The Universe o. Galaxies. The Universe of. Galaxies. Ajit Kembhavi IUCAA

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Universe o. Galaxies. The Universe of. Galaxies. Ajit Kembhavi IUCAA"

Transcription

1 Hello!

2 The Universe of Galaxies The Universe o Galaxies Ajit Kembhavi IUCAA

3 Galaxies: Stars: ~10 11 Mass: ~10 11 M Sun Contain stars, gas and dust, possibly a supermassive black hole at the centre. Much of the mass is in the form of dark matter.

4 The Milky Way Galaxy

5 Spitzer Near-IR Central 900 light years

6 The Milky Way Galaxy COBE-DIRBE composite near-ir image, 1.25, 2.2 and 3.5 m. Emission is dominated by relatively cool giant K stars in the disk and bulge. Dust obscuration is weak in the near-ir. Cosmic Background Explorer-Diffuse IR Background Experiment

7 The Milky Way Galaxy

8

9 The halo is thought to be spherical in shape and consists of metal poor (old) globular clusters and filed stars. The stars have high proper motion. The mass of the halo is ~10 9 M Sun. In addition there is a The disk dark consists matter of halo flattened which system could contain of stars, as gas much as and dust 90 with percent a variety of the of mass structures of the galaxy. like spiral arms and bars. There is substantial star formation and a mix of old and new stars. The Classically disk is supported a bulge consists by of old rotation. About 95 percent of stars the stars and is are supported in a thin by random disk with scale height of ~300 motions pc, the of other stars 5 rather percent than rotation. are in a thick disk with scale But height there ~1000 are pseudobulges pc. The in some stellar mass of the disk is ~6x10 galaxies 10 M Sun which and the are more disk like in luminosity is ~2x10 10 L Sun. The nature. Sun The completes bulge of one the Galaxy has orbit in ~250x10 6 yr. a mass of ~2x10 10 M Sun and the luminosity is ~5x10 9 M Sun. Spark & Gallagher Galaxies in the Universe

10 illustration October GeV map from Fermi Gamma Ray Space Observatory all sky data

11 The Content of the Milky Way Galaxy

12 Stars and masses Radius Radius 700, ,000 km km R SUN R SUN ~1000 R SUN Planet and White Dwarf

13 Swan Nebula Omega Nebula, M 17, NGC 6618 in Lyra light years away, ~15 light years diameter, HII region Embedded open cluster of 35 stars ionizes surrounding gas due to radiation from hot young stars.

14 Bok Globule B68 Distance 125 pc Size ~10 4 AU ~ Oort cloud size Close to collapse, Mass ~2M Sun

15 Planetary Nebula Ring Nebula, M57, NGC 6720 in Lyra 8.8 mag, ~2300 light years away Torus of light emitting material, surrounding a central star, which is a white dwarf Ring expands at ~1 arcsec/century, so age is ~ years.

16 Supernova Remnant Crab Nebula in Taurus, M1, NGC 1952 First Observed April 4, 1054 AD 8.4 mag, distance 6300 light years Diametre 10 light years Expansion velocity 1800 km/s Radio pulsar at the centre

17 The Crab Pulsar

18

19 ISM Phases Gas and dust are generally well mixed in the ISM.

20 Globular Cluster 47 Tuc NGC 104, massive globular cluster containing millions of stars, 20 light years across and at a distance of 13.4 thousand light years. Contains many exotic pulsars.

21 The Galactic Centre

22 VLA 1m radio image

23 Galactic Centre Chandra X-ray Images [B] 10 light years

24 SgrA* Keck 2 micron HKL Composite

25 Star Closest to Galactic Centre NTT, Gemini, VLT Schodel et.al 2003 Bound, highly eccentric (0.87) orbit, period 15.2yr, pericentre distance 17 light hours (0.5mpc), semi-major axis 4.54mpc Best fit central point mass 3.7x10 6 M Sun

26 The Shape of the Milky Way Galaxy

27 Herschel s Milky Way A model of the Milky Way Galaxy by William Herschel based on his own observations in the 19 th century

28 Jan Oort

29 Spiral structure of the Milky War from HI observations

30 External Galaxies

31 Andromeda Galaxy M31, NGC million light years M32 M 101

32 M 51 Distance ~31 Mly First object to be recognized as a spiral, by Lord Ross 1845.

33 Elliptical Galaxy M 87 Largest and brightest galaxy in the Virgo Cluster, distance 55 Mlyr

34 Ellipsoidal Galaxies

35 Niel Brandt Hubble s Tuning Fork

36 Sudhanshu Barway 2007

37 Surface Brightness Distribution

38 NGC 661 V

39 Surface Brightness Profile

40

41 Bulge Disk Decomposition 2 = (O i -m i ) 2 / i 2 UGC 1250

42 Bulge-Disk Decomposition

43 The Fundamental Plane

44 Log r e = A*log + B*log I e + const

45 Photometric Plane Ellipticals and Early Type Bulges

46 Hubble Deep Field Deep exposure of a region in Ursa major 7 sq arcmin in four filters hr at 606 nm. Most of the ~3000 objects in the field are galaxies.

47 Coma Cluster NGC 4889 NGC 4874 Rich cluster containing ~1000 identified galaxies. Distance 99 Mpc

48 Large Scale Structure 2DF Galaxy Redshift Survey

49 Centaurus A Lenticular galaxy, closest radio galaxy to Earth, distance ~11 Mly

50 Radio Galaxy Cen A VLA 6 cm A

51 M87

52

53 Radio Galaxy M87 One-sided jet. Bulk relativistic motion. Superluminal motion.

54 The Jet in M87

55 Quasars

56 Emission Lines, Rapid Variability

57 Quasar Host Galaxies

58 Unification

59 Supermassive Black Hole

60 Thank You!

61 Coma Cluster

62 Black Hole Mass

63 Gravitational Lens

64

65 Butterfly Nebula

66 Horsehead Nebula

67

68

69

70

71

72 Structures in the Universe

73

74 The Milky Way Galaxy

75 No foreground stars because cloud is a short distance away. Alves, Lada & Lada, Nature 2001

76 Four Component ISM Gas Phase Temp T(K) Density nt Covering n cm -3 factor Cold H 2 ~15 > x10 3 <0.01 Molecular The covering factors sum to unity, if Cool atomic H I all phases ~18 are known. ~30 5.4x10 3 ~0.03 The volume of the ISM is mostly Warm H I, filled by ~8000 tenuous ~0.3 hot plasma, 2.4x10 but 3 ~ H II the mass is dominated by the Hot ionized H II cooler atomic ~5x10 5 and ~5x10 molecular x10 3 ~ clouds.

View of the Galaxy from within. Lecture 12: Galaxies. Comparison to an external disk galaxy. Where do we lie in our Galaxy?

View of the Galaxy from within. Lecture 12: Galaxies. Comparison to an external disk galaxy. Where do we lie in our Galaxy? Lecture 12: Galaxies View of the Galaxy from within The Milky Way galaxy Rotation curves and dark matter External galaxies and the Hubble classification scheme Plotting the sky brightness in galactic coordinates,

More information

Chapter 15 The Milky Way Galaxy. The Milky Way

Chapter 15 The Milky Way Galaxy. The Milky Way Chapter 15 The Milky Way Galaxy The Milky Way Almost everything we see in the night sky belongs to the Milky Way We see most of the Milky Way as a faint band of light across the sky From the outside, our

More information

The Milky Way Galaxy

The Milky Way Galaxy 1/5/011 The Milky Way Galaxy Distribution of Globular Clusters around a Point in Sagittarius About 00 globular clusters are distributed in random directions around the center of our galaxy. 1 1/5/011 Structure

More information

Chapter 23 The Milky Way Galaxy Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 23 The Milky Way Galaxy Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 23 The Milky Way Galaxy The Milky Way is our own galaxy viewed from the inside. It is a vast collection of more than 200 billion stars, planets, nebulae, clusters, dust and gas. Our own sun and

More information

Part two of a year-long introduction to astrophysics:

Part two of a year-long introduction to astrophysics: ASTR 3830 Astrophysics 2 - Galactic and Extragalactic Phil Armitage office: JILA tower A909 email: pja@jilau1.colorado.edu Spitzer Space telescope image of M81 Part two of a year-long introduction to astrophysics:

More information

The Milky Way - Chapter 23

The Milky Way - Chapter 23 The Milky Way - Chapter 23 The Milky Way Galaxy A galaxy: huge collection of stars (10 7-10 13 ) and interstellar matter (gas & dust). Held together by gravity. Much bigger than any star cluster we have

More information

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 24. Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 24. Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 24 Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 24 Galaxies Units of Chapter 24 24.1 Hubble s Galaxy Classification 24.2 The Distribution of Galaxies in Space 24.3 Hubble

More information

24.1 Hubble s Galaxy Classification

24.1 Hubble s Galaxy Classification Chapter 24 Galaxies Units of Chapter 24 24.1 Hubble s Galaxy Classification 24.2 The Distribution of Galaxies in Space 24.3 Hubble s Law 24.4 XXActive Galactic Nuclei XXRelativistic Redshifts and Look-Back

More information

The King's University College Astronomy 201 Mid-Term Exam Solutions

The King's University College Astronomy 201 Mid-Term Exam Solutions The King's University College Astronomy 201 Mid-Term Exam Solutions Instructions: The exam consists of two sections. Part A is 20 multiple choice questions - please record answers on the sheet provided.

More information

Stars, Galaxies & the Universe Lecture Outline

Stars, Galaxies & the Universe Lecture Outline Stars, Galaxies & the Universe Lecture Outline A galaxy is a collection of 100 billion stars! Our Milky Way Galaxy (1)Components - HII regions, Dust Nebulae, Atomic Gas (2) Shape & Size (3) Rotation of

More information

Chapter 15 2/19/2014. Lecture Outline Hubble s Galaxy Classification. Normal and Active Galaxies Hubble s Galaxy Classification

Chapter 15 2/19/2014. Lecture Outline Hubble s Galaxy Classification. Normal and Active Galaxies Hubble s Galaxy Classification Lecture Outline Chapter 15 Normal and Active Galaxies Spiral galaxies are classified according to the size of their central bulge. Chapter 15 Normal and Active Galaxies Type Sa has the largest central

More information

Star systems like our Milky Way. Galaxies

Star systems like our Milky Way. Galaxies Galaxies Star systems like our Milky Way Galaxies Contain a few thousand to tens of billions of stars,as well as varying amounts of gas and dust Large variety of shapes and sizes Gas and Dust in

More information

The Galaxy. (The Milky Way Galaxy)

The Galaxy. (The Milky Way Galaxy) The Galaxy (The Milky Way Galaxy) Which is a picture of the Milky Way? A A is what we see from Earth inside the Milky Way while B is what the Milky Way might look like if we were far away looking back

More information

Our View of the Milky Way. 23. The Milky Way Galaxy

Our View of the Milky Way. 23. The Milky Way Galaxy 23. The Milky Way Galaxy The Sun s location in the Milky Way galaxy Nonvisible Milky Way galaxy observations The Milky Way has spiral arms Dark matter in the Milky Way galaxy Density waves produce spiral

More information

The Milky Way Galaxy. Some thoughts. How big is it? What does it look like? How did it end up this way? What is it made up of?

The Milky Way Galaxy. Some thoughts. How big is it? What does it look like? How did it end up this way? What is it made up of? Some thoughts The Milky Way Galaxy How big is it? What does it look like? How did it end up this way? What is it made up of? Does it change 2 3 4 5 This is not a constant zoom The Milky Way Almost everything

More information

The Milky Way. Mass of the Galaxy, Part 2. Mass of the Galaxy, Part 1. Phys1403 Stars and Galaxies Instructor: Dr. Goderya

The Milky Way. Mass of the Galaxy, Part 2. Mass of the Galaxy, Part 1. Phys1403 Stars and Galaxies Instructor: Dr. Goderya Foundations Chapter of Astronomy 15 13e Our Milky Way Seeds Phys1403 Stars and Galaxies Instructor: Dr. Goderya Selected Topics in Chapter 15 A view our Milky Way? The Size of our Milky Way The Mass of

More information

Chapter 19 Galaxies. Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Each dot is a galaxy of stars. More distant, further into the past. halo

Chapter 19 Galaxies. Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Each dot is a galaxy of stars. More distant, further into the past. halo Chapter 19 Galaxies Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Each dot is a galaxy of stars. More distant, further into the past halo disk bulge Barred Spiral Galaxy: Has a bar of stars across the bulge Spiral Galaxy 1

More information

Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 24

Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 24 Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 24 PROPERTIES OF STARS Distance Measuring a star's distance can be very difficult Stellar parallax Used for measuring distance to a star Apparent shift in a star's position

More information

Our Galaxy. Milky Way Galaxy = Sun + ~100 billion other stars + gas and dust. Held together by gravity! The Milky Way with the Naked Eye

Our Galaxy. Milky Way Galaxy = Sun + ~100 billion other stars + gas and dust. Held together by gravity! The Milky Way with the Naked Eye Our Galaxy Milky Way Galaxy = Sun + ~100 billion other stars + gas and dust Held together by gravity! The Milky Way with the Naked Eye We get a special view of our own galaxy because we are part of it!

More information

4/6/17. SEMI-WARM stuff: dust. Tour of Galaxies. Our Schedule

4/6/17. SEMI-WARM stuff: dust. Tour of Galaxies. Our Schedule ASTR 1040: Stars & Galaxies Super-bubble blowout in NGC 3709 Prof. Juri Toomre TAs: Piyush Agrawal, Connor Bice Lecture 22 Thur 6 Apr 2017 zeus.colorado.edu/astr1040-toomre Tour of Galaxies Look at complex

More information

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 23. Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 23. Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 23 Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 23 The Milky Way Galaxy Units of Chapter 23 23.1 Our Parent Galaxy 23.2 Measuring the Milky Way Discovery 23-1 Early Computers

More information

Chapter 19 Reading Quiz Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Our Galaxy Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 19 Reading Quiz Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Our Galaxy Pearson Education, Inc. Reading Quiz Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Our Galaxy 19.1 The Milky Way Revealed What does our galaxy look like? How do stars orbit in our galaxy? Where are globular clusters located

More information

Galaxies Guiding Questions

Galaxies Guiding Questions Galaxies Guiding Questions How did astronomers first discover other galaxies? How did astronomers first determine the distances to galaxies? Do all galaxies have spiral arms, like the Milky Way? How do

More information

Chapter 15 Galaxies and the Foundation of Modern Cosmology

Chapter 15 Galaxies and the Foundation of Modern Cosmology 15.1 Islands of stars Chapter 15 Galaxies and the Foundation of Modern Cosmology Cosmology: study of galaxies What are they 3 major types of galaxies? Spiral galaxies: like the milky way, look like flat,

More information

AST-1002 Section 0459 Review for Final Exam Please do not forget about doing the evaluation!

AST-1002 Section 0459 Review for Final Exam Please do not forget about doing the evaluation! AST-1002 Section 0459 Review for Final Exam Please do not forget about doing the evaluation! Bring pencil #2 with eraser No use of calculator or any electronic device during the exam We provide the scantrons

More information

Chapter 30. Galaxies and the Universe. Chapter 30:

Chapter 30. Galaxies and the Universe. Chapter 30: Chapter 30 Galaxies and the Universe Chapter 30: Galaxies and the Universe Chapter 30.1: Stars with varying light output allowed astronomers to map the Milky Way, which has a halo, spiral arm, and a massive

More information

Galaxies. The majority of known galaxies fall into one of three major classes: spirals (78 %), ellipticals (18 %) and irregulars (4 %).

Galaxies. The majority of known galaxies fall into one of three major classes: spirals (78 %), ellipticals (18 %) and irregulars (4 %). Galaxies Collection of stars, gas and dust bound together by their common gravitational pull. Galaxies range from 10,000 to 200,000 light-years in size. 1781 Charles Messier 1923 Edwin Hubble The distribution

More information

Chapter 19: Our Galaxy

Chapter 19: Our Galaxy Chapter 19 Lecture Chapter 19: Our Galaxy Our Galaxy 19.1 The Milky Way Revealed Our goals for learning: What does our galaxy look like? How do stars orbit in our galaxy? What does our galaxy look like?

More information

Astronomy 422! Lecture 7: The Milky Way Galaxy III!

Astronomy 422! Lecture 7: The Milky Way Galaxy III! Astronomy 422 Lecture 7: The Milky Way Galaxy III Key concepts: The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Radio and X-ray sources Announcements: Test next Tuesday, February 16 Chapters

More information

Galaxies: The Nature of Galaxies

Galaxies: The Nature of Galaxies Galaxies: The Nature of Galaxies The Milky Way The Milky Way is visible to the unaided eye at most place on Earth Galileo in 1610 used his telescope to resolve the faint band into numerous stars In the

More information

Our Galaxy. We are located in the disk of our galaxy and this is why the disk appears as a band of stars across the sky.

Our Galaxy. We are located in the disk of our galaxy and this is why the disk appears as a band of stars across the sky. Our Galaxy Our Galaxy We are located in the disk of our galaxy and this is why the disk appears as a band of stars across the sky. Early attempts to locate our solar system produced erroneous results.

More information

Description of Pictures In the Dome

Description of Pictures In the Dome Description of Pictures In the Dome The Trifid Nebula (M20, NGC 6514) is an H II region located in Sagittarius. Its name means 'divided into three lobes'. The object is an unusual combination of an open

More information

The distance modulus in the presence of absorption is given by

The distance modulus in the presence of absorption is given by Problem 4: An A0 main sequence star is observed at a distance of 100 pc through an interstellar dust cloud. Furthermore, it is observed with a color index B-V = 1.5. What is the apparent visual magnitude

More information

Astronomy A BEGINNER S GUIDE TO THE UNIVERSE EIGHTH EDITION

Astronomy A BEGINNER S GUIDE TO THE UNIVERSE EIGHTH EDITION Astronomy A BEGINNER S GUIDE TO THE UNIVERSE EIGHTH EDITION CHAPTER 14 The Milky Way Galaxy Lecture Presentation 14.0 the Milky Way galaxy How do we know the Milky Way exists? We can see it even though

More information

Neutron Stars. Neutron Stars and Black Holes. The Crab Pulsar. Discovery of Pulsars. The Crab Pulsar. Light curves of the Crab Pulsar.

Neutron Stars. Neutron Stars and Black Holes. The Crab Pulsar. Discovery of Pulsars. The Crab Pulsar. Light curves of the Crab Pulsar. Chapter 11: Neutron Stars and Black Holes A supernova explosion of an M > 8 M sun star blows away its outer layers. Neutron Stars The central core will collapse into a compact object of ~ a few M sun.

More information

Chapter 14 The Milky Way Galaxy

Chapter 14 The Milky Way Galaxy Chapter 14 The Milky Way Galaxy Spiral Galaxy M81 - similar to our Milky Way Galaxy Our Parent Galaxy A galaxy is a giant collection of stellar and interstellar matter held together by gravity Billions

More information

M31 - Andromeda Galaxy M110 M32

M31 - Andromeda Galaxy M110 M32 UNIT 4 - Galaxies XIV. The Milky Way galaxy - a huge collection of millions or billions of stars, gas, and dust, isolated in space and held together by its own gravity M110 M31 - Andromeda Galaxy A. Structure

More information

BROCK UNIVERSITY. Test 2, March 2015 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P02 Number of Students: 420 Date of Examination: March 5, 2015

BROCK UNIVERSITY. Test 2, March 2015 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P02 Number of Students: 420 Date of Examination: March 5, 2015 BROCK UNIVERSITY Page 1 of 9 Test 2, March 2015 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P02 Number of Students: 420 Date of Examination: March 5, 2015 Number of hours: 50 min Time of Examination: 18:00 18:50

More information

The Milky Way & Galaxies

The Milky Way & Galaxies The Milky Way & Galaxies The Milky Way Appears as a milky band of light across the sky A small telescope reveals that it is composed of many stars (Galileo again!) Our knowledge of the Milky Way comes

More information

Distance Measuring Techniques and The Milky Way Galaxy

Distance Measuring Techniques and The Milky Way Galaxy Distance Measuring Techniques and The Milky Way Galaxy Measuring distances to stars is one of the biggest challenges in Astronomy. If we had some standard candle, some star with a known luminosity, then

More information

Accretion Disks. Review: Stellar Remnats. Lecture 12: Black Holes & the Milky Way A2020 Prof. Tom Megeath 2/25/10. Review: Creating Stellar Remnants

Accretion Disks. Review: Stellar Remnats. Lecture 12: Black Holes & the Milky Way A2020 Prof. Tom Megeath 2/25/10. Review: Creating Stellar Remnants Lecture 12: Black Holes & the Milky Way A2020 Prof. Tom Megeath Review: Creating Stellar Remnants Binaries may be destroyed in white dwarf supernova Binaries be converted into black holes Review: Stellar

More information

Number of Stars: 100 billion (10 11 ) Mass : 5 x Solar masses. Size of Disk: 100,000 Light Years (30 kpc)

Number of Stars: 100 billion (10 11 ) Mass : 5 x Solar masses. Size of Disk: 100,000 Light Years (30 kpc) THE MILKY WAY GALAXY Type: Spiral galaxy composed of a highly flattened disk and a central elliptical bulge. The disk is about 100,000 light years (30kpc) in diameter. The term spiral arises from the external

More information

29:50 Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe Final Exam December 13, 2010 Form A

29:50 Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe Final Exam December 13, 2010 Form A 29:50 Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe Final Exam December 13, 2010 Form A There are 40 questions. Read each question and all of the choices before choosing. Budget your time. No whining. Walk with Ursus!

More information

Ch. 25 In-Class Notes: Beyond Our Solar System

Ch. 25 In-Class Notes: Beyond Our Solar System Ch. 25 In-Class Notes: Beyond Our Solar System ES2a. The solar system is located in an outer edge of the disc-shaped Milky Way galaxy, which spans 100,000 light years. ES2b. Galaxies are made of billions

More information

Chapter 17. Active Galaxies and Supermassive Black Holes

Chapter 17. Active Galaxies and Supermassive Black Holes Chapter 17 Active Galaxies and Supermassive Black Holes Guidepost In the last few chapters, you have explored our own and other galaxies, and you are ready to stretch your scientific imagination and study

More information

INTRODUCTION TO SPACE

INTRODUCTION TO SPACE INTRODUCTION TO SPACE 25.3.2019 The Galaxy II: Stars: Classification and evolution Various types of stars Interstellar matter: dust, gas Dark matter ELEC-E4530 Radio astronomy: the Sun, pulsars, microquasars,

More information

Galaxies. Galaxy Diversity. Galaxies, AGN and Quasars. Physics 113 Goderya

Galaxies. Galaxy Diversity. Galaxies, AGN and Quasars. Physics 113 Goderya Galaxies, AGN and Quasars Physics 113 Goderya Chapter(s): 16 and 17 Learning Outcomes: Galaxies Star systems like our Milky Way Contain a few thousand to tens of billions of stars. Large variety of shapes

More information

Galaxies. With a touch of cosmology

Galaxies. With a touch of cosmology Galaxies With a touch of cosmology Types of Galaxies Spiral Elliptical Irregular Spiral Galaxies Spiral Galaxies Disk component where the spiral arms are Interstellar medium Star formation Spheroidal

More information

Three Major Components

Three Major Components The Milky Way Three Major Components Bulge young and old stars Disk young stars located in spiral arms Halo oldest stars and globular clusters Components are chemically, kinematically, and spatially distinct

More information

Exam 3 Astronomy 100, Section 3. Some Equations You Might Need

Exam 3 Astronomy 100, Section 3. Some Equations You Might Need Exam 3 Astronomy 100, Section 3 Some Equations You Might Need modified Kepler s law: M = [a(au)]3 [p(yr)] (a is radius of the orbit, p is the rotation period. You 2 should also remember that the period

More information

The Milky Way, Hubble Law, the expansion of the Universe and Dark Matter Chapter 14 and 15 The Milky Way Galaxy and the two Magellanic Clouds.

The Milky Way, Hubble Law, the expansion of the Universe and Dark Matter Chapter 14 and 15 The Milky Way Galaxy and the two Magellanic Clouds. The Milky Way, Hubble Law, the expansion of the Universe and Dark Matter Chapter 14 and 15 The Milky Way Galaxy and the two Magellanic Clouds. Image taken from the European Southern Observatory in Chile

More information

Our goals for learning: 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. We see our galaxy edge-on. Primary features: disk, bulge, halo, globular clusters All-Sky View

Our goals for learning: 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. We see our galaxy edge-on. Primary features: disk, bulge, halo, globular clusters All-Sky View Our Galaxy Chapter 19 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective 19.1 The Milky Way Revealed What does our galaxy look like? What does our galaxy look like? How do stars orbit in our galaxy? Seventh Edition Our Galaxy

More information

Exam 4 Review EXAM COVERS LECTURES 22-29

Exam 4 Review EXAM COVERS LECTURES 22-29 Exam 4 Review EXAM COVERS LECTURES 22-29 Theoretically is there a center of the universe? Is there an edge? Do we know where Earth is on this? There is no center to the Universe, What kind of light we

More information

The Discovery of Other Galaxies. 24. Normal Galaxies

The Discovery of Other Galaxies. 24. Normal Galaxies 24. Normal Galaxies The discovery of other galaxies Edwin Hubble proved galaxies are very distant Edwin Hubble classified galaxies by shape Methods for determining distances to galaxies The Hubble Law

More information

This Week in Astronomy

This Week in Astronomy Homework #8 Due Wednesday, April 18, 11:59PM Covers Chapters 15 and 16 Estimated time to complete: 40 minutes Read chapters, review notes before starting This Week in Astronomy Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

More information

Astro 242. The Physics of Galaxies and the Universe: Lecture Notes Wayne Hu

Astro 242. The Physics of Galaxies and the Universe: Lecture Notes Wayne Hu Astro 242 The Physics of Galaxies and the Universe: Lecture Notes Wayne Hu Syllabus Text: An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics 2nd Ed., Carroll and Ostlie First class Wed Jan 3. Reading period Mar 8-9

More information

The Night Sky. The Universe. The Celestial Sphere. Stars. Chapter 14

The Night Sky. The Universe. The Celestial Sphere. Stars. Chapter 14 The Night Sky The Universe Chapter 14 Homework: All the multiple choice questions in Applying the Concepts and Group A questions in Parallel Exercises. Celestial observation dates to ancient civilizations

More information

It is about 100,000 ly across, 2,000 ly thick, and our solar system is located 26,000 ly away from the center of the galaxy.

It is about 100,000 ly across, 2,000 ly thick, and our solar system is located 26,000 ly away from the center of the galaxy. The Galaxies The Milky Way Galaxy Is a spiral galaxy in which our solar system is located. The center of the galaxy lies in the Sagittarius Constellation. It is about 100,000 ly across, 2,000 ly thick,

More information

A100 Exploring the Universe: The Milky Way as a Galaxy. Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy

A100 Exploring the Universe: The Milky Way as a Galaxy. Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy A100 Exploring the Universe: The Milky Way as a Galaxy Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy astron100-mdw@courses.umass.edu November 12, 2014 Read: Chap 19 11/12/14 slide 1 Exam #2 Returned and posted tomorrow

More information

Question 1. Question 2. Correct. Chapter 16 Homework. Part A

Question 1. Question 2. Correct. Chapter 16 Homework. Part A Chapter 16 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Thursday, November 17, 2016 To understand how points are awarded, read the Grading Policy for this assignment. Question 1 Following are a number of distinguishing characteristics

More information

Lecture 30. The Galactic Center

Lecture 30. The Galactic Center Lecture 30 History of the Galaxy Populations and Enrichment Galactic Evolution Spiral Arms Galactic Types Apr 5, 2006 Astro 100 Lecture 30 1 The Galactic Center The nature of the center of the Galaxy is

More information

The Milky Way Galaxy and Interstellar Medium

The Milky Way Galaxy and Interstellar Medium The Milky Way Galaxy and Interstellar Medium Shape of the Milky Way Uniform distribution of stars in a band across the sky lead Thomas Wright, Immanuel Kant, and William Herschel in the 18th century to

More information

The Neighbors Looking outward from the Sun s location in the Milky Way, we can see a variety of other galaxies:

The Neighbors Looking outward from the Sun s location in the Milky Way, we can see a variety of other galaxies: Galaxies The Neighbors Looking outward from the Sun s location in the Milky Way, we can see a variety of other galaxies: Small Magellanic Cloud (Digital Sky Survey) Large Magellanic Cloud (credit: Eckhard

More information

Clicker Question: Clicker Question: Clicker Question: Clicker Question: What is the remnant left over from a Type Ia (carbon detonation) supernova:

Clicker Question: Clicker Question: Clicker Question: Clicker Question: What is the remnant left over from a Type Ia (carbon detonation) supernova: Test 3 results D C Grades posted in cabinet and Grades posted on-line B A F If you are not properly registered then come see me for your grade What is the ultimate origin of the elements heavier than helium

More information

Observing the Night Sky. Observing the Night Sky. Observing the Night Sky. Observing the Night Sky. Observing the Night Sky. Chapter 29 THE UNIVERSE

Observing the Night Sky. Observing the Night Sky. Observing the Night Sky. Observing the Night Sky. Observing the Night Sky. Chapter 29 THE UNIVERSE Hewitt/Lyons/Suchocki/Yeh Conceptual Integrated Science Constellations are groups of stars named over antiquity. A familiar constellation is Ursa Major, the Great Bear. Chapter 29 THE UNIVERSE The monthly

More information

11/8/18. Tour of Galaxies. Our Schedule

11/8/18. Tour of Galaxies. Our Schedule ASTR 1040: Stars & Galaxies Super-bubble blowout in NGC 3709 Prof. Juri Toomre TAs: Ryan Horton, Loren Matilsky Lecture 22 Thur 8 Nov 2018 zeus.colorado.edu/astr1040-toomre Tour of Galaxies Look at complex

More information

Galaxies. CESAR s Booklet

Galaxies. CESAR s Booklet What is a galaxy? Figure 1: A typical galaxy: our Milky Way (artist s impression). (Credit: NASA) A galaxy is a huge collection of stars and interstellar matter isolated in space and bound together by

More information

Universe Now. 9. Interstellar matter and star clusters

Universe Now. 9. Interstellar matter and star clusters Universe Now 9. Interstellar matter and star clusters About interstellar matter Interstellar space is not completely empty: gas (atoms + molecules) and small dust particles. Over 10% of the mass of the

More information

Galaxies. Lecture Topics. Lecture 23. Discovering Galaxies. Galaxy properties. Local Group. History Cepheid variable stars. Classifying galaxies

Galaxies. Lecture Topics. Lecture 23. Discovering Galaxies. Galaxy properties. Local Group. History Cepheid variable stars. Classifying galaxies Galaxies Lecture 23 APOD: NGC 3628 (The Hamburger Galaxy) 1 Lecture Topics Discovering Galaxies History Cepheid variable stars Galaxy properties Classifying galaxies Local Group 2 23-1 Discovering Galaxies

More information

telescopes resolve it into many faint (i.e. distant) stars What does it tell us?

telescopes resolve it into many faint (i.e. distant) stars What does it tell us? The Milky Way From a dark site the Milky Way can be seen as a broad band across the sky What is it? telescopes resolve it into many faint (i.e. distant) stars What does it tell us? that we live in a spiral

More information

ASTR 1P02 Test 1, February 2019 Page 1 BROCK UNIVERSITY

ASTR 1P02 Test 1, February 2019 Page 1 BROCK UNIVERSITY ASTR 1P02 Test 1, February 2019 Page 1 BROCK UNIVERSITY Test 1: February 2019 Number of pages: 10 Course: ASTR 1P02, Section 2 Number of students: 1299 Examination date: 2 February 2019 Time limit: 50

More information

ASTR 1P02 Test 1, February 2019 Page 1 BROCK UNIVERSITY

ASTR 1P02 Test 1, February 2019 Page 1 BROCK UNIVERSITY ASTR 1P02 Test 1, February 2019 Page 1 BROCK UNIVERSITY Test 1: February 2019 Number of pages: 10 Course: ASTR 1P02, Section 2 Number of students: 1299 Examination date: 2 February 2019 Time limit: 50

More information

Lecture 19: Galaxies. Astronomy 111

Lecture 19: Galaxies. Astronomy 111 Lecture 19: Galaxies Astronomy 111 Galaxies What is a galaxy? Large assembly of stars, gas and dust, held together by gravity Sizes: Largest: ~1 Trillion stars (or more) Smallest: ~10 Million stars Milky

More information

Astronomy C. Captains Tryouts Raleigh Charter High School. Written by anna1234. Name: Instructions:

Astronomy C. Captains Tryouts Raleigh Charter High School. Written by anna1234. Name: Instructions: Total Score: / 84 Astronomy C Captains Tryouts 2019 Raleigh Charter High School Written by anna1234 Name: 1. These constants will be used throughout the test: Instructions: a. 1 Parsec = 3.1 x 10 16 meters

More information

The Milky Way Galaxy. Sun you are here. This is what our Galaxy would look like if we were looking at it from another galaxy.

The Milky Way Galaxy. Sun you are here. This is what our Galaxy would look like if we were looking at it from another galaxy. The Milky Way Galaxy Sun you are here. This is what our Galaxy would look like if we were looking at it from another galaxy. Examples of three Milky-Way like Galaxies 1. Roughly 100,000 light years across

More information

Astronomy Stars, Galaxies and Cosmology Exam 3. Please PRINT full name

Astronomy Stars, Galaxies and Cosmology Exam 3. Please PRINT full name Astronomy 132 - Stars, Galaxies and Cosmology Exam 3 Please PRINT full name Also, please sign the honor code: I have neither given nor have I received help on this exam The following exam is intended to

More information

Our Solar System: A Speck in the Milky Way

Our Solar System: A Speck in the Milky Way GALAXIES Lesson 2 Our Solar System: A Speck in the Milky Way The Milky Way appears to be curved when we view it but in reality it is a straight line. It is curved due to the combination of pictures taken

More information

Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens

Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens Beyond Our Solar System Earth Science, 13e Chapter 24 Stanley C. Hatfield Southwestern Illinois College Properties of stars Distance Distances to the stars are very

More information

Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE

Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens Chapter 25 Beyond Our Solar System 25.1 Properties of Stars Characteristics of Stars A constellation is an apparent group of stars originally named for mythical

More information

Tour of Galaxies. Sgr A* VLT in IR + adaptive optics. orbits. ASTR 1040 Accel Astro: Stars & Galaxies VLT IR+AO

Tour of Galaxies. Sgr A* VLT in IR + adaptive optics. orbits. ASTR 1040 Accel Astro: Stars & Galaxies VLT IR+AO ASTR 1040 Accel Astro: Stars & Galaxies Prof. Juri Toomre TA: Kyle Augustson Lecture 23 Tues 8 Apr 08 zeus.colorado.edu/astr1040-toomre toomre Tour of Galaxies Briefly revisit Monster in the Milky Way

More information

COSMOLOGY PHYS 30392 OBSERVING THE UNIVERSE Part I Giampaolo Pisano - Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics The University of Manchester - January 2013 http://www.jb.man.ac.uk/~gp/ giampaolo.pisano@manchester.ac.uk

More information

The Interstellar Medium.

The Interstellar Medium. The Interstellar Medium http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/astropix.html THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM Total mass ~ 5 to 10 x 10 9 solar masses of about 5 10% of the mass of the Milky Way Galaxy interior to the sun s

More information

What is the solar system?

What is the solar system? Notes Astronomy What is the solar system? 11.1 Structure of the Solar System Our solar system includes planets and dwarf planets, their moons, a star called the Sun, asteroids and comets. Planets, dwarf

More information

A100H Exploring the Universe: Discovering Galaxies. Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy

A100H Exploring the Universe: Discovering Galaxies. Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy A100H Exploring the Universe: Discovering Galaxies Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy astron100h-mdw@courses.umass.edu April 05, 2016 Read: Chap 19 04/05/16 slide 1 Exam #2 Returned by next class meeting

More information

The Milky Way Galaxy Guiding Questions

The Milky Way Galaxy Guiding Questions The Milky Way Galaxy Guiding Questions 1. What is our Galaxy? How do astronomers know where we are located within it? 2. What is the shape and size of our Galaxy? 3. How do we know that our Galaxy has

More information

The Milky Way Galaxy

The Milky Way Galaxy The Milky Way Galaxy Guiding Questions 1. What is our Galaxy? How do astronomers know where we are located within it? 2. What is the shape and size of our Galaxy? 3. How do we know that our Galaxy has

More information

Cosmology, Galaxies, and Stars OUR VISIBLE UNIVERSE

Cosmology, Galaxies, and Stars OUR VISIBLE UNIVERSE Cosmology, Galaxies, and Stars OUR VISIBLE UNIVERSE Cosmology Cosmology is the study of the universe; its nature, origin and evolution. General Relativity is the mathematical basis of cosmology from which

More information

BROCK UNIVERSITY. Test 2, March 2018 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P02, Section 1 Number of Students: 465 Date of Examination: March 12, 2018

BROCK UNIVERSITY. Test 2, March 2018 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P02, Section 1 Number of Students: 465 Date of Examination: March 12, 2018 BROCK UNIVERSITY Page 1 of 9 Test 2, March 2018 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P02, Section 1 Number of Students: 465 Date of Examination: March 12, 2018 Number of hours: 50 min Time of Examination:

More information

Gas 1: Molecular clouds

Gas 1: Molecular clouds Gas 1: Molecular clouds > 4000 known with masses ~ 10 3 to 10 5 M T ~ 10 to 25 K (cold!); number density n > 10 9 gas particles m 3 Emission bands in IR, mm, radio regions from molecules comprising H,

More information

Chapter 15 The Milky Way Galaxy

Chapter 15 The Milky Way Galaxy Chapter 15 The Milky Way Galaxy Guidepost This chapter plays three parts in our cosmic drama. First, it introduces the concept of a galaxy. Second, it discusses our home, the Milky Way Galaxy, a natural

More information

Structure of the Milky Way. Structure of the Milky Way. The Milky Way

Structure of the Milky Way. Structure of the Milky Way. The Milky Way Key Concepts: Lecture 29: Our first steps into the Galaxy Exploration of the Galaxy: first attempts to measure its structure (Herschel, Shapley). Structure of the Milky Way Initially, star counting was

More information

Chapter 25: Galaxy Clusters and the Structure of the Universe

Chapter 25: Galaxy Clusters and the Structure of the Universe Chapter 25: Galaxy Clusters and the Structure of the Universe Distribution of galaxies Evolution of galaxies Study of distant galaxies Distance derived from redshift Hubble s constant age of the Universe:

More information

The Classification of Galaxies

The Classification of Galaxies Admin. 11/9/17 1. Class website http://www.astro.ufl.edu/~jt/teaching/ast1002/ 2. Optional Discussion sections: Tue. ~11.30am (period 5), Bryant 3; Thur. ~12.30pm (end of period 5 and period 6), start

More information

IX. Stuff that's Bigger than the Solar System

IX. Stuff that's Bigger than the Solar System IX. Stuff that's Bigger than the Solar System Physics II 3/26/09 Leeson IX. A. Galaxies M104 Sombrero Galaxy (in Virgo) M31 A. 1. What is a Galaxy? A system of stars, planets, dust, and gas held together

More information

Energy Sources of the Far IR Emission of M33

Energy Sources of the Far IR Emission of M33 Energy Sources of the Far IR Emission of M33 Hinz, Reike et al., ApJ 154: S259 265 (2004). Presented by James Ledoux 24 µm 70 µm 160 µm Slide 1 M33 Properties Distance 840kpc = 2.7 Mlyr (1'' ~ 4 pc) Also

More information

Astr 5465 Feb. 5, 2018 Kinematics of Nearby Stars

Astr 5465 Feb. 5, 2018 Kinematics of Nearby Stars Astr 5465 Feb. 5, 2018 Kinematics of Nearby Stars Properties of Nearby Stars Most in orbit with the Sun around Galactic Center Stellar Kinematics Reveal Groups of Stars with Common Space Motion (Moving

More information

LECTURE 1: Introduction to Galaxies. The Milky Way on a clear night

LECTURE 1: Introduction to Galaxies. The Milky Way on a clear night LECTURE 1: Introduction to Galaxies The Milky Way on a clear night VISIBLE COMPONENTS OF THE MILKY WAY Our Sun is located 28,000 light years (8.58 kiloparsecs from the center of our Galaxy) in the Orion

More information

The Physics of the Interstellar Medium

The Physics of the Interstellar Medium The Physics of the Interstellar Medium Ulrike Heiter Contact: 471 5970 ulrike@astro.uu.se www.astro.uu.se Matter between stars Average distance between stars in solar neighbourhood: 1 pc = 3 x 1013 km,

More information

Galaxies and the expansion of the Universe

Galaxies and the expansion of the Universe Review of Chapters 14, 15, 16 Galaxies and the expansion of the Universe 5/4/2009 Habbal Astro 110-01 Review Lecture 36 1 Recap: Learning from Light How does light tell us what things are made of? Every

More information

LESSON 1. Solar System

LESSON 1. Solar System Astronomy Notes LESSON 1 Solar System 11.1 Structure of the Solar System axis of rotation period of rotation period of revolution ellipse astronomical unit What is the solar system? 11.1 Structure of the

More information