The Black Hole in the Galactic Center. Eliot Quataert (UC Berkeley)

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Black Hole in the Galactic Center. Eliot Quataert (UC Berkeley)"

Transcription

1 The Black Hole in the Galactic Center Eliot Quataert (UC Berkeley)

2 Why focus on the Galactic Center? The Best Evidence for a BH: M M (M = mass of sun) It s s close! only ~ Planck Lengths Away (~ 25,000 light-years) proximity unique observational probes of environment around a BH Largest BH on the sky (horizon rad 8 µ-arcsec) direct images of the horizon possible in the next decade Extreme low luminosity illuminates accretion physics

3 Outline Dynamical Evidence for a Massive BH in the GC Electromagnetic Evidence for a Massive BH Accretion Physics Inward Bound: Towards the Event Horizon

4 The Milky Way Galaxy Scale: Size of Solar System: 0.01 light-years Typical Distance btw. Stars: few light-years ~ 10 5 light-years M Black Hole Distance btw. Sun & GC light-year ( 8 kpc) Total mass (dark matter): ~ M Stellar mass (disk): ~ M Stellar mass (bulge): ~ M Central Black Hole mass: ~ M (also ~ 10s of millions of ~ 10 M BHs)

5 The Central Few Light Years VLT Infrared image Chandra X-ray Image Baganoff et al. Genzel et al.

6 Dynamical Evidence for a BH at the Center of our Galaxy 10 x size of solar system QuickTime and a YUV420 codec decompressor are needed to see this picture. Motion of stars at the center of the Milky Way over the past decade (full 3D velocities for ~ 6 stars) Genzel et al.; also Ghez et al.

7 Stellar Orbits Kepler s Laws 3.6 x 10 6 M in a region smaller than our solar system Closest star to BH (so far!) Ghez et al R min 500 R S V max km/s 0.04c

8 Alternatives to a BH? R < 500 R s or ρ > M pc -3 ~ 10-5 g cm -3 No Viable Astrophysical Alternative to BH Hypothesis Cluster of stars, planets, NSs, solar mass BHs, would destroy itself (by collisions or evaporation) in ~ 10 5 yrs <<< Hubble time Maoz 1998

9 Electromagnetic Signatures of Massive BHs Quasars & Active Galactic Nuclei Point sources of radiation with luminosities up to ~ solar ~ W (brighter than a galaxy!) Emission from radio to γ-rays Highly Variable (hours to days) small size < solar system Interpreted as M BHs accreting ~ M of gas per year Relativistic jets : BHs influence extends into surrounding galaxy

10 Many Varieties of Massive BHs Brightness of Central Black Hole Our Galaxy AGN Quasars BHs Spend Most of their Time Faint and Unobtrusive (Like Ours), But Occasionally Light Up as AGN/Quasars

11 Electromagnetic Evidence for a BH in the GC Galactic Center in X-rays X (Chandra( Chandra) X-ray Flare Baganoff et al X-ray Flux 3 hrs L X ~ L

12 Infrared Signature of a BH IR Flare Observed Flux Time (min) Genzel et al Light crossing time of Horizon: 0.5 min Orbital period of matter at 3 R S : 28 min

13 Total Power ~ ergs s -1 ~ W ~ 100 L ~ 10-9 L EDD (mostly in radio) Eddington Limit radio IR X-ray Force of Radiation On Inflowing Gas Balances Gravity X-ray Flares L EDD = 4πGMc κ es = M 7 ergs s -1

14 Fuel Supply Chandra X-ray Image of Galactic Center Hot gas surrounding BH (T = 1-2 kev; n = 100 cm -3 ) produced via shocked stellar winds Baganoff et al.

15 Spherical Model (Bondi( Accretion) BH surrounded by gas with density ρ and sound speed c s GM R >> A 2 cs R M Ý 4πR ρc captured A2 s S Estimates Give: (R A 10 5 R S ) M 10 5 R A R A determines the BHs gravitational sphere of influence M yr 1 ρ density c s sound speed (temperature)

16 Inflowing Gas with Angular Momentum Accretion Disk Angular Momentum Transport Balbus & Hawley 1991 Rotating magnetized disks are linearly unstable: magnetic stresses remove angular momentum and allow accretion to proceed Inflowing gas radiates its gravitational potential energy. Power produced up to L GM M Ý R η M Ý c 2 efficiency η ~ (depending on spin) up to 50 x more efficient than fusion in stars

17 Total Power ~ ergs s -1 ~ W ~ 100 L ~ 10-9 L EDD ~ 10 6 Ý M c 2 radio IR X-ray X-ray Flares Inferred efficiency <<<<< ~ 10% efficiency in luminous BHs

18 Radiatively Inefficient Accretion At low densities (low accretion rates), cooling is inefficient Grav.. Pot. Energy Heat; not radiated L << M Ý c 2 very hot plasma: kt ~ GMm p /3R s ~ 100 MeV near BH in T p ~ 100 MeV >> T e ~ 10 MeV our Galactic n e ~ 10 6 cm -3 B ~ 30 G Center e-p collision time ~ 10 8 x inflow time Note: Complexities in Accretion Theory Are Due to MHD & Plasma Physics. GR is easy.

19 Observed Emission Infrared X-ray Time (min) Light crossing time of Horizon: 0.5 min Orbital period of last stable orbit (a = 0): 28 min timescale emission arises close to BH ~ few R S

20 John Hawley QuickTime and a YUV420 codec decompressor are needed to see this picture. Accretion flow is time-dependent, with large fluctuations in density, temperature, magnetic field strength, etc. observed emission due to turbulent plasma close to BH (synchrotron + Inverse Compton radiation)

21 Analogy: Solar Corona QuickTime and a YUV420 codec decompressor are needed to see this picture. Solar Flare Active Regions as seen by the SOHO satellite

22 GC horizon: R S cm 4x10-13 rad 8 µ-arcsec Inward Bound M87 at 7 mm (R S 2 x smaller) GC is largest BH on the sky! can be directly imaged with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) at mm λ s s in the next ~ 10 years Human Eye: resolution ~ 20 arcsec Hubble: resolution ~ 0.1 arcsec VLBI: resolution ~ 10-6 arcsec Biretta et al R S

23 Toy Models Predict a True Black Hole (light bending, grav. redshift,, photons captured by BH, suppression in observed flux from near the BH) 10 R S Theory & simulations predict emission strongly peaked near BH where GR effects important Emission from very small radii also implied by rapid variability Falcke et al. 2000; based on Bardeen 1973

24 Summary Our Galaxy Hosts a 3.6 x 10 6 solar mass BH stellar orbits mass contained w/in ~ 500 R S (~ dist. btw. Sun & Pluto) Electromagnetic counterpart (accreting gas) is very faint accretion is inefficient :: little mass is accreted and little radiation is produced true for most BHs,, most of the time Observations probing conditions near horizon of BH rapid variability consistent w/ turbulent accretion flow in inner r few R S direct images of horizon feasible in ~ 10 years; novel GR effects?

Accretion onto the Massive Black Hole in the Galactic Center. Eliot Quataert (UC Berkeley)

Accretion onto the Massive Black Hole in the Galactic Center. Eliot Quataert (UC Berkeley) Accretion onto the Massive Black Hole in the Galactic Center Eliot Quataert (UC Berkeley) Why focus on the Galactic Center? GR! Best evidence for a BH (stellar orbits) M 4x10 6 M Largest BH on the sky

More information

Quasars ASTR 2120 Sarazin. Quintuple Gravitational Lens Quasar

Quasars ASTR 2120 Sarazin. Quintuple Gravitational Lens Quasar Quasars ASTR 2120 Sarazin Quintuple Gravitational Lens Quasar Quasars Quasar = Quasi-stellar (radio) source Optical: faint, blue, star-like objects Radio: point radio sources, faint blue star-like optical

More information

Active Galactic Nuclei-I. The paradigm

Active Galactic Nuclei-I. The paradigm Active Galactic Nuclei-I The paradigm An accretion disk around a supermassive black hole M. Almudena Prieto, July 2007, Unv. Nacional de Bogota Centers of galaxies Centers of galaxies are the most powerful

More information

The Physics of Collisionless Accretion Flows. Eliot Quataert (UC Berkeley)

The Physics of Collisionless Accretion Flows. Eliot Quataert (UC Berkeley) The Physics of Collisionless Accretion Flows Eliot Quataert (UC Berkeley) Accretion Disks: Physical Picture Simple Consequences of Mass, Momentum, & Energy Conservation Matter Inspirals on Approximately

More information

High-Energy Astrophysics Lecture 6: Black holes in galaxies and the fundamentals of accretion. Overview

High-Energy Astrophysics Lecture 6: Black holes in galaxies and the fundamentals of accretion. Overview High-Energy Astrophysics Lecture 6: Black holes in galaxies and the fundamentals of accretion Robert Laing Overview Evidence for black holes in galaxies and techniques for estimating their mass Simple

More information

Black Holes in Hibernation

Black Holes in Hibernation Black Holes in Hibernation Black Holes in Hibernation Only about 1 in 100 galaxies contains an active nucleus. This however does not mean that most galaxies do no have SMBHs since activity also requires

More information

Black Holes and Active Galactic Nuclei

Black Holes and Active Galactic Nuclei Black Holes and Active Galactic Nuclei A black hole is a region of spacetime from which gravity prevents anything, including light, from escaping. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently

More information

Bulletin on the Biggest, Baddest Black Hole on the Block

Bulletin on the Biggest, Baddest Black Hole on the Block Bulletin on the Biggest, Baddest Black Hole on the Block (SgrA* that is) Scott C. Noble UIUC CTA Lunch Seminar September 21, 2005 Outline: Introduction: How Big and Bad is it? M, R, tdyn, d, etc. What

More information

Active Galactic Nuclei

Active Galactic Nuclei Active Galactic Nuclei Optical spectra, distance, line width Varieties of AGN and unified scheme Variability and lifetime Black hole mass and growth Geometry: disk, BLR, NLR Reverberation mapping Jets

More information

Chapter 19 Galaxies. Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Each dot is a galaxy of stars. More distant, further into the past. halo

Chapter 19 Galaxies. Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Each dot is a galaxy of stars. More distant, further into the past. halo Chapter 19 Galaxies Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Each dot is a galaxy of stars. More distant, further into the past halo disk bulge Barred Spiral Galaxy: Has a bar of stars across the bulge Spiral Galaxy 1

More information

AGN in hierarchical galaxy formation models

AGN in hierarchical galaxy formation models AGN in hierarchical galaxy formation models Nikos Fanidakis and C.M. Baugh, R.G. Bower, S. Cole, C. Done, C. S. Frenk Physics of Galactic Nuclei, Ringberg Castle, June 18, 2009 Outline Brief introduction

More information

The MRI in a Collisionless Plasma

The MRI in a Collisionless Plasma The MRI in a Collisionless Plasma Eliot Quataert (UC Berkeley) Collaborators: Prateek Sharma, Greg Hammett, Jim Stone Modes of Accretion thin disk: energy radiated away (relevant to star & planet formation,

More information

The Effects of Anisotropic Transport on Dilute Astrophysical Plasmas Eliot Quataert (UC Berkeley)

The Effects of Anisotropic Transport on Dilute Astrophysical Plasmas Eliot Quataert (UC Berkeley) The Effects of Anisotropic Transport on Dilute Astrophysical Plasmas Eliot Quataert (UC Berkeley) in collaboration with Ian Parrish, Prateek Sharma, Jim Stone, Greg Hammett Hydra A w/ Chandra Galactic

More information

Active Galactic Alexander David M Nuclei

Active Galactic Alexander David M Nuclei d.m.alexander@durham.ac.uk Durham University David M Alexander Active Galactic Nuclei The Power Source QuickTime and a YUV420 codec decompressor are needed to see this picture. Black hole is one billionth

More information

Heat Transport and Buoyancy Instabilities in Astrophysical Plasmas. Eliot Quataert (UC Berkeley)

Heat Transport and Buoyancy Instabilities in Astrophysical Plasmas. Eliot Quataert (UC Berkeley) Heat Transport and Buoyancy Instabilities in Astrophysical Plasmas Eliot Quataert (UC Berkeley) Galaxy Cluster Hydra A w/ Chandra Surface of the Sun ~ 1 Million light-years Overview Microscopic Energy

More information

In a dense region all roads lead to a black Hole (Rees 1984 ARAA) Deriving the Mass of SuperMassive Black Holes

In a dense region all roads lead to a black Hole (Rees 1984 ARAA) Deriving the Mass of SuperMassive Black Holes In a dense region all roads lead to a black Hole (Rees 1984 ARAA) Deriving the Mass of SuperMassive Black Holes Stellar velocity fields MW Distant galaxies Gas motions gas disks around nearby black holes

More information

Accretion Disks. 1. Accretion Efficiency. 2. Eddington Luminosity. 3. Bondi-Hoyle Accretion. 4. Temperature profile and spectrum of accretion disk

Accretion Disks. 1. Accretion Efficiency. 2. Eddington Luminosity. 3. Bondi-Hoyle Accretion. 4. Temperature profile and spectrum of accretion disk Accretion Disks Accretion Disks 1. Accretion Efficiency 2. Eddington Luminosity 3. Bondi-Hoyle Accretion 4. Temperature profile and spectrum of accretion disk 5. Spectra of AGN 5.1 Continuum 5.2 Line Emission

More information

Lecture 9. Quasars, Active Galaxies and AGN

Lecture 9. Quasars, Active Galaxies and AGN Lecture 9 Quasars, Active Galaxies and AGN Quasars look like stars but have huge redshifts. object with a spectrum much like a dim star highly red-shifted enormous recessional velocity huge distance (Hubble

More information

Hydra A (x-ray) Perseus ` (optical)

Hydra A (x-ray) Perseus ` (optical) The Biermann Lectures: Adventures in Theoretical Astrophysics I: The Physics of Galaxy Cluster Plasmas Eliot Quataert (UC Berkeley) w/ Mike McCourt, Ian Parrish, Prateek Sharma Perseus ` (optical) Hydra

More information

Astr 2320 Thurs. April 27, 2017 Today s Topics. Chapter 21: Active Galaxies and Quasars

Astr 2320 Thurs. April 27, 2017 Today s Topics. Chapter 21: Active Galaxies and Quasars Astr 2320 Thurs. April 27, 2017 Today s Topics Chapter 21: Active Galaxies and Quasars Emission Mechanisms Synchrotron Radiation Starburst Galaxies Active Galactic Nuclei Seyfert Galaxies BL Lac Galaxies

More information

Chapter 23 The Milky Way Galaxy Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 23 The Milky Way Galaxy Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 23 The Milky Way Galaxy The Milky Way is our own galaxy viewed from the inside. It is a vast collection of more than 200 billion stars, planets, nebulae, clusters, dust and gas. Our own sun and

More information

Astronomy 422! Lecture 7: The Milky Way Galaxy III!

Astronomy 422! Lecture 7: The Milky Way Galaxy III! Astronomy 422 Lecture 7: The Milky Way Galaxy III Key concepts: The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Radio and X-ray sources Announcements: Test next Tuesday, February 16 Chapters

More information

AGN Feedback In an Isolated Elliptical Galaxy

AGN Feedback In an Isolated Elliptical Galaxy AGN Feedback In an Isolated Elliptical Galaxy Feng Yuan Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, CAS Collaborators: Zhaoming Gan (SHAO) Jerry Ostriker (Princeton) Luca Ciotti (Bologna) Greg Novak (Paris) 2014.9.10;

More information

Active Galactic Nuclei

Active Galactic Nuclei Active Galactic Nuclei How were they discovered? How common are they? How do we know they are giant black holes? What are their distinctive properties? Active Galactic Nuclei for most galaxies the luminosity

More information

Distribution of X-ray binary stars in the Galaxy (RXTE) High-Energy Astrophysics Lecture 8: Accretion and jets in binary stars

Distribution of X-ray binary stars in the Galaxy (RXTE) High-Energy Astrophysics Lecture 8: Accretion and jets in binary stars High-Energy Astrophysics Lecture 8: Accretion and jets in binary stars Distribution of X-ray binary stars in the Galaxy (RXTE) Robert Laing Primary Compact accreting binary systems Compact star WD NS BH

More information

AGN Feedback at the Parsec Scale

AGN Feedback at the Parsec Scale AGN Feedback at the Parsec Scale Feng Yuan Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, CAS with: F. G. Xie (SHAO) J. P. Ostriker (Princeton University) M. Li (SHAO) OUTLINE Intermittent activity of compact radio

More information

The Milky Way Galaxy

The Milky Way Galaxy 1/5/011 The Milky Way Galaxy Distribution of Globular Clusters around a Point in Sagittarius About 00 globular clusters are distributed in random directions around the center of our galaxy. 1 1/5/011 Structure

More information

ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: FROM THE CENTRAL BLACK HOLE TO THE GALACTIC ENVIRONMENT

ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: FROM THE CENTRAL BLACK HOLE TO THE GALACTIC ENVIRONMENT Julian H. Krolik ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: FROM THE CENTRAL BLACK HOLE TO THE GALACTIC ENVIRONMENT PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS Princeton, New Jersey Preface Guide for Readers xv xix 1. What Are Active Galactic

More information

Active galactic nuclei (AGN)

Active galactic nuclei (AGN) Active galactic nuclei (AGN) General characteristics and types Supermassive blackholes (SMBHs) Accretion disks around SMBHs X-ray emission processes Jets and their interaction with ambient medium Radio

More information

The Galactic Center a unique laboratory for studying massive black holes

The Galactic Center a unique laboratory for studying massive black holes The Galactic Center a unique laboratory for studying massive black holes Reinhard Genzel MPE on behalf of the ESO Galactic Center community (MPE, MPIA, UCologne, Observatoire de Paris, Granada, MPIfR,

More information

Physics 5I LECTURE 7 December 2, 2011

Physics 5I LECTURE 7 December 2, 2011 Physics 5I LECTURE 7 December 2, 2011 Midterm Exam More on Special Relativity Special Relativity with 4-vectors (again) Special Relativity + Quantum Mechanics Antiparticles, Spin General Relativity Black

More information

Martin Ward (Durham University, UK) allenges in Modern Astrophysics Sofia, Bulgaria Oct. 2009

Martin Ward (Durham University, UK) allenges in Modern Astrophysics Sofia, Bulgaria Oct. 2009 Martin Ward (Durham University, UK) allenges in Modern Astrophysics Sofia, Bulgaria Oct. 2009 What Makes a Galaxy ACTIVE? What is a Normal Galaxy? What is an Normal Galaxy? A literary analogy, adapted

More information

Our Galaxy. We are located in the disk of our galaxy and this is why the disk appears as a band of stars across the sky.

Our Galaxy. We are located in the disk of our galaxy and this is why the disk appears as a band of stars across the sky. Our Galaxy Our Galaxy We are located in the disk of our galaxy and this is why the disk appears as a band of stars across the sky. Early attempts to locate our solar system produced erroneous results.

More information

A100H Exploring the Universe: Quasars, Dark Matter, Dark Energy. Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy

A100H Exploring the Universe: Quasars, Dark Matter, Dark Energy. Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy A100H Exploring the :, Dark Matter, Dark Energy Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy astron100h-mdw@courses.umass.edu April 19, 2016 Read: Chaps 20, 21 04/19/16 slide 1 BH in Final Exam: Friday 29 Apr at

More information

Gravitation. Isaac Newton ( ) Johannes Kepler ( )

Gravitation. Isaac Newton ( ) Johannes Kepler ( ) Schwarze Löcher History I Gravitation Isaac Newton (1643-1727) Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) Isaac Newton (1643-1727) Escape Velocity V = 2GM R 1/2 Earth: 11.2 km/s (40 320 km/h) Moon: 2.3 km/s (8 300 km/h)

More information

Chapter 21 Galaxy Evolution. How do we observe the life histories of galaxies?

Chapter 21 Galaxy Evolution. How do we observe the life histories of galaxies? Chapter 21 Galaxy Evolution How do we observe the life histories of galaxies? Deep observations show us very distant galaxies as they were much earlier in time (old light from young galaxies). 1 Observing

More information

High Energy Astrophysics

High Energy Astrophysics High Energy Astrophysics Gamma-ray Bursts Giampaolo Pisano Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics - University of Manchester giampaolo.pisano@manchester.ac.uk May 2011 Gamma-ray Bursts - Observations - Long-duration

More information

The Galaxy. (The Milky Way Galaxy)

The Galaxy. (The Milky Way Galaxy) The Galaxy (The Milky Way Galaxy) Which is a picture of the Milky Way? A A is what we see from Earth inside the Milky Way while B is what the Milky Way might look like if we were far away looking back

More information

Chapter 19 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Our Galaxy Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 19 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Our Galaxy Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 19 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Our Galaxy Our Galaxy 19.1 The Milky Way Revealed Our goals for learning: Where are we located within our galaxy? What does our galaxy look like?

More information

A THERMAL BREMSSTRAHLUNG MODEL FOR THE QUIESCENT X-RAY EMISSION FROM SAGITTARIUS A* Eliot Quataert

A THERMAL BREMSSTRAHLUNG MODEL FOR THE QUIESCENT X-RAY EMISSION FROM SAGITTARIUS A* Eliot Quataert The Astrophysical Journal, 575:855 859, 2002 August 20 # 2002. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A. A THERMAL BREMSSTRAHLUNG MODEL FOR THE QUIESCENT X-RAY EMISSION

More information

Chapter 0 Introduction X-RAY BINARIES

Chapter 0 Introduction X-RAY BINARIES X-RAY BINARIES 1 Structure of this course 0. Introduction 1. Compact stars: formation and observational appearance. Mass transfer in binaries 3. Observational properties of XRBs 4. Formation and evolution

More information

Brightly Shining Black Holes. Julian Krolik Johns Hopkins University

Brightly Shining Black Holes. Julian Krolik Johns Hopkins University Brightly Shining Black Holes Julian Krolik Johns Hopkins University The Popular Picture of Black Holes The darkest objects in the Universe Popular View more Truthy than True The Closest Real Black Hole

More information

Accretion disks. AGN-7:HR-2007 p. 1. AGN-7:HR-2007 p. 2

Accretion disks. AGN-7:HR-2007 p. 1. AGN-7:HR-2007 p. 2 Accretion disks AGN-7:HR-2007 p. 1 AGN-7:HR-2007 p. 2 1 Quantitative overview Gas orbits in nearly circular fashion Each gas element has a small inward motion due to viscous torques, resulting in an outward

More information

New Forms of Convection in Galaxy Cluster Plasmas (i.e., how do galaxy clusters boil?)

New Forms of Convection in Galaxy Cluster Plasmas (i.e., how do galaxy clusters boil?) New Forms of Convection in Galaxy Cluster Plasmas (i.e., how do galaxy clusters boil?) Eliot Quataert (UC Berkeley) Hydra A w/ Chandra in collaboration with Ian Parrish Prateek Sharma Overview Hot Plasma

More information

Powering the Universe with Supermassive Black Holes. Steve Ehlert and Paul Simeon

Powering the Universe with Supermassive Black Holes. Steve Ehlert and Paul Simeon Powering the Universe with Supermassive Black Holes Steve Ehlert and Paul Simeon Overview Introduction to Galactic Nuclei Galactic Nuclear Activity Input and output energies. The aftermath of AGN flares.

More information

Active Galactic Nuclei - Zoology

Active Galactic Nuclei - Zoology Active Galactic Nuclei - Zoology Normal galaxy Radio galaxy Seyfert galaxy Quasar Blazar Example Milky Way M87, Cygnus A NGC 4151 3C273 BL Lac, 3C279 Galaxy Type spiral elliptical, lenticular spiral irregular

More information

Observational Evidence of AGN Feedback

Observational Evidence of AGN Feedback 10 de maio de 2012 Sumário Introduction AGN winds Galaxy outflows From the peak to the late evolution of AGN and quasars Mergers or secular evolution? The AGN feedback The interaction process between the

More information

GRB history. Discovered 1967 Vela satellites. classified! Published 1973! Ruderman 1974 Texas: More theories than bursts!

GRB history. Discovered 1967 Vela satellites. classified! Published 1973! Ruderman 1974 Texas: More theories than bursts! Discovered 1967 Vela satellites classified! Published 1973! GRB history Ruderman 1974 Texas: More theories than bursts! Burst diversity E peak ~ 300 kev Non-thermal spectrum In some thermal contrib. Short

More information

Powering Active Galaxies

Powering Active Galaxies Powering Active Galaxies Relativity and Astrophysics ecture 35 Terry Herter Bonus lecture Outline Active Galaxies uminosities & Numbers Descriptions Seyfert Radio Quasars Powering AGN with Black Holes

More information

Active Galactic Nuclei

Active Galactic Nuclei Active Galactic Nuclei Prof. Jeff Kenney Class 18 June 20, 2018 the first quasar discovered 3C273 (1963) very bright point source (the quasar ) jet the first quasar discovered 3C273 (1963) very bright

More information

(Astro)Physics 343 Lecture # 12: active galactic nuclei

(Astro)Physics 343 Lecture # 12: active galactic nuclei (Astro)Physics 343 Lecture # 12: active galactic nuclei Schedule for this week Monday & Tuesday 4/21 22: ad hoc office hours for Lab # 5 (you can use the computer in my office if necessary; Sections A

More information

Selected Topics in Plasma Astrophysics

Selected Topics in Plasma Astrophysics Selected Topics in Plasma Astrophysics Range of Astrophysical Plasmas and Relevant Techniques Stellar Winds (Lecture I) Thermal, Radiation, and Magneto-Rotational Driven Winds Connections to Other Areas

More information

Part two of a year-long introduction to astrophysics:

Part two of a year-long introduction to astrophysics: ASTR 3830 Astrophysics 2 - Galactic and Extragalactic Phil Armitage office: JILA tower A909 email: pja@jilau1.colorado.edu Spitzer Space telescope image of M81 Part two of a year-long introduction to astrophysics:

More information

Chapter 17. Active Galaxies and Supermassive Black Holes

Chapter 17. Active Galaxies and Supermassive Black Holes Chapter 17 Active Galaxies and Supermassive Black Holes Guidepost In the last few chapters, you have explored our own and other galaxies, and you are ready to stretch your scientific imagination and study

More information

AST Cosmology and extragalactic astronomy. Lecture 20. Black Holes Part II

AST Cosmology and extragalactic astronomy. Lecture 20. Black Holes Part II AST4320 - Cosmology and extragalactic astronomy Lecture 20 Black Holes Part II 1 AST4320 - Cosmology and extragalactic astronomy Outline: Black Holes Part II Gas accretion disks around black holes, and

More information

Star systems like our Milky Way. Galaxies

Star systems like our Milky Way. Galaxies Galaxies Star systems like our Milky Way Galaxies Contain a few thousand to tens of billions of stars,as well as varying amounts of gas and dust Large variety of shapes and sizes Gas and Dust in

More information

Black Hole Accretion and Wind

Black Hole Accretion and Wind Black Hole Accretion and Wind Feng Yuan Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences Accretion Regimes Hyper-accretion, slim disk, ADAF (Abramowicz et al. 1988) TDEs, ULXs, SS433 Thin

More information

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 23. Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 23. Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 23 Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 23 The Milky Way Galaxy Units of Chapter 23 23.1 Our Parent Galaxy 23.2 Measuring the Milky Way Discovery 23-1 Early Computers

More information

Bright Quasar 3C 273 Thierry J-L Courvoisier. Encyclopedia of Astronomy & Astrophysics P. Murdin

Bright Quasar 3C 273 Thierry J-L Courvoisier. Encyclopedia of Astronomy & Astrophysics P. Murdin eaa.iop.org DOI: 10.1888/0333750888/2368 Bright Quasar 3C 273 Thierry J-L Courvoisier From Encyclopedia of Astronomy & Astrophysics P. Murdin IOP Publishing Ltd 2006 ISBN: 0333750888 Institute of Physics

More information

Chapter 19 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective. Seventh Edition. Our Galaxy Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 19 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective. Seventh Edition. Our Galaxy Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 19 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Our Galaxy 19.1 The Milky Way Revealed Our goals for learning: Where are we located within our galaxy? What does our galaxy look like? How do stars

More information

X-ray data analysis. Andrea Marinucci. Università degli Studi Roma Tre

X-ray data analysis. Andrea Marinucci. Università degli Studi Roma Tre X-ray data analysis Andrea Marinucci Università degli Studi Roma Tre marinucci@fis.uniroma3.it Goal of these lectures X-ray data analysis why? what? how? Why? Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) Physics in a

More information

Astronomy A BEGINNER S GUIDE TO THE UNIVERSE EIGHTH EDITION

Astronomy A BEGINNER S GUIDE TO THE UNIVERSE EIGHTH EDITION Astronomy A BEGINNER S GUIDE TO THE UNIVERSE EIGHTH EDITION CHAPTER 14 The Milky Way Galaxy Lecture Presentation 14.0 the Milky Way galaxy How do we know the Milky Way exists? We can see it even though

More information

High-Energy Astrophysics

High-Energy Astrophysics Oxford Physics: Part C Major Option Astrophysics High-Energy Astrophysics Garret Cotter garret@astro.ox.ac.uk Office 756 DWB Michaelmas 2011 Lecture 7 Today s lecture: Accretion Discs Part I The Eddington

More information

Quasars and AGN. What are quasars and how do they differ from galaxies? What powers AGN s. Jets and outflows from QSOs and AGNs

Quasars and AGN. What are quasars and how do they differ from galaxies? What powers AGN s. Jets and outflows from QSOs and AGNs Goals: Quasars and AGN What are quasars and how do they differ from galaxies? What powers AGN s. Jets and outflows from QSOs and AGNs Discovery of Quasars Radio Observations of the Sky Reber (an amateur

More information

The Monster Roars: AGN Feedback & Co-Evolution with Galaxies

The Monster Roars: AGN Feedback & Co-Evolution with Galaxies The Monster Roars: AGN Feedback & Co-Evolution with Galaxies Philip Hopkins Ø (Nearly?) Every massive galaxy hosts a supermassive black hole Ø Mass accreted in ~couple bright quasar phase(s) (Soltan, Salucci+,

More information

Outflow from hot accretion flows Nature, origin and properties

Outflow from hot accretion flows Nature, origin and properties Outflow from hot accretion flows ------Nature, origin and properties (arxiv:1206.4173) Feng Yuan Shanghai Astronomical Observatory Chinese Academy of Sciences Accretion physics Motivation Outflow: important

More information

Active Galaxies & Quasars

Active Galaxies & Quasars Active Galaxies & Quasars Normal Galaxy Active Galaxy Galactic Nuclei Bright Active Galaxy NGC 5548 Galaxy Nucleus: Exact center of a galaxy and its immediate surroundings. If a spiral galaxy, it is the

More information

Astr 2310 Thurs. March 23, 2017 Today s Topics

Astr 2310 Thurs. March 23, 2017 Today s Topics Astr 2310 Thurs. March 23, 2017 Today s Topics Chapter 16: The Interstellar Medium and Star Formation Interstellar Dust and Dark Nebulae Interstellar Dust Dark Nebulae Interstellar Reddening Interstellar

More information

Galaxies. Galaxy Diversity. Galaxies, AGN and Quasars. Physics 113 Goderya

Galaxies. Galaxy Diversity. Galaxies, AGN and Quasars. Physics 113 Goderya Galaxies, AGN and Quasars Physics 113 Goderya Chapter(s): 16 and 17 Learning Outcomes: Galaxies Star systems like our Milky Way Contain a few thousand to tens of billions of stars. Large variety of shapes

More information

The X-Ray Universe. The X-Ray Universe

The X-Ray Universe. The X-Ray Universe The X-Ray Universe The X-Ray Universe Potsdam University Dr. Lidia Oskinova Sommersemester 2017 lida@astro.physik.uni-potsdam.de astro.physik.uni-potsdam.de ~lida/vorlesungxrayso17.html Chandra X-ray,

More information

Physics of Active Galactic nuclei

Physics of Active Galactic nuclei Physics of Active Galactic nuclei October, 2015 Isaac Shlosman University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA and Theoretical Astrophysics Osaka University, Japan 1 Lecture 2: supermassive black holes AND accretion

More information

* What are Jets? * How do Jets Shine? * Why do Jets Form? * When were Jets Made?

* What are Jets? * How do Jets Shine? * Why do Jets Form? * When were Jets Made? * What are Jets? * How do Jets Shine? * Why do Jets Form? * When were Jets Made? 1 * Galaxies contain massive black holes which power AGN * Gas accretes through a magnetized disk * Blazars are relativistically

More information

Rainer Schödel & Andreas Eckart Universität zu Köln. Stellar Dynamics Star Formation/Young Stars

Rainer Schödel & Andreas Eckart Universität zu Köln. Stellar Dynamics Star Formation/Young Stars Rainer Schödel & Andreas Eckart Universität zu Köln The Center of the Milky Way Stellar Dynamics Star Formation/Young Stars Variable emission from Sgr A* e.g. Eckart & Genzel (1996); Ghez et al. (1998);

More information

High Energy Astrophysics

High Energy Astrophysics High Energy Astrophysics Accretion Giampaolo Pisano Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics - University of Manchester giampaolo.pisano@manchester.ac.uk April 01 Accretion - Accretion efficiency - Eddington

More information

THIRD-YEAR ASTROPHYSICS

THIRD-YEAR ASTROPHYSICS THIRD-YEAR ASTROPHYSICS Problem Set: Stellar Structure and Evolution (Dr Ph Podsiadlowski, Michaelmas Term 2006) 1 Measuring Stellar Parameters Sirius is a visual binary with a period of 4994 yr Its measured

More information

Lecture 20 High-Energy Astronomy. HEA intro X-ray astrophysics a very brief run through. Swift & GRBs 6.4 kev Fe line and the Kerr metric

Lecture 20 High-Energy Astronomy. HEA intro X-ray astrophysics a very brief run through. Swift & GRBs 6.4 kev Fe line and the Kerr metric Lecture 20 High-Energy Astronomy HEA intro X-ray astrophysics a very brief run through. Swift & GRBs 6.4 kev Fe line and the Kerr metric Tut 5 remarks Generally much better. However: Beam area. T inst

More information

Active Galaxies and Galactic Structure Lecture 22 April 18th

Active Galaxies and Galactic Structure Lecture 22 April 18th Active Galaxies and Galactic Structure Lecture 22 April 18th FINAL Wednesday 5/9/2018 6-8 pm 100 questions, with ~20-30% based on material covered since test 3. Do not miss the final! Extra Credit: Thursday

More information

Our View of the Milky Way. 23. The Milky Way Galaxy

Our View of the Milky Way. 23. The Milky Way Galaxy 23. The Milky Way Galaxy The Sun s location in the Milky Way galaxy Nonvisible Milky Way galaxy observations The Milky Way has spiral arms Dark matter in the Milky Way galaxy Density waves produce spiral

More information

2. Active Galaxies. 2.1 Taxonomy 2.2 The mass of the central engine 2.3 Models of AGNs 2.4 Quasars as cosmological probes.

2. Active Galaxies. 2.1 Taxonomy 2.2 The mass of the central engine 2.3 Models of AGNs 2.4 Quasars as cosmological probes. 2. Active Galaxies 2.1 Taxonomy 2.2 The mass of the central engine 2.3 Models of AGNs 2.4 Quasars as cosmological probes Read JL chapter 3 Active galaxies: interface with JL All of JL chapter 3 is examinable,

More information

Number of Stars: 100 billion (10 11 ) Mass : 5 x Solar masses. Size of Disk: 100,000 Light Years (30 kpc)

Number of Stars: 100 billion (10 11 ) Mass : 5 x Solar masses. Size of Disk: 100,000 Light Years (30 kpc) THE MILKY WAY GALAXY Type: Spiral galaxy composed of a highly flattened disk and a central elliptical bulge. The disk is about 100,000 light years (30kpc) in diameter. The term spiral arises from the external

More information

Multi-wavelength Astronomy

Multi-wavelength Astronomy astronomy Multi-wavelength Astronomy Content What do we measure Multi-wavelength approach Data Data Mining Virtual Observatory Hands on session Larmor's formula Maxwell's equations imply that all classical

More information

Possible high energy phenomena related to the stellar capture by the galactic supermassive black holes. K S Cheng University of Hong Kong China

Possible high energy phenomena related to the stellar capture by the galactic supermassive black holes. K S Cheng University of Hong Kong China Possible high energy phenomena related to the stellar capture by the galactic supermassive black holes K S Cheng University of Hong Kong China Outline Introduction Swift J1644+57 Positron Annihilation

More information

Bizarre eating habits of the Black Hole in the center of the Milky Way. Roman Shcherbakov Hubble Fellow at University of Maryland 12 Feb 2012

Bizarre eating habits of the Black Hole in the center of the Milky Way. Roman Shcherbakov Hubble Fellow at University of Maryland 12 Feb 2012 Bizarre eating habits of the Black Hole in the center of the Milky Way Roman Shcherbakov Hubble Fellow at University of Maryland 12 Feb 2012 The Milky Way galaxy A typical spiral galaxy is our home: 100.000

More information

The Universe o. Galaxies. The Universe of. Galaxies. Ajit Kembhavi IUCAA

The Universe o. Galaxies. The Universe of. Galaxies. Ajit Kembhavi IUCAA Hello! The Universe of Galaxies The Universe o Galaxies Ajit Kembhavi IUCAA Galaxies: Stars: ~10 11 Mass: ~10 11 M Sun Contain stars, gas and dust, possibly a supermassive black hole at the centre. Much

More information

University of California, Santa Barbara Department of Physics

University of California, Santa Barbara Department of Physics University of California, Santa Barbara Department of Physics Name: KEY Astronomy FINAL EXAM Prof. Antonucci Tuesday, June Spring 008 I give my permission for my graded exam to be left in a public place:

More information

Physics HW Set 3 Spring 2015

Physics HW Set 3 Spring 2015 1) If the Sun were replaced by a one solar mass black hole 1) A) life here would be unchanged. B) we would still orbit it in a period of one year. C) all terrestrial planets would fall in immediately.

More information

A caleidoscopic view of Active Galactic Nuclei

A caleidoscopic view of Active Galactic Nuclei Mem. S.A.It. Vol. 79, 1011 c SAIt 2008 Memorie della A caleidoscopic view of Active Galactic Nuclei Thierry J.-L. Courvoisier 1,2 1 ISDC 16, ch. d Ecogia CH-1290 VERSOIX, Switzerland 2 Department of Astronomy

More information

Chapter 16 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Star Birth Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 16 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Star Birth Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 16 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Star Birth 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Star Birth The dust and gas between the star in our galaxy is referred to as the Interstellar medium (ISM).

More information

Supermassive Black Holes

Supermassive Black Holes Supermassive Black Holes Leiden, Modern Research: Galaxy Formation and Evolution Tom van Leth & Maarten van Dijk November 25, 2005 1 Introduction Introduction Black hole theory Characteristics of SMBH

More information

Roman Shcherbakov (University of Maryland, Hubble Fellow),

Roman Shcherbakov (University of Maryland, Hubble Fellow), NGC3115, credit: NASA Sgr A*, credit: NASA Roman Shcherbakov (University of Maryland, Hubble Fellow), Ka-Wah Wong, Jimmy Irwin (University of Alabama), Chris Reynolds (UMD), Fred Baganoff (MIT), Daniel

More information

Galaxies with Active Nuclei. Active Galactic Nuclei Seyfert Galaxies Radio Galaxies Quasars Supermassive Black Holes

Galaxies with Active Nuclei. Active Galactic Nuclei Seyfert Galaxies Radio Galaxies Quasars Supermassive Black Holes Galaxies with Active Nuclei Active Galactic Nuclei Seyfert Galaxies Radio Galaxies Quasars Supermassive Black Holes Active Galactic Nuclei About 20 25% of galaxies do not fit well into Hubble categories

More information

Black Holes. Observed properties of black holes Accretion disks Gravitational energy Rotating black holes Eddington luminosity

Black Holes. Observed properties of black holes Accretion disks Gravitational energy Rotating black holes Eddington luminosity Annoucements The second exam will be during class on Wednesday, October 26 E-mail questions before review on Monday, October 24 Astronomy tutorial: Tuesday 3-5, 7-9 pm in 310 VAN Office hours: Tuesday

More information

The parsec scale of. ac-ve galac-c nuclei. Mar Mezcua. International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics

The parsec scale of. ac-ve galac-c nuclei. Mar Mezcua. International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics The parsec scale of ESO ac-ve galac-c nuclei International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics COST Ac(on MP0905 - Black Holes in a Violent Universe In collaboration with A. Prieto,

More information

Constraining the charge of the Galactic centre black hole

Constraining the charge of the Galactic centre black hole Constraining the charge of the Galactic centre black hole FISIPAC 18 Presenting author: Michal Zajac ek Co-authors: Arman Tursunov, Andreas Eckart, Silke Britzen Zajac ek+18, MNRAS, 480, 4408 (arxiv: 1808.07327)

More information

Ay162, Spring 2006 Week 8 p. 1 of 15

Ay162, Spring 2006 Week 8 p. 1 of 15 Astronomy 162, Week 8 Milky Way Galaxy, continued Patrick S. Osmer Spring, 2006 Rotation of Galaxy How do we know the galaxy is rotating, and how do we measure its rotation? Measure radial velocities of

More information

Models of Inefficient Accretion onto a Black Hole and Pair Production in Jets

Models of Inefficient Accretion onto a Black Hole and Pair Production in Jets Models of Inefficient Accretion onto a Black Hole and Pair Production in Jets Monika Mościbrodzka University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign In collaboration with: C.F. Gammie, J. Dolence, H. Shiokawa, P.K.

More information

Other Galaxy Types. Active Galaxies. A diagram of an active galaxy, showing the primary components. Active Galaxies

Other Galaxy Types. Active Galaxies. A diagram of an active galaxy, showing the primary components. Active Galaxies Other Galaxy Types Active Galaxies Active Galaxies Seyfert galaxies Radio galaxies Quasars Origin??? Different in appearance Produce huge amount of energy Similar mechanism a Galactic mass black hole at

More information

Guiding Questions. Active Galaxies. Quasars look like stars but have huge redshifts

Guiding Questions. Active Galaxies. Quasars look like stars but have huge redshifts Guiding Questions Active Galaxies 1. Why are quasars unusual? How did astronomers discover that they are extraordinarily distant and luminous? 2. What evidence showed a link between quasars and galaxies?

More information

Set 4: Active Galaxies

Set 4: Active Galaxies Set 4: Active Galaxies Phenomenology History: Seyfert in the 1920;s reported that a small fraction (few tenths of a percent) of galaxies have bright nuclei with broad emission lines. 90% are in spiral

More information

The Milky Way, Hubble Law, the expansion of the Universe and Dark Matter Chapter 14 and 15 The Milky Way Galaxy and the two Magellanic Clouds.

The Milky Way, Hubble Law, the expansion of the Universe and Dark Matter Chapter 14 and 15 The Milky Way Galaxy and the two Magellanic Clouds. The Milky Way, Hubble Law, the expansion of the Universe and Dark Matter Chapter 14 and 15 The Milky Way Galaxy and the two Magellanic Clouds. Image taken from the European Southern Observatory in Chile

More information