The inputs and outputs of energy within the earth-atmosphere system that determines the net energy available for surface processes is the Energy

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The inputs and outputs of energy within the earth-atmosphere system that determines the net energy available for surface processes is the Energy"

Transcription

1 Energy Balance

2 The inputs and outputs of energy within the earth-atmosphere system that determines the net energy available for surface processes is the Energy Balance

3 Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic radiation can be: Absorbed increases the energy content of the object, like a black car in the summer Reflected bounce the energy back toward the source, like a mirror Transmitted pass through without absorption or reflection, like a pane of glass

4 Transmission the passage of shortwave and longwave energy either through the atmosphere or water Inputs = shortwave radiation from the sun that passes through the atmosphere Outputs = longwave radiation from the earth s surface and atmosphere that passes through the atmosphere

5 Several things happen to insolation after it enters the atmosphere: Not all of the energy that enters the top of the atmosphere reaches the earth s surface

6

7 Losses of incoming solar radiation Refraction: the bending of insolation as it moves through the atmos towards earth s surface as insolation moves through the atmos it passes through one medium to another The speed of insolation is reduced as it moves through air of increasing density The decrease in speed as it enters thicker layers of he atmosphere causes it to shift direction or bend (refract)

8 Losses of incoming solar radiation Reflection: the portion of incoming solar energy that bounces directly back into space without being absorbed within the earth-atmosphere system Decided by the albedo Albedo: is a measure of the reflective quality of a surface the % of insolation that is reflected by the surface

9 Albedo depends on the color and texture of a surface and the angle of incoming solar radiation. Dark colors absorb more energy than lighter surfaces: Fresh snow = 80-90% Grass = 25-30% Crops = 10-25% Asphalt = 5-10% Forest = 10-20% Angle of insolation also affects albedo

10 Losses of incoming solar radiation Scattering: gas molecules absorb and reemit radiation, changing it s direction but does not change it s wavelength Some radiation absorbed by the atmos is reradiated towards earth s surface while the rest of it is reradiated back to space

11

12

13 Diffuse Radiation the portion of insolation absorbed by the atmos and scattered towards the earth s surface Diffuse Reflection the portion of insolation absorbed by the atmos and scattered back to space

14 Shorter wavelengths are scattered more easily than longer wavelengths (Lord Rayleigh, 1881) Short wavelengths are more susceptible to be scattered by small molecules in the atmos For small molecules in the atmos, scattering depends on 1/λ 4

15 The colors we see: When we see a color we actually see the wavelength of visible light that is reflected by that object. All other wavelengths are absorbed. Black happens when all visible wavelengths are absorbed White happens when all visible wavelengths are reflected The greater the amount of atmos that light has to pass through to reach the surface the greater the amount of scattering: That s why the sky is blue!

16

17 Absorption the assimilation of radiation by molecules changing it from one form of energy to another Absorption increases temperature of object Absorbed energy is reradiated at longer wavelengths (ozone layer)

18

19 Clouds are variable and greatly affect the amount of energy near the surface Reflect insolation back to space cooling effect (cloud-albedo forcing) Absorb longwave radiation and reradiate it back to the surface warming effect (cloud- greenhouse forcing) Clouds can make it cooler during the day by reflecting large amounts of insolation but warmer at night absorbing and reradiating longwave terrestrial radiation

20

21 Top of Atmosphere Energy Balance Source Input Sun (shortwave) 100% Output Total 100%

22

23 Source Top of Atmosphere Energy Balance Input Output Sun (shortwave) 100% Reflection (shortwave) 21% + 6% + 4% Total 100% 31%

24

25 Source Top of Atmosphere Energy Balance Input Output Sun (shortwave) 100% Reflection (shortwave) 21% + 6% + 4% Longwave loss to space 63% + 6% Total 100% 100% Top of the atmosphere is balanced!

26

27 Surface Energy Balance Source Input Sun (shortwave) 24% + 24% Output Total 48%

28

29 Surface Energy Balance Source Input Sun (shortwave) 24% + 24% Longwave 97% Output Total 145%

30

31 Surface Energy Balance Source Input Output Sun (shortwave) 24% + 24% Longwave 97% Longwave 107% + 6% Total 145% 113% The surface energy budget is not balanced!

32 Where is the other energy to make the surface balance?

33 Sensible Heat Sensible Heat heat you can feel (sense) Energy exchange between objects by flow of a fluid (atmosphere) Convection Energy exchange between objects by physical contact Conduction

34 Convection: Energy is transferred by the vertical mixing of a liquid or gas Ex: boiling water in a pan Conduction: As molecules warm they vibrate more rapidly, bumping into nearby molecules, causing them to vibrate This transfer of kinetic energy is heat Ex: touching a hot pan or a cold surface

35

36 Surface Energy Balance Source Input Output Sun (shortwave) 24% + 24% Longwave 97% Longwave 107% + 6% Sensible heat 10% Total 145% 123%

37 Latent Heat Latent Heat energy stored by changing water from solid or liquid to a gas Latent no change in temperature; change in phase of water molecules Liquid to Gas Evaporation Solid to Gas Sublimation Energy is released during precipitation or condensation

38

39 Surface Energy Balance Source Input Output Sun (shortwave) 24% + 24% Longwave 97% Longwave 107% + 6% Sensible Heat 10% Latent Heat 22% Total 145% 145% The surface energy balance is now balanced!

40

41 Atmospheric Energy Balance Source Input Output SW Absorption 3% + 18% Longwave 107% Longwave 97% + 63% Sensible Heat 10% Latent Heat 22%. Total 160% 160%

42 Global Energy Budget All three parts (top of the atmosphere, earth s surface, and the atmosphere) are now balanced Input = Output therefore, the planet is in a state of equilibrium (constant temperature)

43 The Greenhouse Effect

44 Like the sun, the earth emits electromagnetic radiation Unlike the sun, the earth is cooler and emits LW energy within the infrared wavelengths The earth emits longwave energy in all directions away from the earth s surface Some of this energy is radiated into space Some of this energy is absorbed by the atmosphere The energy that is absorbed by the atmosphere is reradiated by the atmosphere Some is radiated back to space The rest is reradiated back to the surgace of the earth

45 The counterradiation of LW energy warms the troposphere similar to the way the inside of a greenhouse is warmed the greenhouse effect Greenhouse glass transparent to SW energy from sun SW energy absorbed and and reradiated as LW energy Glass is not transparent to longer IR wavelengths LW IR wavelengths are sensed as heat Thus the process traps heat within the greenhouse making it warmer than outside

46 The earth s atmosphere acts like panes of a greenhouse: The atmos lets in solar rad Rad is absorbed by the earth s surface SW energy is reradiated as LW along with terrestrial rad Some LW energy is blocked from entering space warming GH effect is necessary. Without it we would freeze GH is increasing due to increased CO 2 over past 200yrs

47 Daily Radiation

48 Daily Radiation radiation evaluated for a period of 24 hours Daily radiation received at a certain location varies with season and latitude It also varies with degree of cloud cover No insolation is received at night The amount of insolation peaks at solar noon (when the sun is at its highest altitude) Insolation decreases from solar noon to sunset

49 Daily Radiation Air temperature responds to the changing amount of insolation throughout the day Minimum daily temperature occurs just after sunrise Air temperature begins to increase soon after sunrise when insolation starts to be absorbed by the surface Air temperature peaks around 3pm after solar noon When outputs of energy exceed the inputs, temperature begins to decrease

50 The Urban Environment Urban environments differ from surrounding rural environments - Urban environments generally have lower albedos - Surfaces tend to be drier Therefore urban areas tend to be warmer b/c they absorb and retain more energy and lower surface moisture leads to less cooling by evaporation and transpiration

51 Transpiration water is taken from the soil by plants and released by their leaves Water changes state from liquid to vapor cooling the plant through the loss of latent heat of evaporation

52 Rural Areas: Overall higher albedos than urban More plants for transpiration Moisture is retained by the soil Solar energy absorbed by soil is used from evaporation Evaporation cools surface through the loss of latent heat of evaporation Forests intercept insolation before the ground, spreading insolation over the top of the forest canopy rather than along the ground

53 Urban areas: Lower albedos Geometry Hunan activities pollution

ATMOSPHERIC ENERGY and GLOBAL TEMPERATURES. Physical Geography (Geog. 300) Prof. Hugh Howard American River College

ATMOSPHERIC ENERGY and GLOBAL TEMPERATURES. Physical Geography (Geog. 300) Prof. Hugh Howard American River College ATMOSPHERIC ENERGY and GLOBAL TEMPERATURES Physical Geography (Geog. 300) Prof. Hugh Howard American River College RADIATION FROM the SUN SOLAR RADIATION Primarily shortwave (UV-SIR) Insolation Incoming

More information

Lecture # 04 January 27, 2010, Wednesday Energy & Radiation

Lecture # 04 January 27, 2010, Wednesday Energy & Radiation Lecture # 04 January 27, 2010, Wednesday Energy & Radiation Kinds of energy Energy transfer mechanisms Radiation: electromagnetic spectrum, properties & principles Solar constant Atmospheric influence

More information

- matter-energy interactions. - global radiation balance. Further Reading: Chapter 04 of the text book. Outline. - shortwave radiation balance

- matter-energy interactions. - global radiation balance. Further Reading: Chapter 04 of the text book. Outline. - shortwave radiation balance (1 of 12) Further Reading: Chapter 04 of the text book Outline - matter-energy interactions - shortwave radiation balance - longwave radiation balance - global radiation balance (2 of 12) Previously, we

More information

The Atmosphere and Atmospheric Energy Chapter 3 and 4

The Atmosphere and Atmospheric Energy Chapter 3 and 4 The Atmosphere and Atmospheric Energy Chapter 3 and 4 Size of the Earth s Atmosphere Atmosphere produced over 4.6 billion years of development Protects us from radiation Completely surrounds the earth

More information

Lecture 4: Heat, and Radiation

Lecture 4: Heat, and Radiation Lecture 4: Heat, and Radiation Heat Heat is a transfer of energy from one object to another. Heat makes things warmer. Heat is measured in units called calories. A calorie is the heat (energy) required

More information

Energy Balance and Temperature. Ch. 3: Energy Balance. Ch. 3: Temperature. Controls of Temperature

Energy Balance and Temperature. Ch. 3: Energy Balance. Ch. 3: Temperature. Controls of Temperature Energy Balance and Temperature 1 Ch. 3: Energy Balance Propagation of Radiation Transmission, Absorption, Reflection, Scattering Incoming Sunlight Outgoing Terrestrial Radiation and Energy Balance Net

More information

Energy Balance and Temperature

Energy Balance and Temperature Energy Balance and Temperature 1 Ch. 3: Energy Balance Propagation of Radiation Transmission, Absorption, Reflection, Scattering Incoming Sunlight Outgoing Terrestrial Radiation and Energy Balance Net

More information

Radiation and the atmosphere

Radiation and the atmosphere Radiation and the atmosphere Of great importance is the difference between how the atmosphere transmits, absorbs, and scatters solar and terrestrial radiation streams. The most important statement that

More information

Earth s Atmosphere. Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere. 3. All the energy from the Sun reaches Earth s surface.

Earth s Atmosphere. Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere. 3. All the energy from the Sun reaches Earth s surface. CHAPTER 11 LESSON 2 Earth s Atmosphere Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Key Concepts How does energy transfer from the Sun to Earth and to the atmosphere? How are air circulation patterns within the atmosphere

More information

Chapter 3. Multiple Choice Questions

Chapter 3. Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 3 Multiple Choice Questions 1. In the case of electromagnetic energy, an object that is hot: a. radiates much more energy than a cool object b. radiates much less energy than a cool object c. radiates

More information

Electromagnetic Radiation. Radiation and the Planetary Energy Balance. Electromagnetic Spectrum of the Sun

Electromagnetic Radiation. Radiation and the Planetary Energy Balance. Electromagnetic Spectrum of the Sun Radiation and the Planetary Energy Balance Electromagnetic Radiation Solar radiation warms the planet Conversion of solar energy at the surface Absorption and emission by the atmosphere The greenhouse

More information

A) usually less B) dark colored and rough D) light colored with a smooth surface A) transparency of the atmosphere D) rough, black surface

A) usually less B) dark colored and rough D) light colored with a smooth surface A) transparency of the atmosphere D) rough, black surface 1. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below which shows two identical houses, A and B, in a city in North Carolina. One house was built on the east side of a factory, and the other

More information

Very Dynamic! Energy in the Earth s Atmosphere. How Does it Get Here? All Objects Radiate Energy!

Very Dynamic! Energy in the Earth s Atmosphere. How Does it Get Here? All Objects Radiate Energy! Energy in the Earth s Atmosphere Unit Essential Question: What are the different features of the atmosphere that characterize our weather. How does the atmosphere influence life and how does life influence

More information

Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle

Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Vertical energy balance Solar Flux and Flux Density Solar Luminosity (L) the constant flux of energy put out by the sun L = 3.9

More information

Energy, Temperature, & Heat. Energy, Temperature, & Heat. Temperature Scales 1/17/11

Energy, Temperature, & Heat. Energy, Temperature, & Heat. Temperature Scales 1/17/11 Energy, Temperature, & Heat Energy is the ability to do work (push, pull, lift) on some form of matter. Chapter 2 Potential energy is the potential for work (mass x gravity x height) Kinetic energy is

More information

Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle

Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Selective absorption Vertical energy balance Solar Flux and Flux Density Solar Luminosity (L) the constant flux of energy put out

More information

Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth

Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle Solar Flux and Flux Density Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Selective absorption Vertical energy balance Solar Luminosity (L) the constant flux of energy put out

More information

1 A 3 C 2 B 4 D. 5. During which month does the minimum duration of insolation occur in New York State? 1 February 3 September 2 July 4 December

1 A 3 C 2 B 4 D. 5. During which month does the minimum duration of insolation occur in New York State? 1 February 3 September 2 July 4 December INSOLATION REVIEW 1. The map below shows isolines of average daily insolation received in calories per square centimeter per minute at the Earth s surface. If identical solar collectors are placed at the

More information

Chapter 2. Heating Earth's Surface & Atmosphere

Chapter 2. Heating Earth's Surface & Atmosphere Chapter 2 Heating Earth's Surface & Atmosphere Topics Earth-Sun Relationships Energy, Heat and Temperature Mechanisms of Heat Transfer What happens to Incoming Solar Radiation? Radiation Emitted by the

More information

HEATING THE ATMOSPHERE

HEATING THE ATMOSPHERE HEATING THE ATMOSPHERE Earth and Sun 99.9% of Earth s heat comes from Sun But

More information

2/22/ Atmospheric Characteristics

2/22/ Atmospheric Characteristics 17.1 Atmospheric Characteristics Atmosphere: the gaseous layer that surrounds the Earth I. In the past, gases came from volcanic eruptions A. Water vapor was a major component of outgassing B. Other gases

More information

Earth s Energy Budget: How Is the Temperature of Earth Controlled?

Earth s Energy Budget: How Is the Temperature of Earth Controlled? 1 NAME Investigation 2 Earth s Energy Budget: How Is the Temperature of Earth Controlled? Introduction As you learned from the reading, the balance between incoming energy from the sun and outgoing energy

More information

Directed Reading. Section: Solar Energy and the Atmosphere RADIATION. identical point on the next wave. waves

Directed Reading. Section: Solar Energy and the Atmosphere RADIATION. identical point on the next wave. waves Skills Worksheet Directed Reading Section: Solar Energy and the Atmosphere 1. How is Earth s atmosphere heated? 2. Name the two primary sources of heat in the atmosphere. RADIATION In the space provided,

More information

Name(s) Period Date. Earth s Energy Budget: How Is the Temperature of Earth Controlled?

Name(s) Period Date. Earth s Energy Budget: How Is the Temperature of Earth Controlled? Name(s) Period Date 1 Introduction Earth s Energy Budget: How Is the Temperature of Earth Controlled? As you learned from the reading, the balance between incoming energy from the sun and outgoing energy

More information

Meteorology Pretest on Chapter 2

Meteorology Pretest on Chapter 2 Meteorology Pretest on Chapter 2 MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The earth emits terrestrial radiation a) only at night b) all the time c) only during winter d) only over the continents 2. If an imbalance occurs between

More information

Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE. Tarbuck Lutgens

Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE. Tarbuck Lutgens Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens Chapter 17 The Atmosphere: Structure and Temperature 17.1 Atmosphere Characteristics Composition of the Atmosphere Weather is constantly changing, and it refers

More information

AT350 EXAM #1 September 23, 2003

AT350 EXAM #1 September 23, 2003 AT350 EXAM #1 September 23, 2003 Name and ID: Enter your name and student ID number on the answer sheet and on this exam. Record your answers to the questions by using a No. 2 pencil to completely fill

More information

Wednesday, September 8, 2010 Infrared Trapping the Greenhouse Effect

Wednesday, September 8, 2010 Infrared Trapping the Greenhouse Effect Wednesday, September 8, 2010 Infrared Trapping the Greenhouse Effect Goals to look at the properties of materials that make them interact with thermal (i.e., infrared, or IR) radiation (absorbing and reemitting

More information

Energy and Insolation Review 2

Energy and Insolation Review 2 Energy and Insolation Review 2 The diagram below shows a container of water that is being heated. 1. The movement of water shown by the arrows is most likely caused by (1) density differences (2) insolation

More information

Chapter 02 Energy and Matter in the Atmosphere

Chapter 02 Energy and Matter in the Atmosphere Chapter 02 Energy and Matter in the Atmosphere Multiple Choice Questions 1. The most common gas in the atmosphere is. A. oxygen (O2). B. carbon dioxide (CO2). C. nitrogen (N2). D. methane (CH4). Section:

More information

Lecture 4: Radiation Transfer

Lecture 4: Radiation Transfer Lecture 4: Radiation Transfer Spectrum of radiation Stefan-Boltzmann law Selective absorption and emission Reflection and scattering Remote sensing Importance of Radiation Transfer Virtually all the exchange

More information

Energy: Warming the earth and Atmosphere. air temperature. Overview of the Earth s Atmosphere 9/10/2012. Composition. Chapter 3.

Energy: Warming the earth and Atmosphere. air temperature. Overview of the Earth s Atmosphere 9/10/2012. Composition. Chapter 3. Overview of the Earth s Atmosphere Composition 99% of the atmosphere is within 30km of the Earth s surface. N 2 78% and O 2 21% The percentages represent a constant amount of gas but cycles of destruction

More information

Key Concept Heat in Earth s atmosphere is transferred by radiation, conduction, and convection.

Key Concept Heat in Earth s atmosphere is transferred by radiation, conduction, and convection. Section 2 Atmospheric Heating Key Concept Heat in Earth s atmosphere is transferred by radiation, conduction, and convection. What You Will Learn Solar energy travels through space as radiation and passes

More information

Atmospheric Radiation

Atmospheric Radiation Atmospheric Radiation NASA photo gallery Introduction The major source of earth is the sun. The sun transfer energy through the earth by radiated electromagnetic wave. In vacuum, electromagnetic waves

More information

Temperature Scales

Temperature Scales TEMPERATURE is a measure of the internal heat energy of a substance. The molecules that make up all matter are in constant motion. By internal heat energy, we really mean this random molecular motion.

More information

Energy and Radiation. GEOG/ENST 2331 Lecture 3 Ahrens: Chapter 2

Energy and Radiation. GEOG/ENST 2331 Lecture 3 Ahrens: Chapter 2 Energy and Radiation GEOG/ENST 2331 Lecture 3 Ahrens: Chapter 2 Last lecture: the Atmosphere! Mainly nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%)! T, P and ρ! The Ideal Gas Law! Temperature profiles Lecture outline!

More information

AT 350 EXAM #1 February 21, 2008

AT 350 EXAM #1 February 21, 2008 This exam covers Ahrens Chapters 1 and 2, plus related lecture notes Write the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. b_ 1. The Earth s atmosphere is currently

More information

ATM S 111: Global Warming Solar Radiation. Jennifer Fletcher Day 2: June

ATM S 111: Global Warming Solar Radiation. Jennifer Fletcher Day 2: June ATM S 111: Global Warming Solar Radiation Jennifer Fletcher Day 2: June 22 2010 Yesterday We Asked What factors influence climate at a given place? Sunshine (and latitude) Topography/mountains Proximity

More information

Topic 5 Practice Test

Topic 5 Practice Test Base your answers to questions 1 and 2 on the diagram below, which represents the greenhouse effect in which heat energy is trapped in Earth's atmosphere 1. The Earth surface that best absorbs short-wave

More information

Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle

Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Vertical energy balance Latitudinal energy balance Seasonal and diurnal cycles Solar Flux and Flux Density Solar Luminosity (L)

More information

Topic # 10 THE EARTH S GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE

Topic # 10 THE EARTH S GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Topic # 10 THE EARTH S GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Applying the laws, etc. to understand how processes all work together to create global weather & climate!! BOOKMARK pp 51 & 115 BOOKMARK pp 51 & 115 in Class

More information

Spectrum of Radiation. Importance of Radiation Transfer. Radiation Intensity and Wavelength. Lecture 3: Atmospheric Radiative Transfer and Climate

Spectrum of Radiation. Importance of Radiation Transfer. Radiation Intensity and Wavelength. Lecture 3: Atmospheric Radiative Transfer and Climate Lecture 3: Atmospheric Radiative Transfer and Climate Radiation Intensity and Wavelength frequency Planck s constant Solar and infrared radiation selective absorption and emission Selective absorption

More information

Lecture 3: Atmospheric Radiative Transfer and Climate

Lecture 3: Atmospheric Radiative Transfer and Climate Lecture 3: Atmospheric Radiative Transfer and Climate Solar and infrared radiation selective absorption and emission Selective absorption and emission Cloud and radiation Radiative-convective equilibrium

More information

Global Energy Balance: Greenhouse Effect

Global Energy Balance: Greenhouse Effect Global Energy Balance: Greenhouse Effect Atmospheric Composition & Structure Physical Causes of Greenhouse Effects Chapter 3: 44 48. Atmospheric Composition Why does water vapor vary so much? Saturation

More information

GARP 0102 Earth Radiation Balance (Part 1)

GARP 0102 Earth Radiation Balance (Part 1) Class 8: Earth s Radiation Balance I (Chapter 4) 1. Earth s Radiation Balance: Sun, Atmosphere, and Earth s Surface as a System 2. Electromagnetic Radiation: Shortwave vs. longwave radiation (Page 69-71)

More information

Fluid Circulation Review. Vocabulary. - Dark colored surfaces absorb more energy.

Fluid Circulation Review. Vocabulary. - Dark colored surfaces absorb more energy. Fluid Circulation Review Vocabulary Absorption - taking in energy as in radiation. For example, the ground will absorb the sun s radiation faster than the ocean water. Air pressure Albedo - Dark colored

More information

3. Which color of the visible light has the shortest wavelength? A) violet B) green C) yellow D) red

3. Which color of the visible light has the shortest wavelength? A) violet B) green C) yellow D) red Name: Topic 6 Test 1. Which process is responsible for the greatest loss of energy from Earth's surface into space on a clear night? A) condensation B) conduction C) radiation D) convection 2. Base your

More information

Fluid Circulation Review. Vocabulary. - Dark colored surfaces absorb more energy.

Fluid Circulation Review. Vocabulary. - Dark colored surfaces absorb more energy. Fluid Circulation Review Vocabulary Absorption - taking in energy as in radiation. For example, the ground will absorb the sun s radiation faster than the ocean water. Air pressure Albedo - Dark colored

More information

Understanding the Greenhouse Effect

Understanding the Greenhouse Effect EESC V2100 The Climate System spring 200 Understanding the Greenhouse Effect Yochanan Kushnir Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University Palisades, NY 1096, USA kushnir@ldeo.columbia.edu Equilibrium

More information

The Atmosphere. Characteristics of the Atmosphere. Section 23.1 Objectives. Chapter 23. Chapter 23 Modern Earth Science. Section 1

The Atmosphere. Characteristics of the Atmosphere. Section 23.1 Objectives. Chapter 23. Chapter 23 Modern Earth Science. Section 1 The Atmosphere Chapter 23 Modern Earth Science Characteristics of the Atmosphere Chapter 23 Section 1 Section 23.1 Objectives Describe the composition of Earth s atmosphere. Explain how two types of barometers

More information

The Atmosphere - Chapter Characteristics of the Atmosphere

The Atmosphere - Chapter Characteristics of the Atmosphere Section Objectives Describe the composition of Earth s atmosphere. Explain how two types of barometers work. Identify the layers of the atmosphere. Identify two effects of air pollution. The Atmosphere

More information

Troposphere and mesosphere Stratosphere and thermosphere radio

Troposphere and mesosphere Stratosphere and thermosphere radio Warm-up Page: 518, 1. What two layers of the atmosphere is temperature decreasing? Troposphere and mesosphere Page: 518, 2. What two layers of the atmsophere is temperature increasing? Stratosphere and

More information

2. What does a mercury barometer measure? Describe this device and explain how it physically works.

2. What does a mercury barometer measure? Describe this device and explain how it physically works. Written Homework #1 Key NATS 101, Sec. 13 Fall 2010 40 Points total 10 points per graded question 10 points for attempting all questions. 1. What is the difference between mass and weight? Mass is an intrinsic

More information

Earth is tilted (oblique) on its Axis!

Earth is tilted (oblique) on its Axis! MONDAY AM Radiation, Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect Earth's orbit around the Sun is slightly elliptical (not circular) Seasons & Days Why do we have seasons? Why aren't seasonal temperatures highest at

More information

Composition, Structure and Energy. ATS 351 Lecture 2 September 14, 2009

Composition, Structure and Energy. ATS 351 Lecture 2 September 14, 2009 Composition, Structure and Energy ATS 351 Lecture 2 September 14, 2009 Composition of the Atmosphere Atmospheric Properties Temperature Pressure Wind Moisture (i.e. water vapor) Density Temperature A measure

More information

GEO1010 tirsdag

GEO1010 tirsdag GEO1010 tirsdag 31.08.2010 Jørn Kristiansen; jornk@met.no I dag: Først litt repetisjon Stråling (kap. 4) Atmosfærens sirkulasjon (kap. 6) Latitudinal Geographic Zones Figure 1.12 jkl TØRR ATMOSFÆRE Temperature

More information

Heat Transfer. Conduction, Convection, and Radiation. Review: Temperature

Heat Transfer. Conduction, Convection, and Radiation. Review: Temperature Heat Transfer Conduction, Convection, and Radiation Review: Temperature! Temperature is:! The quantity that tells how hot or cold something is compared with a standard! A measure of the average kinetic

More information

Let s Think for a Second

Let s Think for a Second Weather and Climate Let s Think for a Second Why is weather important in Ohio? Is climate important in Ohio? Spend 2 minutes sharing your thoughts with 1 partner. First, Let s Watch This. http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/science/earthsci/climate-weather-sci/

More information

Earth: A Dynamic Planet A. Solar and terrestrial radiation

Earth: A Dynamic Planet A. Solar and terrestrial radiation Earth: A Dynamic Planet A Aims To understand the basic energy forms and principles of energy transfer To understand the differences between short wave and long wave radiation. To appreciate that the wavelength

More information

9/1/14. Chapter 2: Heating Earth s Surface and Atmosphere. The Atmosphere: An Introduction to Meteorology, 12 th. Lutgens Tarbuck

9/1/14. Chapter 2: Heating Earth s Surface and Atmosphere. The Atmosphere: An Introduction to Meteorology, 12 th. Lutgens Tarbuck Chapter 2: Heating Earth s Surface and Atmosphere The Atmosphere: An Introduction to Meteorology, 12 th Lutgens Tarbuck Lectures by: Heather Gallacher, Cleveland State University! Earth s two principal

More information

8. Clouds and Climate

8. Clouds and Climate 8. Clouds and Climate 1. Clouds (along with rain, snow, fog, haze, etc.) are wet atmospheric aerosols. They are made up of tiny spheres of water from 2-100 m which fall with terminal velocities of a few

More information

Insolation and Temperature variation. The Sun & Insolation. The Sun (cont.) The Sun

Insolation and Temperature variation. The Sun & Insolation. The Sun (cont.) The Sun Insolation and Temperature variation Atmosphere: blanket of air surrounding earth Without our atmosphere: cold, quiet, cratered place Dynamic: currents and circulation cells June 23, 2008 Atmosphere important

More information

Earth: the Goldilocks Planet

Earth: the Goldilocks Planet Earth: the Goldilocks Planet Not too hot (460 C) Fig. 3-1 Not too cold (-55 C) Wave properties: Wavelength, velocity, and? Fig. 3-2 Reviewing units: Wavelength = distance (meters or nanometers, etc.) Velocity

More information

WEATHER. Review Note Cards

WEATHER. Review Note Cards WEATHER Review Note Cards Thermometer Weather instrument that measures air temperature Units include F, C, and K ESRT 13 Sling Psychrometer Weather instrument that measures relative humidity and dewpoint

More information

Energy Transfer Packet 9

Energy Transfer Packet 9 Energy Transfer Packet 9 Your Name Group Members Score Minutes Standard 4 Key Idea 2 Performance Indicator 2.2 Explain how incoming solar radiation, ocean currents, and land masses affect weather and climate.

More information

Lecture 5: Greenhouse Effect

Lecture 5: Greenhouse Effect /30/2018 Lecture 5: Greenhouse Effect Global Energy Balance S/ * (1-A) terrestrial radiation cooling Solar radiation warming T S Global Temperature atmosphere Wien s Law Shortwave and Longwave Radiation

More information

Atmospheric "greenhouse effect" - How the presence of an atmosphere makes Earth's surface warmer

Atmospheric greenhouse effect - How the presence of an atmosphere makes Earth's surface warmer Atmospheric "greenhouse effect" - How the presence of an atmosphere makes Earth's surface warmer Some relevant parameters and facts (see previous slide sets) (So/) 32 W m -2 is the average incoming solar

More information

Chapter 2 Solar and Infrared Radiation

Chapter 2 Solar and Infrared Radiation Chapter 2 Solar and Infrared Radiation Chapter overview: Fluxes Energy transfer Seasonal and daily changes in radiation Surface radiation budget Fluxes Flux (F): The transfer of a quantity per unit area

More information

General Comments about the Atmospheres of Terrestrial Planets

General Comments about the Atmospheres of Terrestrial Planets General Comments about the Atmospheres of Terrestrial Planets Mercury Very little atmosphere Contents: vaporized micrometeorites, solar wind Sky is black Venus Very thick (10% density of water), dense

More information

Blackbody Radiation. A substance that absorbs all incident wavelengths completely is called a blackbody.

Blackbody Radiation. A substance that absorbs all incident wavelengths completely is called a blackbody. Blackbody Radiation A substance that absorbs all incident wavelengths completely is called a blackbody. What's the absorption spectrum of a blackbody? Absorption (%) 100 50 0 UV Visible IR Wavelength Blackbody

More information

Planetary Temperatures

Planetary Temperatures Planetary Temperatures How does Sunlight heat a planet with no atmosphere? This is similar to our dust grain heating problem First pass: Consider a planet of radius a at a distance R from a star of luminosity

More information

Lecture 6: Radiation Transfer

Lecture 6: Radiation Transfer Lecture 6: Radiation Transfer Vertical and latitudinal energy distributions Absorption, Reflection, and Transmission Global Energy Balance terrestrial radiation cooling Solar radiation warming Global Temperature

More information

Lecture 6: Radiation Transfer. Global Energy Balance. Reflection and Scattering. Atmospheric Influences on Insolation

Lecture 6: Radiation Transfer. Global Energy Balance. Reflection and Scattering. Atmospheric Influences on Insolation Lecture 6: Radiation Transfer Global Energy Balance terrestrial radiation cooling Solar radiation warming Global Temperature atmosphere Vertical and latitudinal energy distributions Absorption, Reflection,

More information

Outline. Planetary Atmospheres. General Comments about the Atmospheres of Terrestrial Planets. General Comments, continued

Outline. Planetary Atmospheres. General Comments about the Atmospheres of Terrestrial Planets. General Comments, continued Outline Planetary Atmospheres Chapter 10 General comments about terrestrial planet atmospheres Atmospheric structure & the generic atmosphere Greenhouse effect Magnetosphere & the aurora Weather & climate

More information

Section 2: The Atmosphere

Section 2: The Atmosphere Section 2: The Atmosphere Preview Classroom Catalyst Objectives The Atmosphere Composition of the Atmosphere Air Pressure Layers of the Atmosphere The Troposphere Section 2: The Atmosphere Preview, continued

More information

Lecture 5: Greenhouse Effect

Lecture 5: Greenhouse Effect Lecture 5: Greenhouse Effect S/4 * (1-A) T A 4 T S 4 T A 4 Wien s Law Shortwave and Longwave Radiation Selected Absorption Greenhouse Effect Global Energy Balance terrestrial radiation cooling Solar radiation

More information

Chapter 2: The global ledger of radiation and heat

Chapter 2: The global ledger of radiation and heat Chapter 2: The global ledger of radiation and heat PROPERTIES OF RADIATION Everything radiates at all wavelengths! This includes the Sun, Earth, a candy bar, even us Fortunately, most objects don t radiate

More information

Radiation in the atmosphere

Radiation in the atmosphere Radiation in the atmosphere Flux and intensity Blackbody radiation in a nutshell Solar constant Interaction of radiation with matter Absorption of solar radiation Scattering Radiative transfer Irradiance

More information

Final Review Meteorology

Final Review Meteorology Final Review Meteorology Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following is an example of climate? a. A sudden snowstorm resulted

More information

Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds. What is an atmosphere? Planetary Atmospheres

Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds. What is an atmosphere? Planetary Atmospheres Chapter 10 Planetary Atmospheres Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds What is an atmosphere? Planetary Atmospheres Pressure Composition Greenhouse effect Atmospheric structure Color of the sky 1 Atmospheres

More information

G109 Alternate Midterm Exam October, 2004 Instructor: Dr C.M. Brown

G109 Alternate Midterm Exam October, 2004 Instructor: Dr C.M. Brown 1 Time allowed 50 mins. Answer ALL questions Total possible points;50 Number of pages:8 Part A: Multiple Choice (1 point each) [total 24] Answer all Questions by marking the corresponding number on the

More information

Energy Transfer Subtitle

Energy Transfer Subtitle Energy Transfer Subtitle Objectives Review Earth System Review the Water cycle Go over heat transfer through conduction, convection, and radiation Review Greenhouse Effect 2 July 22, 2012 Footer text here

More information

Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change Global Climate Change Definition of Climate According to Webster dictionary Climate: the average condition of the weather at a place over a period of years exhibited by temperature, wind velocity, and

More information

The Atmosphere. Topic 3: Global Cycles and Physical Systems. Topic 3: Global Cycles and Physical Systems. Topic 3: Global Cycles and Physical Systems

The Atmosphere. Topic 3: Global Cycles and Physical Systems. Topic 3: Global Cycles and Physical Systems. Topic 3: Global Cycles and Physical Systems The Atmosphere 1 How big is the atmosphere? Why is it cold in Geneva? Why do mountaineers need oxygen on Everest? 2 A relatively thin layer of gas over the Earths surface Earth s radius ~ 6400km Atmospheric

More information

5) The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 C is called: Page Ref: 69

5) The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 C is called: Page Ref: 69 Homework #2 Due 9/19/14 1) If the maximum temperature for a particular day is 26 C and the minimum temperature is 14 C, what would the daily mean temperature be? (Page Ref: 66) 2) How is the annual mean

More information

The Atmosphere: Structure and Temperature

The Atmosphere: Structure and Temperature Chapter The Atmosphere: Structure and Temperature Geologists have uncovered evidence of when Earth was first able to support oxygenrich atmosphere similar to what we experience today and more so, take

More information

Weather is the state or condition of the atmosphere at a given location for a brief time period.

Weather is the state or condition of the atmosphere at a given location for a brief time period. Topic 8: WEATHER Workbook chapter 7 Weather is the state or condition of the atmosphere at a given location for a brief time period. Differences in how Earth s surfaces absorb and reradiate energy from

More information

- continental vs. marine regimes

- continental vs. marine regimes (1 of 14) Further Reading: Chapter 05 of the text book Outline - continental vs. marine regimes - temperature structure of the atmosphere - seasonal variations - urban heat island (2 of 14) Introduction

More information

Sunlight and Temperature

Sunlight and Temperature Sunlight and Temperature Name Purpose: Study microclimate differences due to sunlight exposure, location, and surface; practice environmental measurements; study natural energy flows; compare measurements;

More information

Kinds of Energy. Defining Energy is Hard! EXPLAIN: 1. Energy and Radiation. Conservation of Energy. Sco; Denning CSU ESMEI ATS 1

Kinds of Energy. Defining Energy is Hard! EXPLAIN: 1. Energy and Radiation. Conservation of Energy. Sco; Denning CSU ESMEI ATS 1 Defining Energy is Hard! EXPLAIN: 1. Energy and Radiation Energy is the capacity to perform work (but physicists have a special definition for work, too!) Part of the trouble is that scientists have appropriated

More information

On my honor, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this examination. YOUR TEST NUMBER IS THE 5-DIGIT NUMBER AT THE TOP OF EACH PAGE.

On my honor, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this examination. YOUR TEST NUMBER IS THE 5-DIGIT NUMBER AT THE TOP OF EACH PAGE. Instructor: Prof. Seiberling PHYSICS DEPARTMENT MET 1010 Name (print, last rst): 1st Midterm Exam Signature: On my honor, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this examination. YOUR TEST

More information

Surface Processes and the Hydrosphere Unit Heating the Earth s Atmosphere Chapter 11 (pg )

Surface Processes and the Hydrosphere Unit Heating the Earth s Atmosphere Chapter 11 (pg ) Name: Block: Surface Processes and the Hydrosphere Unit Heating the Earth s Atmosphere Chapter 11 (pg. 352 385) 11.1: Focus on the Atmosphere: Weather and Climate What is the difference between the weather

More information

Radiative Equilibrium Models. Solar radiation reflected by the earth back to space. Solar radiation absorbed by the earth

Radiative Equilibrium Models. Solar radiation reflected by the earth back to space. Solar radiation absorbed by the earth I. The arth as a Whole (Atmosphere and Surface Treated as One Layer) Longwave infrared (LWIR) radiation earth to space by the earth back to space Incoming solar radiation Top of the Solar radiation absorbed

More information

G109 Midterm Exam (Version A) October 10, 2006 Instructor: Dr C.M. Brown 1. Time allowed 50 mins. Total possible points: 40 number of pages: 5

G109 Midterm Exam (Version A) October 10, 2006 Instructor: Dr C.M. Brown 1. Time allowed 50 mins. Total possible points: 40 number of pages: 5 G109 Midterm Exam (Version A) October 10, 2006 Instructor: Dr C.M. Brown 1 Time allowed 50 mins. Total possible points: 40 number of pages: 5 Part A: Short Answer & Problems (12), Fill in the Blanks (6).

More information

Which graph best shows the relationship between intensity of insolation and position on the Earth's surface? A) B) C) D)

Which graph best shows the relationship between intensity of insolation and position on the Earth's surface? A) B) C) D) 1. The hottest climates on Earth are located near the Equator because this region A) is usually closest to the Sun B) reflects the greatest amount of insolation C) receives the most hours of daylight D)

More information

CLASSICS. Handbook of Solar Radiation Data for India

CLASSICS. Handbook of Solar Radiation Data for India Solar radiation data is necessary for calculating cooling load for buildings, prediction of local air temperature and for the estimating power that can be generated from photovoltaic cells. Solar radiation

More information

Outline. Stock Flow and temperature. Earth as a black body. Equation models for earth s temperature. Balancing earth s energy flows.

Outline. Stock Flow and temperature. Earth as a black body. Equation models for earth s temperature. Balancing earth s energy flows. Outline Stock Flow and temperature Earth as a black body Equation models for earth s temperature { { Albedo effect Greenhouse effect Balancing earth s energy flows Exam questions How does earth maintain

More information

ElectroMagnetic Radiation (EMR) Lecture 2-3 August 29 and 31, 2005

ElectroMagnetic Radiation (EMR) Lecture 2-3 August 29 and 31, 2005 ElectroMagnetic Radiation (EMR) Lecture 2-3 August 29 and 31, 2005 Jensen, Jensen, Ways of of Energy Transfer Energy is is the the ability to to do do work. In In the the process of of doing work, energy

More information

ATS150 Global Climate Change Spring 2019 Candidate Questions for Exam #1

ATS150 Global Climate Change Spring 2019 Candidate Questions for Exam #1 1. How old is the Earth? About how long ago did it form? 2. What are the two most common gases in the atmosphere? What percentage of the atmosphere s molecules are made of each gas? 3. About what fraction

More information

Chapter 11 Lecture Outline. Heating the Atmosphere

Chapter 11 Lecture Outline. Heating the Atmosphere Chapter 11 Lecture Outline Heating the Atmosphere They are still here! Focus on the Atmosphere Weather Occurs over a short period of time Constantly changing Climate Averaged over a long period of time

More information