# VU lecture Introduction to Particle Physics. Thomas Gajdosik, FI & VU. Big Bang (model)

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "VU lecture Introduction to Particle Physics. Thomas Gajdosik, FI & VU. Big Bang (model)"

## Transcription

1 Big Bang (model)

2 What can be seen / measured? basically only light _ (and a few particles: e ±, p, p, ν x ) in different wave lengths: microwave to γ-rays in different intensities (measured in magnitudes) with variations in time from different directions classification of the astronomical objects stars: all the different types galaxies, nebulae novae / supernovae quasars, etc background radiation

3 Looking at galaxies homogeneous: similar everywhere isotropic: the same in every direction the energymomentum tensor has only 2 parameters: density ρ pressure p Cosmological Principle

4 Olbers paradoxon IF the universe is homogeneous isotropic and infinite the sky should be infinitely bright! it is not the universe is finite in time it had a start Big Bang

5 Hubble parameter measured by Edwin Hubble 1929 galaxies outside of our Milky Way are moving away from us with a speed that is proportional to their distance from us: H = 73.5±3.2 (km/s)/mpc indication for a homogeneous expanding universe!

6 theoretical foundations Cosmological Principle homogeneous isotropic Robertson-Walker (RW) metric General Relativity: Einstein equation energy-momentum tensor

7 Friedman-Lemaître models are Solutions to the Einstein equations using the RW-metric type of curvature is determined by k: scale factor a(t) Hubble parameter k=+1 k=-1 k=0 deceleration parameter

8 Friedman-Lemaître models they are models! all observations have to be interpreted consistently within the model they consider the whole universe Hubble parameter H describes the expansion rate of the spatial part of the universe scale factor a(t) describes the length scale at the time t a(t 0) 0 describes the Big Bang that does not mean, that the universe was small! it means, all what we can see today was very close together

9 Extrapolation backwards using the assumptions (General Relativity, Cosmological Principle, ) prediction of Big Bang Nucleo-synthesis (BBN) Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature (black body) spatial distribution fluctuations

10 Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) uses the known cross sections for the scattering of 1 H, 2 H, 3 He, 4 He, and 7 Li! comparison to measurement

11 Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) in the hot early universe radiation and matter are in equilibrium the universe expands and cools down: radiation and matter decouple Friedman equations: density of matter goes like ρ = a -3 density of radiation goes like ρ = a -4 matter dominates in a large universe just as we see it! motion of the sun relative to the CMB Kelvin 0 K to 4 K K to K K to K

12 Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) fluctuations in the early universe expand depending on the geometry the geometry depends on the energy density measuring the size of the fluctuations tells about the energy density!

13 K to K Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) sonic waves in the early universe are recorded by the freeze out of the CMB more information about relative densities of different parts of the matter content!

14 Galaxy redshift surveys: map the sky investigate the large scale structures in the visible universe! modeling structure formation seeing weak gravitational lensing

15 CMB + large scale structure + Supernovae on the experimental side General Relativity + Cosmological Principle on the theory side Lambda-Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) or concordance model explains most observations BBN CMB + fluctuations large scale structures rotational curves needs Inflation to explain that the density of the universe is nearly exactly the critical density, that gives a flat universe

16 Lambda-Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) or concordance model

17 cosmological Inflation the name for the rapid growth of the universe during a very short and early period a small ball has a small radius and hence a large curvature an inflated ball has a large radius and hence a small curvature the scale factor a(t) increased by a factor of in s the universe becomes flat, homogenous and isotropic! without inflation there would be no way to have thermal equilibrium between different visible regions! quantum fluctuations are extended to cosmic sizes

18 cosmological Inflation usually the temperature goes down when a volume expands freezing out of the quantum fluctuations inflation is thought to be triggered by a scalar field that decays at the end of inflation reheating of the universe: depending on the energy scale of the scalar field, we get the production of all particles from the decay similar to the experimental collisions in the accelerators Cosmology meets Particle Physics

19 Particle Physics Nuclear Physics all other Physics

20 implications of CP-violation in cosmology why CP-violation is important for our existence: our universe consists as far as we know almost completely of matter but where is the anti-matter? and why haven t matter and anti-matter just annihilated? possible explanation: at big bang, there have been large amounts of both matter and anti-matter almost all of them annihilated Andrej Sacharow but smallest asymmetries in the laws of nature for matter and anti-matter left a tiny excess of matter: the matter our universe is made of! 1967, Andrej Sacharow gave a list of conditions for this explanation one of it is CP-violation Without CP-violation, our universe would not be the one we know!

21 Big Bang model

### The Expanding Universe

Cosmology Expanding Universe History of the Universe Cosmic Background Radiation The Cosmological Principle Cosmology and General Relativity Dark Matter and Dark Energy Primitive Cosmology If the universe

### Lecture 37 Cosmology [not on exam] January 16b, 2014

1 Lecture 37 Cosmology [not on exam] January 16b, 2014 2 Structure of the Universe Does clustering of galaxies go on forever? Looked at very narrow regions of space to far distances. On large scales the

### If there is an edge to the universe, we should be able to see our way out of the woods. Olber s Paradox. This is called Olber s Paradox

Suppose the Universe were not expanding, but was in some kind of steady state. How should galaxy recession velocities correlate with distance? They should a) be directly proportional to distance. b) reverse

### Implications of the Hubble Law: - it is not static, unchanging - Universe had a beginning!! - could not have been expanding forever HUBBLE LAW:

Cosmology and the Evolution of the Universe Edwin Hubble, 1929: -almost all galaxies have a redshift -moving away from us -greater distance greater redshift Implications of the Hubble Law: - Universe is

### Olbers Paradox. Lecture 14: Cosmology. Resolutions of Olbers paradox. Cosmic redshift

Lecture 14: Cosmology Olbers paradox Redshift and the expansion of the Universe The Cosmological Principle Ω and the curvature of space The Big Bang model Primordial nucleosynthesis The Cosmic Microwave

### Astroparticle physics the History of the Universe

Astroparticle physics the History of the Universe Manfred Jeitler and Wolfgang Waltenberger Institute of High Energy Physics, Vienna TU Vienna, CERN, Geneva Wintersemester 2016 / 2017 1 The History of

### Relativity, Gravitation, and Cosmology

Relativity, Gravitation, and Cosmology A basic introduction TA-PEI CHENG University of Missouri St. Louis OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS Contents Parti RELATIVITY Metric Description of Spacetime 1 Introduction

### Past, Present and Future of the Expanding Universe

Past, Present and Future of the Expanding University of Osnabrück, Germany Talk presented at TEDA College on the occasion of its Tenth Anniversary October 17, 2010 Past, Present and Future of the Expanding

### Cosmology. Big Bang and Inflation

Cosmology Big Bang and Inflation What is the Universe? Everything we can know about is part of the universe. Everything we do know about is part of the universe. Everything! The Universe is expanding If

### The early and late time acceleration of the Universe

The early and late time acceleration of the Universe Tomo Takahashi (Saga University) March 7, 2016 New Generation Quantum Theory -Particle Physics, Cosmology, and Chemistry- @Kyoto University The early

### 3. It is expanding: the galaxies are moving apart, accelerating slightly The mystery of Dark Energy

II. Cosmology: How the universe developed Outstanding features of the universe today: 1. It is big, and full of galaxies. 2. It has structure: the galaxies are clumped in filaments and sheets The structure

### Chapter 26: Cosmology

Chapter 26: Cosmology Cosmology means the study of the structure and evolution of the entire universe as a whole. First of all, we need to know whether the universe has changed with time, or if it has

### The expansion of the Universe, and the big bang

The expansion of the Universe, and the big bang Q: What is Hubble s law? A. The larger the galaxy, the faster it is moving way from us. B. The farther away the galaxy, the faster it is moving away from

### Cosmology. Assumptions in cosmology Olber s paradox Cosmology à la Newton Cosmology à la Einstein Cosmological constant Evolution of the Universe

Cosmology Assumptions in cosmology Olber s paradox Cosmology à la Newton Cosmology à la Einstein Cosmological constant Evolution of the Universe Assumptions in Cosmology Copernican principle: We do not

### Cosmology. Clusters of galaxies. Redshift. Late 1920 s: Hubble plots distances versus velocities of galaxies. λ λ. redshift =

Cosmology Study of the structure and origin of the universe Observational science The large-scale distribution of galaxies Looking out to extremely large distances The motions of galaxies Clusters of galaxies

### BIG BANG SUMMARY NOTES

BIG BANG SUMMARY NOTES BIG BANG THEORY Studies of red-shifts of distant galaxies show that the universe is expanding. This and other observations has led to the Big Bang Theory The Big Bang Theory claims

### El Universo en Expansion. Juan García-Bellido Inst. Física Teórica UAM Benasque, 12 Julio 2004

El Universo en Expansion Juan García-Bellido Inst. Física Teórica UAM Benasque, 12 Julio 2004 5 billion years (you are here) Space is Homogeneous and Isotropic General Relativity An Expanding Universe

### Astronomy 114. Lecture35:TheBigBang. Martin D. Weinberg. UMass/Astronomy Department

Astronomy 114 Lecture35:TheBigBang Martin D. Weinberg weinberg@astro.umass.edu UMass/Astronomy Department A114: Lecture 35 09 May 2005 Read: Ch. 28,29 Astronomy 114 1/18 Announcements PS#8 due Monday!

### Cosmology: The History of the Universe

Cosmology: The History of the Universe The Universe originated in an explosion called the Big Bang. Everything started out 13.7 billion years ago with zero size and infinite temperature. Since then, it

### What is the 'cosmological principle'?

What is the 'cosmological principle'? Modern cosmology always starts from this basic assumption the Universe is homogeneous and isotropic. This idea seems strange there's empty space between me and the

### Introduction to Cosmology

Introduction to Cosmology Subir Sarkar CERN Summer training Programme, 22-28 July 2008 Seeing the edge of the Universe: From speculation to science Constructing the Universe: The history of the Universe:

### The Big Bang The Beginning of Time

The Big Bang The Beginning of Time What were conditions like in the early universe? The early universe must have been extremely hot and dense Photons converted into particle-antiparticle pairs and vice-versa

### Lecture 11. The standard Model

Lecture 11 The standard Model Standard Model The standard model assumes that the universe is filled with matter and other forms of energy (photons) but that matter is dominant today. The standard model

### Introduction to Cosmology (in 5 lectures) Licia Verde

Introduction to Cosmology (in 5 lectures) Licia Verde http://icc.ub.edu/~liciaverde Program: Cosmology Introduction, Hubble law, Freedman- Robertson Walker metric Dark matter and large-scale cosmological

### Brief Introduction to Cosmology

Brief Introduction to Cosmology Matias Zaldarriaga Harvard University August 2006 Basic Questions in Cosmology: How does the Universe evolve? What is the universe made off? How is matter distributed? How

### Tuesday: Special epochs of the universe (recombination, nucleosynthesis, inflation) Wednesday: Structure formation

Introduction to Cosmology Professor Barbara Ryden Department of Astronomy The Ohio State University ICTP Summer School on Cosmology 2016 June 6 Today: Observational evidence for the standard model of cosmology

### Astronomy 122 Outline

Astronomy 122 Outline This Class (Lecture 26): The Primeval Fireball Next Class: Dark Matter & Dark Energy ICES Form!!! HW10 due Friday Hubble s Law implications An expanding Universe! Run in movie in

### General Relativity Lecture 20

General Relativity Lecture 20 1 General relativity General relativity is the classical (not quantum mechanical) theory of gravitation. As the gravitational interaction is a result of the structure of space-time,

### with Matter and Radiation By: Michael Solway

Interactions of Dark Energy with Matter and Radiation By: Michael Solway Advisor: Professor Mike Berger What is Dark Energy? Dark energy is the energy needed to explain the observed accelerated expansion

### FURTHER COSMOLOGY Book page T H E M A K E U P O F T H E U N I V E R S E

FURTHER COSMOLOGY Book page 675-683 T H E M A K E U P O F T H E U N I V E R S E COSMOLOGICAL PRINCIPLE Is the Universe isotropic or homogeneous? There is no place in the Universe that would be considered

### What is the evidence that Big Bang really occurred

What is the evidence that Big Bang really occurred Hubble expansion of galaxies Microwave Background Abundance of light elements but perhaps most fundamentally... Darkness of the night sky!! The very darkness

### Homework 6 Name: Due Date: June 9, 2008

Homework 6 Name: Due Date: June 9, 2008 1. Where in the universe does the general expansion occur? A) everywhere in the universe, including our local space upon Earth, the solar system, our galaxy and

### The Cosmic Microwave Background

The Cosmic Microwave Background The Cosmic Microwave Background Key Concepts 1) The universe is filled with a Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). 2) The microwave radiation that fills the universe is nearly

### Hubble's Law. H o = 71 km/s / Mpc. The further a galaxy is away, the faster it s moving away from us. V = H 0 D. Modern Data.

Cosmology Cosmology is the study of the origin and evolution of the Universe, addressing the grandest issues: How "big" is the Universe? Does it have an "edge"? What is its large-scale structure? How did

### Modern Cosmology Solutions 4: LCDM Universe

Modern Cosmology Solutions 4: LCDM Universe Max Camenzind October 29, 200. LCDM Models The ansatz solves the Friedmann equation, since ȧ = C cosh() Ωm sinh /3 H 0 () () ȧ 2 = C 2 cosh2 () sinh 2/3 () (

### Physics of the hot universe!

Cosmology Winter School 5/12/2011! Lecture 2:! Physics of the hot universe! Jean-Philippe UZAN! The standard cosmological models! a 0!! Eq. state! Scaling Scale factor! radiation! w=1/3! a -4! t 1/2! Matter

### Introduction to Inflation

Introduction to Inflation Miguel Campos MPI für Kernphysik & Heidelberg Universität September 23, 2014 Index (Brief) historic background The Cosmological Principle Big-bang puzzles Flatness Horizons Monopoles

### Chapter 22 Reading Quiz Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. The Birth of the Universe Pearson Education, Inc.

Reading Quiz Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition The Birth of the Universe 22.1 The Big Bang Theory What were conditions like in the early universe? How did the early universe change with time?

### PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com

PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com 1 1. State the Cosmological Principle. [Total 2 marks] 2. Describe the important properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation and how the standard model of the Universe

### The Beginning of the Universe 8/11/09. Astronomy 101

The Beginning of the Universe 8/11/09 Astronomy 101 Astronomy Picture of the Day Astronomy 101 Outline for Today Astronomy Picture of the Day Return Lab 11 Astro News Q&A Session Dark Energy Cosmic Microwave

### The Millennium Simulation: cosmic evolution in a supercomputer. Simon White Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics

The Millennium Simulation: cosmic evolution in a supercomputer Simon White Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics The COBE satellite (1989-1993) Two instruments made maps of the whole sky in microwaves

### Astro 101 Fall 2013 Lecture 12. Cosmology. T. Howard

Astro 101 Fall 2013 Lecture 12 Cosmology T. Howard Cosmology = study of the Universe as a whole? What is it like overall?? What is its history? How old is it?? What is its future?? How do we find these

### Astronomy 1504 Section 10 Final Exam Version 1 May 6, 1999

Astronomy 1504 Section 10 Final Exam Version 1 May 6, 1999 Reminder: When I write these questions, I believe that there is one one correct answer. The questions consist of all parts a e. Read the entire

### The best evidence so far in support of the Big Bang theory is:

Notes about the final exam: Saturday May 17th, 7:45 AM-9:45 AM Chamberlain 2103 If you have a CONFLICT email me or Ella before the end of this week. No excuses accepted after exam. Comprehensive, covering

### Derivation of parametric equations of the expansion of a closed universe with torsion. Prastik Mohanraj

Derivation of parametric equations of the expansion of a closed universe with torsion Prastik Mohanraj Big Bang Cosmology We observe redshift, where galaxies become redder in color over time. This means

### ! Expansion of the Universe! Difference between expansion and explosion

This Class (Lecture 32): The Big Bang! Expansion of the Universe! Difference between expansion and explosion HW 11 due on Dec 5 th Music: The Universe Song Animaniacs! In a homogenous Universe, what does

### Exam 3 Astronomy 114

Exam 3 Astronomy 114 Select the answer that is the most appropriate among the choices given. 1. What is the Hubble law? (A) a relation between a galaxy s mass and radius. (B) a rule that describes the

### Beginning of Universe

Cosmology Origin, early history, and fate of the Universe Does the Universe have a beginning? An end? What physics processes caused the Universe to be what it is? Are other universes possible? Would they

### I V E R S U N. The Hot Big Bang I T Y T H E O F E. Andrew Liddle R G. Image: NASA/WMAP Science Team

The Hot Big Bang Andrew Liddle T H E O F E U N D I I V E R S N U B R G I T Y H Image: NASA/WMAP Science Team The Standard Model The discovery of the Higgs particle completes the Standard Model of Particle

### Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time. Agenda. Presentation Tips. What were conditions like in the early universe? 23.1 The Big Bang.

Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time Agenda Announce: Observation April 19 Thursday 8pm APS Meeting April 17 no class (instead Fate of the Universe tutorial Presentation Tips Ch. 23 Presentation Tips Limit

### The Tools of Cosmology. Andrew Zentner The University of Pittsburgh

The Tools of Cosmology Andrew Zentner The University of Pittsburgh 1 Part Two: The Contemporary Universe 2 Contents Review of Part One The Pillars of Modern Cosmology Primordial Synthesis of Light Nuclei

### 26. Cosmology. Significance of a dark night sky. The Universe Is Expanding

26. Cosmology Significance of a dark night sky The Universe is expanding The Big Bang initiated the expanding Universe Microwave radiation evidence of the Big Bang The Universe was initially hot & opaque

### COSMOLOGY The Universe what is its age and origin?

COSMOLOGY The Universe what is its age and origin? REVIEW (SUMMARY) Oppenheimer Volkhoff limit: upper limit to mass of neutron star remnant more than 1.4 M à neutron degeneracy Supernova à extremely dense

### Chapter 22 Back to the Beginning of Time

Chapter 22 Back to the Beginning of Time Expansion of Universe implies dense, hot start: Big Bang Back to the Big Bang The early Universe was both dense and hot. Equivalent mass density of radiation (E=mc

### General Relativity and Cosmology. The End of Absolute Space Cosmological Principle Black Holes CBMR and Big Bang

General Relativity and Cosmology The End of Absolute Space Cosmological Principle Black Holes CBMR and Big Bang The End of Absolute Space (AS) Special Relativity (SR) abolished AS only for the special

### Spectrographs: instrument to separate white light into the bands of color.

(BIG BANG PACKET 2) Name: Period: wavelength and lowest frequencies Broadcast waves and microwaves Infrared Rays Wavelength shorter than radio waves The invisible you feel Visible Light You can see The

### The Concept of Inflation

The Concept of Inflation Introduced by Alan Guth, circa 1980, to provide answers to the following 5 enigmas: 1. horizon problem. How come the cosmic microwave background radiation is so uniform in very

### Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology

Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology What is COSMOLOGY? -The study of the Universe as a whole, namely as the collection of its matter/energy components and its constituent phenomena, and of its evolution.

### Exploring the Early Universe. Chapter Twenty-Nine. Guiding Questions. The Isotropy Problem

Exploring the Early Universe Chapter Twenty-Nine Guiding Questions 1. Has the universe always expanded as it does today, or might it have suddenly inflated? 2. How did the fundamental forces of nature

### INFLATION. - EARLY EXPONENTIAL PHASE OF GROWTH OF SCALE FACTOR (after T ~ TGUT ~ GeV)

INFLATION - EARLY EXPONENTIAL PHASE OF GROWTH OF SCALE FACTOR (after T ~ TGUT ~ 10 15 GeV) -Phenomenologically similar to Universe with a dominant cosmological constant, however inflation needs to end

### Inflationary Universe and. Quick survey about iclickers Review of Big Bang model of universe Review of Evidence for Big Bang Examining Inflation

Inflationary Universe and Quick survey about iclickers Review of Big Bang model of universe Review of Evidence for Big Bang Examining Inflation Survey questions 1. The iclickers used in class encouraged

### It is possible for a couple of elliptical galaxies to collide and become a spiral and for two spiral galaxies to collide and form an elliptical.

7/16 Ellipticals: 1. Very little gas and dust an no star formation. 2. Composed of old stars. 3. Masses range from hundreds of thousands to 10's of trillions of solar masses. 4. Sizes range from 3000 ly

### Lecture 17: the CMB and BBN

Lecture 17: the CMB and BBN As with all course material (including homework, exams), these lecture notes are not be reproduced, redistributed, or sold in any form. Peering out/back into the Universe As

### COSMOLOGY The Origin and Evolution of Cosmic Structure

COSMOLOGY The Origin and Evolution of Cosmic Structure Peter COLES Astronomy Unit, Queen Mary & Westfield College, University of London, United Kingdom Francesco LUCCHIN Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita

### Astronomy Hour Exam 2 March 10, 2011 QUESTION 1: The half-life of Ra 226 (radium) is 1600 years. If you started with a sample of 100 Ra 226

Astronomy 101.003 Hour Exam 2 March 10, 2011 QUESTION 1: The half-life of Ra 226 (radium) is 1600 years. If you started with a sample of 100 Ra 226 atoms, approximately how many Ra 226 atoms would be left

### Cosmology & the CMB - Cosmology: Overview - Cosmic Microwave Background - Large Scale Structure (Wed) - CMB Fluctuations (Wed)

Oct 16, 2017 Cosmology & the CMB - Cosmology: Overview - Cosmic Microwave Background - Large Scale Structure (Wed) - CMB Fluctuations (Wed) Wednesday: HW#5 due History of the universe Discovery of Quasars

### The Mystery of Dark Matter

The Mystery of Dark Matter Maxim Perelstein, LEPP/Cornell U. CIPT Fall Workshop, Ithaca NY, September 28 2013 Introduction Last Fall workshop focused on physics of the very small - elementary particles

### Einstein s steady-state theory. The Big Bang: Fact or Fiction?

Einstein s steady-state theory An abandoned model of the universe The Big Bang: Fact or Fiction? Cormac O Raifeartaigh, Brendan Mcann (WIT) Werner Nahm (DIAS) and Simon Mitton (Univ. of Cambridge) Cosmology

### Lecture 22: The expanding Universe. Astronomy 111 Wednesday November 15, 2017

Lecture 22: The expanding Universe Astronomy 111 Wednesday November 15, 2017 Reminders Online homework #10 due Monday at 3pm Then one week off from homeworks Homework #11 is the last one The nature of

### 2. The evolution and structure of the universe is governed by General Relativity (GR).

7/11 Chapter 12 Cosmology Cosmology is the study of the origin, evolution, and structure of the universe. We start with two assumptions: 1. Cosmological Principle: On a large enough scale (large compared

### BROCK UNIVERSITY. Test 2, March 2015 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P02 Number of Students: 420 Date of Examination: March 5, 2015

BROCK UNIVERSITY Page 1 of 9 Test 2, March 2015 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P02 Number of Students: 420 Date of Examination: March 5, 2015 Number of hours: 50 min Time of Examination: 18:00 18:50

### ASTRONOMY 5 Final Exam Spring 2001 (Edited for questions relevant to Astronomy Final)

ASTRONOMY 5 Final Exam Spring 2001 (Edited for questions relevant to Astronomy 5 2007 Final) Follow the directions in each section. Write all answers on this examination paper. Feel free to ask for clarification

### Nucleosíntesis primordial

Tema 5 Nucleosíntesis primordial Asignatura de Física Nuclear Curso académico 2009/2010 Universidad de Santiago de Compostela Big Bang cosmology 1.1 The Universe today The present state of the Universe

### Big Galaxies Are Rare! Cepheid Distance Measurement. Clusters of Galaxies. The Nature of Galaxies

Big Galaxies Are Rare! Potato Chip Rule: More small things than large things Big, bright spirals are easy to see, but least common Dwarf ellipticals & irregulars are most common Faint, hard to see Mostly

### Mass (Energy) in the Universe:

Mass (Energy) in the Universe: smooth (vacuum) clumping Parameters of our Universe present values H = (71±4)km/s/Mpc = 1.0±0.0 m = 0.7±0.0 incl. b = 0.044±0.004 and < 0.014 photons r = 4.9-5 dark energy

### The Big Bang Theory PRESS Chung Wai Man Camus, Wong Lai Yin Rita, Kum Kit Ying Cathy, Yeung Shuet Wah Sarah, Yu Wai Sze Alice

The Big Bang Theory PRESS-2002 Chung Wai Man Camus, Wong Lai Yin Rita, Kum Kit Ying Cathy, Yeung Shuet Wah Sarah, Yu Wai Sze Alice Supervised by: Dr KY Szeto, HKUST Abstract: We did a survey at our current

### Aspects of the General Theory of Relativity

Aspects of the General Theory of Relativity Chapter IV 1. How does gravity act 2. Cosmological redshift 3.Gravitational redshift 4. Black holes General Relativity: Gravity and the Curvature of Space A

### Five pieces of evidence for a Big Bang 1. Expanding Universe

Five pieces of evidence for a Big Bang 1. Expanding Universe More distant galaxies have larger doppler shifts to the red, so moving faster away from us redshift = z = (λ λ 0 )/λ 0 λ 0 = wavelength at rest

### Supernovae explosions and the Accelerating Universe. Bodo Ziegler

Nobel Prize for Physics 2011 Supernovae explosions and the Accelerating Universe Institute for Astronomy University of Vienna Since 09/2010: ouniprof University of Vienna 12/2008-08/10: Staff member European

### Master focus in physics

Master focus in physics ASTROPARTICLE PHYSICS AND COSMOLOGY Christopher Wiebusch 10.10.2017 From Particle Physics to Cosmology 10-18 m Micro-cosmos at smallest scales Understanding nature over 44 orders

### The homogeneous and isotropic universe

1 The homogeneous and isotropic universe Notation In this book we denote the derivative with respect to physical time by a prime, and the derivative with respect to conformal time by a dot, dx τ = physical

### Lecture 10: Cosmology and the Future of Astronomical Research

Lecture 10: Cosmology and the Future of Astronomical Research 1 ! The study of the Universe " Origin " Evolution " Eventual Fate! Physical Cosmology " Includes studies of large-scale structure and dynamics

### Astronomy 182: Origin and Evolution of the Universe

Astronomy 182: Origin and Evolution of the Universe Prof. Josh Frieman Lecture 11 Nov. 13, 2015 Today Cosmic Microwave Background Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Assignments This week: read Hawley and Holcomb,

### Final Exam Study Guide

Final Exam Study Guide Final is Comprehensive! Covers content of the entire course Please be sure to look at the Study Guides for the first three in-class exams All of that material will be on the final

### Dark Energy & other Flaws of the Universe

Dark Energy & other Flaws of the Universe Peter Hoeflich Dept. of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, USA Questions: - What is the structure of 'Space and the Universe'? - How was the 'Past'

### The Big Bang. Olber s Paradox. Hubble s Law. Why is the night sky dark? The Universe is expanding and We cannot see an infinite Universe

The Big Bang Olber s Paradox Why is the night sky dark? The Universe is expanding and We cannot see an infinite Universe Hubble s Law v = H0 d v = recession velocity in km/sec d = distance in Mpc H 0 =

### One Hundred Years of the Cosmological Constant The Big Bang: Fact or Fiction? Cormac O Raifeartaigh FRAS

One Hundred Years of the Cosmological Constant The Big Bang: Fact or Fiction? Cormac O Raifeartaigh FRAS WIT Maths/Physics Seminar Series June 2017 Overview I Introducing the cosmological constant Einstein

### Astronomy 182: Origin and Evolution of the Universe

Astronomy 182: Origin and Evolution of the Universe Prof. Josh Frieman Lecture 12 Nov. 18, 2015 Today Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and Neutrinos Particle Physics & the Early Universe Standard Model of Particle

### The Continuing Copernican Revolution...

The Continuing Copernican Revolution... from Heliocentricity to the Cosmological Principle Astro 203 Vanderbilt University 2006/10/19 Prof. Rob Knop Slides online at: http://brahms.phy.vanderbilt.edu/~rknop/classes/talkslides#awayfmctr

### Astronomy 422. Lecture 15: Expansion and Large Scale Structure of the Universe

Astronomy 422 Lecture 15: Expansion and Large Scale Structure of the Universe Key concepts: Hubble Flow Clusters and Large scale structure Gravitational Lensing Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Expansion and age

### o Terms to know o Big Bang Theory o Doppler Effect o Redshift o Universe

Standard 1: Students will understand the scientific evidence that supports theories that explain how the universe and the solar system developed. They will compare Earth to other objects in the solar system.

### INFLATIONARY COSMOLOGY. and the ACCELERATING UNIVERSE. Alan Guth, MIT

INFLATIONARY COSMOLOGY and the ACCELERATING UNIVERSE Alan Guth, MIT An Open World of Physics Talks and Discussion by Friends of Fred Goldhaber Harriman Hall, SUNY Stony Brook, October 7, 2001 OUTLINE The

### 6. Cosmology. (same at all points) probably true on a sufficiently large scale. The present. ~ c. ~ h Mpc (6.1)

6. 6. Cosmology 6. Cosmological Principle Assume Universe is isotropic (same in all directions) and homogeneous (same at all points) probably true on a sufficiently large scale. The present Universe has

### 2) On a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, where would you find red giant stars? A) upper right B) lower right C) upper left D) lower left

Multiple choice test questions 2, Winter Semester 2015. Based on parts covered after mid term. Essentially on Ch. 12-2.3,13.1-3,14,16.1-2,17,18.1-2,4,19.5. You may use a calculator and the useful formulae

### Ay1 Lecture 18. The Early Universe and the Cosmic Microwave Background

Ay1 Lecture 18 The Early Universe and the Cosmic Microwave Background 18.1 Basic Ideas, and the Cosmic Microwave background The Key Ideas Pushing backward in time towards the Big Bang, the universe was

### Cosmic Microwave Background

Cosmic Microwave Background Following recombination, photons that were coupled to the matter have had very little subsequent interaction with matter. Now observed as the cosmic microwave background. Arguably

### The Standard Big Bang What it is: Theory that the universe as we know it began billion years ago. (Latest estimate: 13:82 ± 0:05 billion years!)

The Standard Big Bang What it is: Theory that the universe as we know it began 13-14 billion years ago. (Latest estimate: 13:82 ± 0:05 billion years!) Initial state was a hot, dense, uniform soup of particles

### The Dark Matter Problem

The Dark Matter Problem matter : anything with equation of state w=0 more obvious contribution to matter: baryons (stars, planets, us!) and both Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and WMAP tell us that Ω baryons