# Telescopes (Chapter 6)

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1 Telescopes (Chapter 6)

2 Based on Chapter 6 This material will be useful for understanding Chapters 7 and 10 on Our planetary system and Jovian planet systems Chapter 5 on Light will be useful for understanding this chapter

3 Goals for Learning How are cameras similar to eyes? What is angular resolution? What are refracting and reflecting telescopes? Why put telescopes in space?

4 Measuring Light The light from other worlds contains vast amounts of information about those worlds. Why can t we just use our eyes to study this light?

5 Eyes? Visible only Eyes can t make records of what they see Can t see dim light, blinded by bright light Different eyes have different properties But eyes are a good prototype for understanding cameras and telescopes

6 Pupil Controls how much light comes in Lens Brings the light together where it can be measured Retina Measures the light, sends results to computer

7 A lens bends light Compare a lens and a prism

8 This diagram shows what happens for light emitted by a very distant object because the incoming light-rays are parallel Distance between lens and focus is called the focal length or f A property of the lens, not the image Discuss what happens for objects that are closer to the lens 1/u + 1/v = 1/f

9 Something to control how much light comes in Something to focus the light Something to detect the light

10 Telescopes Light-collecting area. Should be large. Telescopes need to be able to see faint object Angular resolution. Should be able to resolve objects separated by a very small angle. Telescopes need to be able to take sharp pictures Interactive Figure 6.6

11

12 Angular size of object is same fraction of 360 o as its physical size is of the circle s circumference Circumference = 2 x pi x radius Angular size / 360 o = Physical size / (2π x distance) Angular resolution = Objects with an angular separation smaller than this appear as one joint object

13 Angular Resolution Atmospheric turbulence blurs images, very hard to get better angular resolution than 0.5 arcseconds Steadiness of telescope and its foundations also affect angular resolution Also a physical limit due to behaviour of light Diffraction limit in arcseconds = 2.5 x 10 5 x (wavelength of light) / (diameter of telescope)

14 Types of Telescopes Bend light with a lens refraction Bend light with a curved mirror reflection Early telescopes used refraction because lens makers had lots of experience Today s telescopes use reflection

15 Problems Entire lens must be perfect Heavy lens causes long tube to bend Refracting telescope

16 Reflecting telescopes Only surface of mirror must be perfect Heavy mirror at base of telescope

17 Reflecting telescopes often have a hole in the centre of their large primary mirror This is not a problem

18 Imaging A black and white photograph Often a filter is used to block the light so that only a narrow range of wavelengths are allowed to reach the detector. Example: a red piece of transparent plastic Most colour photographs are basically fake

19 This colour image is made by combining an image made with blue light, an image made with green light, and an image made with red light Your eye does the same thing Astronomers often combine a blue, red, and infra-red image to make a colour image Or they can combine different wavelengths of X-rays Why make colour images? Why not just show three black and white images? Interactive Fig 6.13

20

21 Spectroscopy Measure the intensity of light from an object at many different wavelengths Don t get an image of the object

22 To measure a spectrum, astronomers need to isolate one wavelength of light. They measure the object s intensity at that wavelength, then move on to the next wavelength

23 A diffraction grating does the same job as a prism It separates the different wavelengths of light

24 Spectral resolution is usually given as a wavelength If a spectrograph can separate light at 599 nm from 600 nm, then it has a spectral resolution of 1 nm Better spectral resolution means more detail and more information in the spectrum

25 Telescopes in Space Telescopes don t need to get closer to stars Atmosphere absorbs many wavelengths of light and stops it reaching ground-based telescopes at all Atmospheric turbulence disturbs light as it passes through the atmosphere, making images blurry

26

27 Removing the effects of atmospheric turbulence

28 Observing Light at other Wavelengths Radio Telescopes Infra-red Telescopes Ultraviolet Telescopes X-ray Telescopes Gamma Ray Telescopes

29 Radio Telescopes Mirrors reflect light, metal reflects radio waves Radio telescopes look like big optical telescopes with metal mirrors

30 Larger size than satellite dish (fainter objects and better angular resolution) The metal mirror is not as smooth as an optical mirror, but it is larger Reason long wavelength

31 Telescopes on the ground don t see much infrared light, but telescopes on a plane do Warm objects emit infra-red thermal radiation. Telescopes looking at these wavelengths must be very cold (tens of Kelvin)

32 Ultraviolet Very similar wavelength to optical light, so optical telescopes can be used BUT the atmosphere absorbs ultraviolet light, so UV telescopes must fly in space

33 X-ray telescopes Optical light reflects off mirrors X-ray photons, which are very energetic, penetrate directly into mirrors How can you focus X-rays? Grazing incidence

34 Gamma Ray Telescopes Gamma rays can t be focused because gamma rays are so energetic that they penetrate anything Gamma ray telescopes need thick shielding around almost all sides of the detector Only photons coming from one side can reach the detector Not an image, but some sense of direction

35 Multiple Telescopes The angular resolution of a group of telescopes can exceed the angular resolution of the individual telescopes This is commonly done with radio telescopes It is much harder for shorter wavelengths, such as visible light Don t worry about the details of how this works

36

37

38 Goals for Learning How are cameras similar to eyes? What is angular resolution? What are refracting and reflecting telescopes? Why put telescopes in space?

39 Goals for Learning How are cameras similar to eyes? Both have something to control how much light comes in, something to focus the light, and something to detect the light But cameras can make permanent images, can see at other wavelengths, and can see very dim or very bright light

40 Goals for Learning What is angular resolution? Objects with an angular separation smaller than this appear as one joint object Diffraction limit in arcseconds = 2.5 x 10 5 x (wavelength of light) / (diameter of telescope)

41 Goals for Learning What are refracting and reflecting telescopes? Making an image requires bending light rays Refracting telescopes bend light as it passes through a lens Reflecting telescopes bend light as it bounces off a mirror Today, most telescopes are reflectors

42 Goals for Learning Why put telescopes in space? The atmosphere absorbs many wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, including UV and X-ray Telescopes above the atmosphere can study light at wavelengths that don t reach Earth s surface Light is not affected by atmospheric turbulence, so images are sharper

43 pg

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