1 Stern/March 09 Planet Categorization & Planetary Science: Coming of Age in the 21 st Century Alan Stern
2 Stern/March 09 Planet Classification
3 Stern/March 09 Planet Classification
4 Some Planets Are Small, Some Are Freakishly Large
5 Just As Some Stars Are Small and Some Are Very Large Stern/March 09
6 Nicolaus Copernicus
7 Stern/March 09 AAS Meeting, 1930
8 Our Solar System Before 1930: A Tidy & Orderly Place There are just two types of planets: terrestrials and gas giants. All planets travel in essentially the same plane. All planets are in nearly circular orbits. Planets are believed to orbit where they were born.
9 Before 1930 The Census: 4 Terrestrial Planets 4 Giant Planets Asteroids & Comets Our ideas were simple but naïve, because our data was so limited limited by the technology of the times.
10 Stern/March 09 But That Year Tombaugh Discovered Pluto A Misfit Which Puzzled. Mid-Century Census: 4 Terrestrial Planets 4 Giant Planets 1 Misfit Pluto Asteroids & Comets
11 Until 92, When the Kuiper Belt Was Revealed, Giving Context Stern/March 09
12 Stern/March 09 But Make No Mistake These Dwarfs Are Not Small Bodies They Are Sizeable Worlds
13 So, You Ask: What Sets Small Planets Apart From Large Ones? They are smaller and more numerous than larger planets. Often their orbits are more elliptical and/or more inclined. But that s about it.
14 Stern/March 09 And What Do Small Planets Have In Common with Larger Cousins? They are believed to have formed like Earth, Mars, & Venus. They are made of rock and ice as are both Earth and Mars. Many have moons like other planets. Many likely have cores like all of the known larger planets. Some have atmospheres just like larger planets. Their surfaces are solid again, like the terrestrial planets. They are expected to have active surface geology & even tectonics as do the terrestrial planets. Simply Put Small Planets Have No Distinguishing Intrinsic Characteristics From Larger Planets
15 And What Do Small Planets Have In Common with Larger Cousins? They are believed to have formed like Earth, Mars, & Venus. They are made of rock and ice as are both Earth and Mars. Many have moons like other planets. Many likely have cores like all of the known larger planets. Some have atmospheres just like larger planets. Their surfaces are solid again, like the terrestrial planets. They are expected to have active surface geology & even tectonics as do the terrestrial planets. Simply Put Small Planets Have No Distinguishing Intrinsic Characteristics From Larger Planets Except Their Size.
16 Since 92 Nothing Less Than A Revolution Has Transpired In Planetary Science Nicolaus Copernicus
17 ur View of the Solar System s Architecture Was Transformed
18 Stern/March 09 And So Has Our View of the Solar System s Population The 21 st Century View: 4 Terrestrial Planets 4 Giant Planets Perhaps 1000 Dwarf Planets Comets & Asteroids
19 But the Revolution in New Planet Types Continues, Afar
20 Including Hot Jupiters
21 Including Pulsars with Planets
22 And Systems With Highly Eccentric Orbits
23 And Even Super Earths & Balsa-Wood Density Giants OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb is a super-earth extrasolar planet, weighing 5.5 Earth masses. And TrES-4 is 84% the mass of Jupiter but with an average density of only about 0.24 gm/cm 3.
24 What Is The Message Here? The diversity of planetary types both far and near is exploding before our eyes. Host stellar, orbital, and compositional, atmospheric types, as well as planetary sizes range over wide parameter space. And our own Earth has been further displaced as an archetype or centerpiece.
25 Somewhere, I Think, Copernicus is Smiling Nicolaus Copernicus
26 Result: Planet Classification Is a Challenge Now Upon Us How shall the milieu be organized? What properties determine planethood? What subtypes make most sense? And who should decide?
27 In 2006 the IAU Voted A Controversial Planet Definition 1. A celestial body that: is in orbit around the Sun, 2. Has sufficient mass so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape, and 3. Has "cleared the neighborhood" around its orbit. A non-satellite body fulfilling only the first two of these criteria is classified as a "dwarf planet", whilst a nonsatellite body fulfilling only the first criterion is termed a "small solar system body."
28 What s The Problem With Dynamical Clearing? First, it has nothing to do with the attributes and nature of the body. Worse, it depends on the stellar mass and the system s age: M planet > ~G -3/4 T system M * 1/4 a planet 9/4 Which fundamentally biases against both young and distant planets. Consider: A reordering the planets in our system would change which objects are classified as planets!
29 Should a Planet Be More Massive To Qualify The Farther Out It Orbits? Planets: Capable of Clearing Clearing By Scattering + H.F. Levison (2006) Stern/March 09 Not Capable of Clearing Clearing By Accretion If Earth were at 40 AU, it would not be an IAU planet!
30 Imagine: This Does Not Always Qualify as a Planet EARTH
31 Stern/March 09 Is It Really So Hard???????????????????????
32 I Have a Different Test: My Star Trek Test. Stern/March 09
33 DO WE JUDGE A HOUSE A HOME BASED ON ITS LOCATION?
34 OR BASED ON ITS ATTRIBUTES?
35 AND DO WE JUDGE A STAR A STAR BASED ON ITS ATTRIBUTES?
36 SO ENTER GPD: AN ATTRIBUTE-BASED DEFINITION The Geophysical Planet Definition (GPD) says a planet is 1. A celestial body that: has sufficient mass so that it can assume a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape due to its gravity overwhelming material strength. 2. But with insufficient mass to initiate sustained fusion in its interior at any time.
37 AND WHERE IS THIS HYDROSTATIC DIVIDING LINE? Planets: Capable of HSE Not
38 WHAT S SO ATTRACTIVE ABOUT THE GPD DEFINITION? It s simple, intuitive, and far less ambiguous. It embraces a diversity of planetary sizes and types which share a fundamental physical trait in common: shape controlled by gravity rather than material strength. It does not rely on having a complete census of a system to classify its objects. Objects do not reclassify based on orbital location. Instead, objects are classified purely on the basis of their nature, as are stars, stellar remnants, etc.
39 AND WITH THE GPD DEFINITION, AN EARTH IS ALWAYS A PLANET
40 Stern/March 09 A Census Gives 20 Solar Orbiting Planets, 2/3 of Which Are Dwarfs The Terrestrials: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. The Giants: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The Rocky & Icy Dwarfs: Ceres, Pallas, Juno, Vesta, Pluto, Charon, Quaoar, Ixion, EL61, Eris, Makemake, and Sedna. Science Is About Discovering New Paradigms
41 And Some Planet Orbiting Planets Too Stern/March 09 The Terrestrials: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. The Giants: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The Rocky & Icy Dwarfs: Ceres, Pallas, Juno, Vesta, Pluto, Charon, Quaoar, Ixion, EL61, Eris, Makemake, and Sedna. And Satellite Planets, Like: Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Titan, Triton, & Luna. Science is About Discovering New Paradigms.
42 Science Reaches Consensus One Person at a Time
43 Stern/March 09 But Remember, Copernicus Is Watching Nicolaus Copernicus
Planet Categorization & Planetary Science: Coming of Age in the 21 st Stern/March 09 Century Alan Stern Nicolaus Copernicus 1473-1543 Stern/March 09 AAS Meeting, 1930 Our Solar System Before 1930: A Tidy
Survey of the Solar System The Sun Giant Planets Terrestrial Planets Minor Planets Satellite/Ring Systems Definition of a dwarf planet 1. Orbits the sun 2. Is large enough to have become round due to the
Unit 12 Lesson 1 What Objects Are Part of the Solar System? The Solar System Earth, other planets, and the moon are part of a solar system. A solar system is made up of a star and the planets and other
The Outer Planets (pages 720 727) Gas Giants and Pluto (page 721) Key Concept: The first four outer planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are much larger and more massive than Earth, and they do
Inner and Outer Planets SPI 0607.6.2 Explain how the relative distance of objects from the earth affects how they appear. Inner Planets Terrestrial planets are those that are closest to the Sun. Terrestrial
Earth s Place in the Universe outline 1. in the beginning. The Big Bang 2. galaxies -- different types 3. stars -- life cycle 4. the solar system -- sun and planets the big bang the universe is expanding
Edmonds Community College ASTRONOMY 100 Sample Test #2 Fall Quarter 2006 Instructor: L. M. Khandro 10/19/06 Please Note: the following test derives from a course and text that covers the entire topic of
Chapter 06 Let s Make a Solar System How did it come to be this way? Where did it come from? Will I stop sounding like the Talking Heads? What does the solar system look like? Big picture. The solar system
What is the Solar System? Our Solar System is one of many planetary systems. It consists of: The Sun Eight planets with their natural satellites Five dwarf planets Billions of asteroids, comets and meteors
When a planets orbit around the Sun looks like an oval, it s called a(n) - ellipse - circle - axis - rotation Which of the following planets are all made up of gas? - Venus, Mars, Saturn and Pluto - Jupiter,
GEOLOGY 306 Laboratory Instructor: TERRY J. BOROUGHS NAME: Patterns in the Solar System (Chapter 18) For this assignment you will require: a calculator, colored pencils, a metric ruler, and meter stick.
Chapter 9 Section 1: Our Solar System Solar System: The solar system includes the sun, planets and many smaller structures. A planet and its moon(s) make up smaller systems in the solar system. Scientist
Earth Science Chapter 20: Observing the Solar System Match the observations or discoveries with the correct scientist. Answers may be used more than once. Answers that cannot be read will be counted as
8-3 Escape Speed Vocabulary Escape Speed: The minimum speed an object must possess in order to escape from the gravitational pull of a body. In Chapter 6, you worked with gravitational potential energy
A Survey of the Planets [Slides] Mercury Difficult to observe - never more than 28 degree angle from the Sun. Mariner 10 flyby (1974) Found cratered terrain. Messenger Orbiter (Launch 2004; Orbit 2009)
Part A Which of the following statements best describes the general pattern of composition among the four jovian planets? Hint A.1 Major categories of ingredients in planetary composition The following
Pluto, the Kuiper Belt, and Trans- Neptunian Objects 1 What about Pluto? Pluto used to be considered a planet Pluto is one of a large number of Trans-Neptunian Objects, not even the largest one! Discovery
Unit 2 Lesson 1 What Objects Are Part of the Solar System? Florida Benchmarks SC.5.E.5.2 Recognize the major common characteristics of all planets and compare/contrast the properties of inner and outer
9/22/17 Lecture Outline 6.1 A Brief Tour of the Solar System Chapter 6: Formation of the Solar System What does the solar system look like? Our goals for learning: What does the solar system look like?
The Size of the Solar System Overview Questions: My answers: Become familiar with the scale of the planets vs. their distances. Get an overview of the solar system. Introduction It is easy to flip to the
Unit 6 Lesson 4 What Are the Planets in Our Solar System? What other objects are near Earth in this part of space? Earth and millions of other objects make up our solar system. In Our Corner of Space A
11 Video Script: 1. For thousands of years people have looked up at the night sky pondering the limits of our solar system. 2. Perhaps you too, have looked up at the evening stars and planets, and wondered
What makes up the Universe? Introduction to the Universe Book page 642-644 Objects in the Universe Astrophysics is the science that tries to make sense of the universe by - describing the Universe (Astronomy)
Astronomy A. Dayle Hancock firstname.lastname@example.org Small 239 Office hours: MTWR 10-11am Planetology I Terrestrial and Jovian planets Similarities/differences between planetary satellites Surface and atmosphere
UNIT 1: EARTH AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM. 1) A BRIEF HISTORY Theories of the Universe In the second century BC, the astronomer Ptolemy proposed that the Earth was the centre of the Universe, and that the Sun,
Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune 40.329407-74.667345 Sun Mercury Length of rotation Temperature at surface 8 official planets large number of smaller objects including Pluto, asteroids,
9. Formation of the Solar System The evolution of the world may be compared to a display of fireworks that has just ended: some few red wisps, ashes, and smoke. Standing on a cool cinder, we see the slow
Science Objectives Students will investigate and differentiate between planets, moons, and asteroids. Students will understand how planets are classified. Vocabulary asteroid planet moon gravity orbital
Strand 1: Structure and Motion Within the Solar System Say Thanks to the Authors Click http://www.ck12.org/saythanks (No sign in required) To access a customizable version of this book, as well as other
Comparative Planetology I: Our Solar System Chapter Seven ASTR 111 003 Fall 2006 Lecture 07 Oct. 16, 2006 Introduction To Modern Astronomy I Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-17)
Vocabulary: Match the vocabulary terms on the left with the definitions on the right 1. Galaxy (a) the length of a planet s day 2. Rotational Period (b) dust and gases floating in space 3. Orbital Period
UNIT 7: Kilo Hōkū - Astronomy & Navigation Teacher s Notes for: The Ordered Solar System Before the students can begin their Tour Through the Solar System they need to have a roadmap. This exercise provides
The Solar System Chapter 22 Pages 612-633 Solar System Planets drawn to scale Nebular animation Distances not to scale Earth approximately 12,800 km diameter Earth is about 150,000,000 km from Sun Mercury
Name: Period: Date: Astronomy Ch. 6 The Solar System: Comparative Planetology MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The largest asteroid,
The Solar System 1star 1 star 9 8 planets 63 (major) moons asteroids, comets, meteoroids The distances to planets are known from Kepler s Laws (once calibrated with radar ranging to Venus) How are planet
Which of the following correctly describes the meaning of albedo? A) The lower the albedo, the more light the surface reflects, and the less it absorbs. B) The higher the albedo, the more light the surface
The Formation of the Solar System Basic Facts to be explained : 1. Each planet is relatively isolated in space. 2. Orbits nearly circular. 3. All roughly orbit in the same plane. 4. Planets are all orbiting
empowertm ME STUDENT SAMPLE ITEM BOOKLET Grade 7 Developed and published by Measured Progress, 100 Education Way, Dover, NH 03820. Copyright 2016. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be
The Discovery of Planets beyond the Solar System Luis A Aguilar Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM México First of all, What is a planet? Contrary to what you may have thought, this is something difficult to
Copyright FIST EDUCATION 011 0430 860 810 Nick Zhang Lecture 7 Gravity and satellites Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation Gravitation is a force of attraction that acts between any two masses. The gravitation
If a material is highly opaque, then it reflects most light. absorbs most light. transmits most light. scatters most light. emits most light. When light reflects off an object, what is the relation between
The Universe and Galaxies 16.1 http://dingo.care-mail.com/cards/flash/5409/galaxy.swf Universe The sum of all matter and energy that exists, that has ever existed, and that will ever exist. We will focus
Mercury Named after: Mercury, the fast-footed Roman messenger of the gods. Mean Distance from the Sun: 57,909,175 km (35,983,093.1 miles) or 0.387 astronomical units Diameter: 4,879.4 km (3,031.92 miles)
ASTRONOMY THE BIG BANG THEORY WHAT WE KNOW Scientists observe that every object in the universe is moving away from each other. Objects furthest away are moving the fastest. So.. WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? If
14a. Uranus, Neptune & Pluto The discovery of Uranus & Neptune Uranus is oddly tilted & nearly featureless Neptune is cold & blue Uranus & Neptune are like yet dislike Jupiter The magnetic fields of Uranus
Scoot Objective: Materials: Preparation: This game will give students an opportunity to review basic solar system facts. Grid Worksheet (one per student) Scoot Question Cards (one per desk) Place a Scoot
Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems 11.1 A Different Kind of Planet Our goals for learning: Are jovian planets all alike? What are jovian planets like on the inside? What is the weather like on jovian planets?
Florida Benchmarks SC.8.N.1.4 Explain how hypotheses are valuable if they lead to further investigations, even if they turn out not to be supported by the data. SC.8.N.1.5 Analyze the methods used to develop
Moon Obs #1 Due! Moon visible: early morning through afternoon 6 more due June 13 th 15 total due June 25 th Final Report Due June 28th Our Solar System Objectives Overview of what is in our solar system
Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems 11.1 A Different Kind of Planet Our goals for learning Are jovian planets all alike? What are jovian planets like on the inside? What is the weather like on jovian planets?
Regents Earth Science Unit 5: Astronomy Models of the Universe Earliest models of the universe were based on the idea that the Sun, Moon, and planets all orbit the Earth models needed to explain how the
A Science A Z Earth Series Word Count: 1,239 Written by David Dreier Visit www.sciencea-z.com www.sciencea-z.com Key elements Used in This Book The Big Idea: Learning about our solar system can give students
Chapter 12 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts
Solar System Science Information Background Courtesy NASA All Grades The Sky Is Our Cosmic Home For most of history, we have looked up to the sky and known that we humans are but a small part of a much
Florida Benchmarks SC.8.E.5.3 Distinguish the hierarchical relationships between planets and other astronomical bodies relative to solar system, galaxy, and universe, including distance, size, and composition.
Chapter 02 The Rise of Astronomy Multiple Choice Questions 1. The moon appears larger when it rises than when it is high in the sky because A. You are closer to it when it rises (angular-size relation).
PHYS101 Sec 001 Hour Exam No. 2 Page: 1 1 The angle between the rotation axis of a planet and the perpendicular to the plane of its orbit is called its axial tilt. Which of these planets has an axial tilt
JOVIAN VS. TERRESTRIAL PLANETS To begin lets start with an outline of the solar system. JOVIAN VS. TERRESTRIAL PLANETS What are Jovian and Terrestrial planets? Terrestrial planets are Earth like planets,
Solar System revised.notebook The Solar System Solar Nebula Theory Solar Nebula was a rotating disk of dust and gas w/ a dense center dense center eventually becomes the sun start to condense b/c of gravity
Habitability Outside the Solar System A discussion of Bennett & Shostak Chapter 11 HNRS 228 Dr. H. Geller 1 Chapter Overview Distant Suns (11.1) Life cycle of stars and their habitability zones Extrasolar
23.1 The Solar System Orbits of the Planets The Planets: An Overview The terrestrial planets are planets that are small and rocky Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. The Jovian planets are the huge gas giants
Astronomy 1140 Quiz 4 Review Anil Pradhan December 6, 2016 I The Outer Planets in General 1. How do the sizes, masses and densities of the outer planets compare with the inner planets? The outer planets
Chapter 8 Satellites (moons), Rings, and Plutoids Reading assignment: Chapter 8 Jovian planets satellites There are: Six large satellites, similar in size to our Moon 12 medium-sized - 400 to 1500km Many
1. The red shift of light from most galaxies is evidence that A) most galaxies are moving away from Earth B) a majority of stars in most galaxies are red giants C) the light slows down as it nears Earth
The Planets and Scale Elementary grades Lesson Summary Students practice reading data about the planets from a table and making numerical comparisons. Prior Knowledge & Skills Comparing numbers Reading
6 TH GRADE ACCURATE PLANET SIZES AND DISTANCE FROM THE SUN ACTIVITY Summary: Accurate planet size and distance from the Sun is studied in this lesson. Each student constructs a correctly scaled diagram
Learning About Our Solar System By debbie Routh COPYRIGHT 2004 Mark Twain Media, Inc. ISBN 978-1-58037-876-5 Printing No. 404007-EB Mark Twain Media, Inc., Publishers Distributed by Carson-Dellosa Publishing
OpenStax-CNX module: m444 Satellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License.0 Abstract
1 Planets: Power Laws and Classification Hector Javier Durand-Manterola Departamento de Estudios Espaciales, Instituto de Geofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) email@example.com
Chapter 10 Worlds of Gas and Liquid- The Giant Planets 21st CENTURY ASTRONOMY Fifth EDITION Kay Palen Blumenthal What is a storm on Saturn like? The Giant Planets, Part 1 Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
Planetary system dynamics Part III Mathematics / Part III Astrophysics Lecturer: Prof. Mark Wyatt (Dr. Amy Bonsor on 9,11 Oct) Schedule: Michaelmas 2017 Mon, Wed, Fri at 10am MR11, 24 lectures, start Fri
Exoplanets. II What Have We Found? 1978 planets in 1488 systems as of 11/15/15 (http://exoplanet.eu/ ) 1642 planets + 3787 candidates (http://exoplanets.org) Detected by radial velocity/astrometry: 621
Astronomy 241: Foundations of Astrophysics I 1. Solar System Overview 0. Units and Precision 1. Constituents of the Solar System 2. Motions: Rotation and Revolution 3. Formation Scenario Units Text uses
DATE DUE: Name: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 Section: Evolution of the Solar System Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer or option. Use GEOLOGIC vocabulary where
The Moons of the Solar System By Jordan Smith, Kaitlin McAfee, Erinn Capko, and Ashley Dominguez Survey of the Universe, EMPACTS Project, Spring 2017 Kelly Howe, Instructo4r, Northwest Arkansas Community
Solar System Formation Solar System Formation Question: How did our solar system and other planetary systems form? Comparative planetology has helped us understand Compare the differences and similarities
Name: Date: Period: Chapter 3 The Solar System Section 1 Observing the Solar System (pp. 72-77) Key Concepts What are the geocentric and heliocentric systems? How did Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler contribute
NASA Planetary Science Programs James L. Green NASA, Planetary Science Division February 19, 2015 Presentation at OPAG 1 Outline Mission events Passed FY15 Budget elements President s FY16 Budget Discovery
Orbital Motion Kepler s Laws GETTING AN ACCOUNT: 1) go to www.explorelearning.com 2) click on Enroll in a class (top right hand area of screen). 3) Where it says Enter class Code enter the number: MLTWD2YAZH
Making a Solar System Learning Objectives! What are our Solar System s broad features? Where are asteroids, comets and each type of planet? Where is most of the mass? In what direction do planets orbit
Earth Science Name: Unit 6: Astronomy Period: Date: Lab # 5 Elliptical Orbits Objective: To compare the shape of the earth s orbit (eccentricity) with the orbits of and with a circle. other planets Focus
Lecture 24: Saturn The Solar System First we focus on solar distance, average density, and mass: Planet Distance Density Mass Mercury 0.4 1.0 0.06 Venus 0.7 0.9 0.8 Earth 1.0 1.0 1.0 Mars 1.5 0.7 0.1 (asteroid)
Investigating Astronomy Timothy F. Slater, Roger A. Freeman Chapter 7 Observing the Dynamic Giant Planets Observing Jupiter and Saturn The disk of Jupiter at opposition appears about two times larger than