1 OCN 201 The Scientific Method applied to Origin of the Universe
2 Science and the Scientific Method Science: from the Latin verb scire: to know, to discern; originally from an Indo-European word meaning to cut. (Science cuts to the heart of the matter?) --a systematic process of asking questions about the world and then testing the answers to those questions (Garrison) --the study of the physical world, using systematic observation and experiment (Encarta Dictionary) --the systematic study of anything that can be examined, tested, and verified (Encarta Encyclopedia) --the explanation of phenomena by natural processes
3 Whereas philosophy is concerned with the why as well as the how of things, science is concerned with the latter question only, and in a scrupulously rigorous manner. Science progresses through objective analysis rather than through personal belief. Science is evidence based! Objectivity indicates the attempt to observe things as they are, without falsifying observations to accord with some preconceived worldview. (Encarta Encyclopedia) The success of science rests on its focus on explanations that can be inferred from confirmable data. (Natl. Acad. of Sciences)
4 Even for scientists, the scientific method is a hard discipline. Like the rest of us, they re vulnerable to what they call confirmation bias the tendency to look for and see only evidence that confirms what they already believe. But unlike the rest of us, they submit their ideas to formal peer review before publishing them. Once their results are published, if they re important enough, other scientists will try to reproduce them and, being congenitally skeptical and competitive, will be very happy to announce that they don t hold up. Scientific results are always provisional, susceptible to being overturned by some future experiment or observation. Scientists rarely proclaim an absolute truth or absolute certainty. Uncertainty is inevitable at the frontiers of knowledge. (J. Achenbach, The Age of Disbelief, National Geographic, March, 2015)
5 The Scientific Method (according to Karl Popper): 1. Develop an idea to explain observations. 2. Test idea with new observations or by making predictions. 3. If new observations do not agree with the idea or its predictions, modify idea or develop a new one. Selected observations and/or experiments Reasoning Hypothesis (working guess) More observations and/or experiments Pass Theory Types of reasoning 1) from experience 2) by analogy 3) by induction 4) by deduction Modify Fail Reject Start over
6 The scientific method involves A. making observations B. asking questions C. formulating hypotheses D. making predictions E. all of the above.
7 Fact In science, an observation that has been repeatedly confirmed and for all practical purposes is accepted as "true. (Truth in science, however, is never final, and what is accepted as a fact today may be modified or even discarded tomorrow.) Definitions from Science and creationism, 2nd Ed., National Academy of Sciences, Washington D.C.,
8 Hypothesis A tentative statement about the natural world leading to deductions that can be tested If the deductions are verified, it becomes more probable that the hypothesis is correct. If the deductions are incorrect, the original hypothesis can be abandoned or modified ( error elimination : Popper). Hypotheses can be used to build more complex inferences and explanations.
9 Law A descriptive generalization about how some aspect of the natural world behaves under stated circumstances Theory In science, a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that can incorporate facts, laws, inferences, and tested hypotheses Scientific theories must be testable. Their conclusions are falsifiable and subject to change. Theories are the endpoint of science and its highest level of generalization.
10 There are important differences between the scientific use of theory and fact and the common use of these words. In science: theories are a lot more than hunches! Theories are understandings that develop from extensive observation, experimentation, and creative reflection. They incorporate a large body of scientific facts, laws, tested hypotheses, and logical inferences.
11 Examples of theories Generally accepted: Heliocentric theory Germ theory of disease Evolution Relativity The Big Bang Plate Tectonics Generally rejected: Flat Earth Geocentric theory Spontaneous generation (of living things) Creationism Phlogiston theory of heat Still tentative: Grand unified theories of physical forces
12 Science and Religion: A. Science will inevitably conflict with religion, and religion is usually right. B. Science will inevitably conflict with religion, and science is usually right. C. Science and religion may seem to conflict, but any contradiction is only apparent because the two realms are separate. D. There is no inherent contradiction between science and religion. E. I choose not to answer this question.
13 Science Explanation of phenomena by natural processes. Its theories must be testable and its conclusions are falsifiable and subject to change. Religion Science and Religion Explanation of phenomena by supernatural processes: e.g., origin of Earth and of humans. Supernatural explanations do not produce testable hypotheses and are asserted by their adherents to be unchangeable. Assertions regarding natural phenomena can and have been challenged by the scientific method: e.g., age of the Earth.
14 For the larger, more complex theories, science can never really prove them, but it can disprove them (Karl Popper). (Is this true?) A new theory is adopted only if it is better at explaining observations. Explanations must be testable. Given two theories that both explain all the observations, the simpler one is to be preferred. (the Law of Parsimony, or Occam s razor). William of Occam, Surrey, Correct ideas can be used to make predictions. Some areas lie outside the realm of science.
15 Example: Origin of the Universe: Three possibilities: only two are scientifically testable! Possible origins of the universe There was a singular state not describable by science, created by an omnipotent being. There was no origin; the universe is unchanging and infinitely old. There was a moment of origin which contained the seeds for the future evolution of the universe.
16 Early cosmologists Pythagoras ( BC): a spherical rotating Earth with fire at the centre, magic numbers
17 Plato ( BC) Planets circling a stationary Earth But... observations of Mars...
18 Retrograde motion of Mars as seen from Earth Makes sense if Sun is at center, but not if Earth is.
19 Eudoxus ( BC) Math. model of 33 spheres within spheres; a clever attempt to reproduce retrograde motions
20 Aristotle ( BC) working model with 55 perfect spheres Sphere theory is becoming overly complex and unwieldy!
21 Aristarchus (~280 BC) Heliocentric system Correct! But the theory was ignored as too radical!
22 The variable brightness problem Ptolemy (140 AD) uses epicycles imposed on geocentrism. Planet Sun Epicycle Orbit Earth Each planet moves in a small circle, or epicycle, the centre of which moves in a circular path around the Earth.
23 BUT...overthrows Aristotle's theory for rotation and also his theory of formation of the world. Failure of science to provide answers to basic questions results in religious groups insisting on literal interpretation of the Bible. World is again thought to be flat. Roman Empire collapses in the West: centres of learning are destroyed and knowledge lost. No progress in intellectual activity in the West for ~ 1000 years! Dark Ages
24 Renaissance (~ ) (French for rebirth) Copernicus ( ) Sun centered theory with circular orbits
25 Kepler ( ): elliptical orbits.
26 Galileo ( ): telescope: observes phases of Venus, confirms sun-centered theory; denounced by the Catholic Church inquisition in 1633 and forced to recant his ideas. Church rehabilitates Galileo in 1992 after 359 years!
27 Newton ( ): force of gravity, rational basis for planetary motion.
28 How old is our Universe? A years B. 10 million years C. 4.5 billion years D billion years E. ageless and infinite
29 Investigating the Universe Estimating distances to the planets and to stars using parallax: distance to the nearest star (Alpha Centauri) is 4 light years. Light year = distance light travels in one year = 5.9 trillion miles
30 Parallax of a planet Observatory 1 Earth Parallax angle Mars Observatory 2 Distance to a planet (e.g. Mars) can be measured using parallax angle, which depends on separation of the observatories and the distance to the planet.
31 Parallax of a nearby star By observing a star at 6 month intervals, the Earth's orbit is now the separation of the observatories. Alpha Centauri is 4 light years from Earth. Alpha Centauri Earth in July Earth in January
32 Using brightness to estimate distance Identify star types in Milky Way where we know the distance from parallax. Use absolute brightness of same star type in other galaxies to estimate distance to those galaxies.
33 Calculate distances to other galaxies: e.g. Andromeda is 2 million light years away = 1.2 x = 12,000,000,000,000,000,000 miles (12 quintillion miles)
34 Doppler effect applies to light as well as to sound. Star Wavelength Observer stationary approaching receding
35 Light from stars is found to be red-shifted, showing that our galaxy is spinning on its axis AND that stars (in other galaxies) are moving away from us!
36 Moreover, the farthest galaxies are moving away from Earth at the greatest speed! The Universe clearly has not been unchanging and is unlikely to be infinitely old. This theory can be rejected.
37 The Big Bang Theory Age of the Universe can be estimated from the rate of expansion and the distance to distant galaxies. Universe is /- 0.2 billion years old. Universe was created by a big bang : explosive expansion of a singularity : an apparent discontinuity in space-time. We have so far not been able to replicate conditions at that time. We can say a lot about what has happened since then.
38 Fate of the Universe --Big Crunch or Big Chill? Explosive energy from Big Bang could expand Universe forever. Gravity could also cause it to collapse back; it all depends on the amount of mass in Universe.
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