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5 late Oct.,>20

6 Paris Center for Astrophysics Cambridge Cesena

7 Paris Center for Astrophysics Cambridge Cesena

8 Paris Center for Astrophysics Cambridge Cesena

9 Center for Astrophysics Cambridge Paris CEA Office 153 Cesena

10 ..and now: Relativistic Jets Giulia Migliori - 15/03/2016 4C29.30 z=0.064 (Siemiginowska+12)

11 Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei radio lobe kpc jet narrow line clouds blazar region broad line clouds Giulia Migliori - 15/03/2016 disk SMBH molecular torus

12 Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei: motivational slide impact on the host galaxy/cluster: Cygnus A (Wilson+00) Cen A jet (0.8-3 kev) Worrall+08 Candidate sources of UHECRs: Fermi Bubbles: jet activity in the MW?

13 Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei: some questions What is their structure & composition? How do they form? How do they interact with their environment?

14 Radio Duty Cycle radio galaxy radio luminosity J1 J2 J3 NE2 NE1 J4 SW1 SW2 d) high power low power re-started giant dying radio galaxy size/age

15 Young Radio Sources NE2 NE1 10 pc SW1 SW2 Wu et al. (2013) d) z= kpc/ linear size <1kpc; symmetric, two-sided radio morphology, dominated by minilobes/hotspots; estimated ages from the hot spots advance velocities: <10 3 yrs J1 J2 J3 J4 Excess of young sources in catalogs of radio sources: intermittent radio activity? dense medium preventing the expansion of the radio source?

16 Young Radio Sources in X-rays X-ray sample (16 sources, z<1.0): Probing the environment: 100 OQ NH(z) [10 22 cm 2 ] Siemiginowska+2016 all detected with snapshot observations Age [years] moderate column densities in the majority of the sources: no dense environment

17 Young Radio Sources in X-rays NE2 NE1 z= kpc/ d) 10 pc SW1 SW2 J1 J2 J3 J4 Wu et al. (2013)

18 Young Radio Sources in X-rays Origin of the emission? NE2 NE1 z= kpc/ d) I. Quasar 10 pc SW1 SW2 J1 J2 J3 J4 II. Jet Wu et al. (2013) UV -disk IR - dust III. Lobe 1kpc Stawarz+2008 jet model in Migliori+2012,2014

19 Young Radio Sources in gamma-rays The answer is in the gamma-rays: radio - IR - optical - UV - X-ray - γ-ray synch disk+ corona IC νf ν The jets/lobes can produce non-thermal gamma-ray emission detectable with Fermi-LAT ν

20 Young Radio Sources in gamma-rays PKS (z=0.014, ~100yrs): detection in gamma-rays with 7yrs Fermi-LAT observations Tingay, de Kool (2003), 22 GHz VLBI radio imaging 7 mas ~ 2 pc >200 MeV; 0.2 deg/pix 3FGL J yrs best fit pos. (gtfindsrc) PKS radio pos. High-energy emission from the compact radio lobes? preliminary: Ljet,kin Ldisk Migliori+, in prep. Faint, non variable gamma-ray emission Sobolewska+, in prep.

21 Young Radio Sources in gamma-rays Testing the lobe scenario: ALMA NuSTAR CTA?

22 Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei: structure & energetics RGB J A (z=0.2) X-ray/gamma-ray blazar component 13 /45 kpc X-ray kpc jet radio lobe

23 Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei: tracing the jet emission ffiffi integrated jet power from the radio lobes X-ray kpc jet jet power through the linear scale γ-ray blazar component

24 Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei: tracing the jet power jet power from the radio (Willott+99) Ljet,kin= f 3/2 L151 6/7 erg s -1 Ljet,kin~10 45 erg s -1 jet power from SED modeling of the γ-ray blazar component Ljet,kin~ erg/s LogνFν [erg cm -2 s -1 ] r~10 16 cm<rblr (Rblob~10 15 cm) theta~4, Γbulk=12, B=2.1 G (UB/Ue=0.3) Logν [Hz] >10% of the initial jet power transported to kpc scales

25 Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei: pc νf ν accretion & ejection radio - IR - optical - UV - X-ray - γ-ray disk+ corona synch IC RGB J A (z=0.2) synchrotron Kitt Peak spectrum ν SDSS quasar template (Vanden Berk+ 01) host galaxy template (Mannucci+ 01) SDSS spectrum UVOT Galex

26 Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei: accretion & ejection Ljet,kin erg s -1 disk luminosity: erg s -1 Ljet,kin Ldisk: the mechanism responsible for the jet formation is maximally efficient in extracting the BH rotational energy (see also Ghisellini+ 11)

27 From Quasar to Microquasar: Cygnus A, z=0.056/600 Mly kpc/arcsec Msun, yrs GRS , pc Mirabel Msun >60

28 XTE J western jet Microquasar: Time lapse of a jet-ism interaction March June Sept June kev 0ct Migliori et al. in prep.

29 XTE J western jet Microquasar: Time lapse of a jet-ism interaction March June Sept June kev 0ct Migliori et al. in prep.

30 Microquasar: Time lapse of a jet-ism interaction Jets dynamics: nism: 1 cm -3 ballistic expansion jet deceleration East Jet West Jet low density cavity dynamical models: Hao&Zhang+ 09;Steiner+ 12 West Jet dynamics: centroid vel. first to last obs.: vrel=0.07c tail vel. first to last obs.: vrel=-0.12c

31 Future Perspectives Observations at low radio frequencies (LOFAR) will tell us more on the radio duty cycle; High sensitivity radio observations will look for radio jets in radio quiet sources; Multi-wavelength all-sky survey (LOFAR/SKA, LSST, EROSITA/ SVOM, CTA) will monitor radio transients (blazars, microquasars, GRBs, SNs..);

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