits, provide a list of planetary candidates (to be sent for ground-based follow-up)

17 Detection teams (at start!) DLR ESTEC Exeter IAC IAS Heike Rauer, Anders Erikson, Stefan Renner Malcolm Fridlund, Stefania Carpano Suzanne Aigrain, Frédéric Pont, Aude Alapini Hans Deeg, José M. Almenara, Clara Régulo Pascal Bordé, Benjamin Samuel Köln Martin Pätzold, Ludmilla Carone LAM LUTh Pierre Barge, Roi Alonso Jean Schneider, Juan Cabrera

18 Major enemy for detection: hot-pixels Sudden jumps and slow or sudden drops of intensity

19 Example of L.C. for a typical binary system (1/3)

20 Example of L.C. for a typical binary system (2/3)

21 Example of L.C. for a typical binary system (3/3)

22 Example of L.C. for a good planetary candidate

23 Not a planet but still interesting...

24 Oscillations?

25 Results from detection teams So far the light curves of the first 9 runs has been analyzed (~100,000 stars) Typical about 50 possible planet candidates are reported per observing run, with priority ranks (1 for the best candidates and 4 for potential false alarm) About 200 eclipsing binaries are discovered in each observing run. Results on planetary candidates and their follow-up observations, for IRa01 and LRc01 have been published. For the next runs work is in progress.

26 Planets discovered CoRoT-1b, CoRoT-2b, CoRoT-4b, CoRoT-5b (published): Jupiter like planets with periods of 1.5d, 1.7d, 9.2d and 4.0d respectively CoRoT-3b (published): Brown Dwarf. Jupiter size with 21 Jupiter Masses (P=4.3d) CoRoT-7b (published): smallest planet ever discovered Other confirmed planets under study: CoRoT-6b, CoRoT-8b and CoRoT-9b.

27 CoRoT-7b: the first Super- Earth with measured radius Radius=1.68 R Mass=4.8 M Orbital period=0.85d Distance=500 ly (150pc) Temperature= K

28 CoRoT-7a Active star Vmag=11.7 Spectral type= G9V Radius=0.87 R sun Mass=0.93 M sun

29 CoRoT-7b folded light curve Depth= 3.4e-4

30 CoRoT-7b: Harps Followup observations 70 hrs of spectroscopic follow-up observations with HARPS (La Silla, Chile) have been necessary to determine the mass of the planet Potential discovery of a more massive (8.4 M ) nontransiting planet: CoRoT-7c, with a period of 3.7d

31 CoRoT vs Kepler & Plato Launched on the 6th of March 2009, Kepler is the first Nasa space-based mission dedicated to the search of extra-solar planet. Plato is one of the 6 M-class missions proposed for the Cosmic Vision ESA Science Programme. Its goal will be to discover and characterise a large number of close-by exoplanetary systems.

32 Kepler Size of primary mirror: 1.4m (> 27 cm of CoRoT lower photon noise) FOV of 100 deg 2 with 42 CCDs Continuously point at a single star field in Cygnus-Lyra for at least 3.5 years (goal 6 years)

33 Plato 3 different payload concepts Concept A Concept B Concept C Number of telescopes Pupil diam. [mm] FOV [deg 2 ] 2x Number of CCDs

34 Plato designs A: 4 groups of 3 telescopes C: 42 telescopes mounted in groups B: 54 telescopes on a tilted base plate

35 Plato observational concept Primary objective: uninterrupted monitoring of bright stars with Mv between 8 and years (goal 3) observation of sky region 1 and region 2, and 2 years of step & stare observations (several successive fields monitored for a few months each)

36 FOV comparison

37 Conclusions Space-based missions using the transit method complemented by ground-based photometric and spectroscopic follow-up will allow the discovery and characterization of exoplanetary systems CoRoT has already discovered several giant planets and one Super-Earth Kepler will likely discover Super-Earth planets and Earth-like candidates (that cannot be confirmed so far by ground-based follow-up) Plato in parallel to the next generation of ground-based telescope will be able to detect and fully characterize exoplanetary systems down to Earth-like planets

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