1 OCN 201 The Scientific Method applied to Origin of the Universe
2 Science and the Scientific Method Science: from the Latin verb scire: to know, to discern; originally from an Indo-European word meaning to cut. (Science cuts to the heart of the matter?) --a systematic process of asking questions about the world and then testing the answers to those questions (Garrison) --the study of the physical world, using systematic observation and experiment (Encarta Dictionary) --the systematic study of anything that can be examined, tested, and verified (Encarta Encyclopedia) --the explanation of phenomena by natural processes
3 Whereas philosophy is concerned with the why as well as the how of things, science is concerned with the latter question only, and in a scrupulously rigorous manner. Science progresses through objective analysis rather than through personal belief. Science is evidence based! Objectivity indicates the attempt to observe things as they are, without falsifying observations to accord with some preconceived worldview. (Encarta Encyclopedia) The success of science rests on its focus on explanations that can be inferred from confirmable data. (Natl. Acad. of Sciences)
4 Even for scientists, the scientific method is a hard discipline. Like the rest of us, they re vulnerable to what they call confirmation bias the tendency to look for and see only evidence that confirms what they already believe. But unlike the rest of us, they submit their ideas to formal peer review before publishing them. Once their results are published, if they re important enough, other scientists will try to reproduce them and, being congenitally skeptical and competitive, will be very happy to announce that they don t hold up. Scientific results are always provisional, susceptible to being overturned by some future experiment or observation. Scientists rarely proclaim an absolute truth or absolute certainty. Uncertainty is inevitable at the frontiers of knowledge. (J. Achenbach, The Age of Disbelief, National Geographic, March, 2015)
5 The Scientific Method (according to Karl Popper): 1. Develop an idea to explain observations. 2. Test idea with new observations or by making predictions. 3. If new observations do not agree with the idea or its predictions, modify idea or develop a new one. Selected observations and/or experiments Reasoning Hypothesis (working guess) More observations and/or experiments Pass Theory Types of reasoning 1) from experience 2) by analogy 3) by induction 4) by deduction Modify Fail Reject Start over
6 The scientific method involves A. making observations B. asking questions C. formulating hypotheses D. making predictions E. all of the above.
7 Fact In science, an observation that has been repeatedly confirmed and for all practical purposes is accepted as "true. (Truth in science, however, is never final, and what is accepted as a fact today may be modified or even discarded tomorrow.) Definitions from Science and creationism, 2nd Ed., National Academy of Sciences, Washington D.C.,
8 Hypothesis A tentative statement about the natural world leading to deductions that can be tested If the deductions are verified, it becomes more probable that the hypothesis is correct. If the deductions are incorrect, the original hypothesis can be abandoned or modified ( error elimination : Popper). Hypotheses can be used to build more complex inferences and explanations.
9 Law A descriptive generalization about how some aspect of the natural world behaves under stated circumstances Theory In science, a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that can incorporate facts, laws, inferences, and tested hypotheses Scientific theories must be testable. Their conclusions are falsifiable and subject to change. Theories are the endpoint of science and its highest level of generalization.
10 There are important differences between the scientific use of theory and fact and the common use of these words. In science: theories are a lot more than hunches! Theories are understandings that develop from extensive observation, experimentation, and creative reflection. They incorporate a large body of scientific facts, laws, tested hypotheses, and logical inferences.
11 Examples of theories Generally accepted: Heliocentric theory Germ theory of disease Evolution Relativity The Big Bang Plate Tectonics Generally rejected: Flat Earth Geocentric theory Spontaneous generation (of living things) Creationism Phlogiston theory of heat Still tentative: Grand unified theories of physical forces
12 Science and Religion: A. Science will inevitably conflict with religion, and religion is usually right. B. Science will inevitably conflict with religion, and science is usually right. C. Science and religion may seem to conflict, but any contradiction is only apparent because the two realms are separate. D. There is no inherent contradiction between science and religion. E. I choose not to answer this question.
13 Science Explanation of phenomena by natural processes. Its theories must be testable and its conclusions are falsifiable and subject to change. Religion Science and Religion Explanation of phenomena by supernatural processes: e.g., origin of Earth and of humans. Supernatural explanations do not produce testable hypotheses and are asserted by their adherents to be unchangeable. Assertions regarding natural phenomena can and have been challenged by the scientific method: e.g., age of the Earth.
14 For the larger, more complex theories, science can never really prove them, but it can disprove them (Karl Popper). (Is this true?) A new theory is adopted only if it is better at explaining observations. Explanations must be testable. Given two theories that both explain all the observations, the simpler one is to be preferred. (the Law of Parsimony, or Occam s razor). William of Occam, Surrey, Correct ideas can be used to make predictions. Some areas lie outside the realm of science.
15 Example: Origin of the Universe: Three possibilities: only two are scientifically testable! Possible origins of the universe There was a singular state not describable by science, created by an omnipotent being. There was no origin; the universe is unchanging and infinitely old. There was a moment of origin which contained the seeds for the future evolution of the universe.
16 Early cosmologists Pythagoras ( BC): a spherical rotating Earth with fire at the centre, magic numbers
17 Plato ( BC) Planets circling a stationary Earth But... observations of Mars...
18 Retrograde motion of Mars as seen from Earth Makes sense if Sun is at center, but not if Earth is.
19 Eudoxus ( BC) Math. model of 33 spheres within spheres; a clever attempt to reproduce retrograde motions
20 Aristotle ( BC) working model with 55 perfect spheres Sphere theory is becoming overly complex and unwieldy!
21 Aristarchus (~280 BC) Heliocentric system Correct! But the theory was ignored as too radical!
22 The variable brightness problem Ptolemy (140 AD) uses epicycles imposed on geocentrism. Planet Sun Epicycle Orbit Earth Each planet moves in a small circle, or epicycle, the centre of which moves in a circular path around the Earth.
23 BUT...overthrows Aristotle's theory for rotation and also his theory of formation of the world. Failure of science to provide answers to basic questions results in religious groups insisting on literal interpretation of the Bible. World is again thought to be flat. Roman Empire collapses in the West: centres of learning are destroyed and knowledge lost. No progress in intellectual activity in the West for ~ 1000 years! Dark Ages
24 Renaissance (~ ) (French for rebirth) Copernicus ( ) Sun centered theory with circular orbits
25 Kepler ( ): elliptical orbits.
26 Galileo ( ): telescope: observes phases of Venus, confirms sun-centered theory; denounced by the Catholic Church inquisition in 1633 and forced to recant his ideas. Church rehabilitates Galileo in 1992 after 359 years!
27 Newton ( ): force of gravity, rational basis for planetary motion.
28 How old is our Universe? A years B. 10 million years C. 4.5 billion years D billion years E. ageless and infinite
29 Investigating the Universe Estimating distances to the planets and to stars using parallax: distance to the nearest star (Alpha Centauri) is 4 light years. Light year = distance light travels in one year = 5.9 trillion miles
30 Parallax of a planet Observatory 1 Earth Parallax angle Mars Observatory 2 Distance to a planet (e.g. Mars) can be measured using parallax angle, which depends on separation of the observatories and the distance to the planet.
31 Parallax of a nearby star By observing a star at 6 month intervals, the Earth's orbit is now the separation of the observatories. Alpha Centauri is 4 light years from Earth. Alpha Centauri Earth in July Earth in January
32 Using brightness to estimate distance Identify star types in Milky Way where we know the distance from parallax. Use absolute brightness of same star type in other galaxies to estimate distance to those galaxies.
33 Calculate distances to other galaxies: e.g. Andromeda is 2 million light years away = 1.2 x = 12,000,000,000,000,000,000 miles (12 quintillion miles)
34 Doppler effect applies to light as well as to sound. Star Wavelength Observer stationary approaching receding
35 Light from stars is found to be red-shifted, showing that our galaxy is spinning on its axis AND that stars (in other galaxies) are moving away from us!
36 Moreover, the farthest galaxies are moving away from Earth at the greatest speed! The Universe clearly has not been unchanging and is unlikely to be infinitely old. This theory can be rejected.
37 The Big Bang Theory Age of the Universe can be estimated from the rate of expansion and the distance to distant galaxies. Universe is /- 0.2 billion years old. Universe was created by a big bang : explosive expansion of a singularity : an apparent discontinuity in space-time. We have so far not been able to replicate conditions at that time. We can say a lot about what has happened since then.
38 Fate of the Universe --Big Crunch or Big Chill? Explosive energy from Big Bang could expand Universe forever. Gravity could also cause it to collapse back; it all depends on the amount of mass in Universe.
OCN 201 Origin of the Universe Eta Carinae star system Science and the Scientific Method Science: Human search for a natural explanation of what the universe is How it is constructed, and how it came to
1. The possibility of extraterrestrial life was first considered A) after the invention of the telescope B) only during the past few decades C) many thousands of years ago during ancient times D) at the
Competing Models The Ptolemaic system (Geocentric) The Copernican system (Heliocentric) How did Galileo solidify the Copernican revolution? Galileo overcame major objections to the Copernican view. Three
Chapter 2 The Rise of Astronomy Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Periods of Western Astronomy Western astronomy divides into 4 periods Prehistoric
Today A little more scale... The Scientific Method Naked Eye Observations: the Appearance of the Sky The "student set" for Smartwork5 is 40700, which is labeled CWRU_ASTR201_Fall207. Add yourself to this
What were some of the major achievements of scientists during this period? Why has this period been labeled a revolution? Why was the Scientific Revolution seen as threatening by the Catholic Church? How
The History of Astronomy Theories, People, and Discoveries of the Past Early man recorded very little history. Left some clues in the form of petrographs. Stone drawings that show eclipses, comets, supernovae.
How we do science? The scientific method A duck s head The problem is that it is pretty clear that there is not a single method that scientists use. How we do science Scientific ways of knowing (Induction
Standard 1: Students will understand the scientific evidence that supports theories that explain how the universe and the solar system developed. They will compare Earth to other objects in the solar system.
Name Class Date The Scientific Revolution Vocabulary Builder Section 1 DIRECTIONS Look up the vocabulary terms in the word bank in a dictionary. Write the dictionary definition of the word that is closest
Cosmology Origins of the Universe The study of the universe, its current nature, its origin, and evolution 1 2 The Theory Theory Expansion indicates a denser, hotter past uniform, hot gas that cools as
Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy 3.1 The Ancient Roots of Science Our goals for learning: In what ways do all humans employ scientific thinking? How did astronomical observations benefit ancient societies?
In so many and such important ways, then, do the planets bear witness to the earth's mobility Nicholas Copernicus What We Will Learn Today What did it take to revise an age old belief? What is the Copernican
Motions of the Planets ASTR 2110 Sarazin Motion of Planets Retrograde Motion Inferior Planets: Mercury, Venus Always near Sun on Sky Retrograde motion when very close to Sun on sky (Every other time) Superior
Descriptive Astronomy (ASTR 108) Exam 1 B February 17, 2010 Name: In each of the following multiple choice questions, select the best possible answer. In the line on the scan sheet corresponding to the
Descriptive Astronomy (ASTR 108) Exam 1 A February 17, 2010 Name: In each of the following multiple choice questions, select the best possible answer. In the line on the scan sheet corresponding to the
BROCK UNIVERSITY Page 1 of 10 Test 1: November 2014 Number of pages: 10 Course: ASTR 1P01, Section 2 Number of students: 961 Examination date: 7 November 2014 Time limit: 50 min Time of Examination: 17:00
The History of Astronomy http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/babylon/babybibl_intro.htm http://mason.gmu.edu/~jmartin6/howe/images/pythagoras.jpg http://www.russellcottrell.com/greek/aristarchus.htm http://www.mesopotamia.co.uk/astronomer/homemain.html
Things to do today After this lecture, please pick up: Review questions for the final exam Homework#6 (due next Tuesday) No class on Thursday (Thanksgiving) Final exam on December 2 (next Thursday) Terminal,
1 Chapter 1 Astronomical distances are so large we typically measure distances in lightyears: the distance light can travel in one year, or 9.46 10 12 km or 9, 600, 000, 000, 000 km. Looking into the sky
Was Ptolemy Pstupid? Why such a silly title for today s lecture? Sometimes we tend to think that ancient astronomical ideas were stupid because today we know that they were wrong. But, while their models
Practice Test DeAnza College Astronomy 04 Test 1 Spring Quarter 2009 Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Mark answer on Scantron.
Astronomy 1010 Planetary Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 1 Chapter 1 1. A scientific hypothesis is a) a wild, baseless guess about how something works. b) a collection of ideas that seems to explain
The Birth of Astronomy Lecture 3 1/24/2018 Fundamental Questions of Astronomy (life?) What is the shape of the Earth? How big is the planet we live on? Why do the stars move across the sky? Where is Earth
The Scientific Revolution Consider the following. Put them in order from most true to least true. 1. That house is on fire. 2. God exists. 3. The earth moves around the sun. 4. 2 + 2 = 4 5. Michelangelo
Chapter 02 The Rise of Astronomy Multiple Choice Questions 1. The moon appears larger when it rises than when it is high in the sky because A. You are closer to it when it rises (angular-size relation).
Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens Origins of Modern Astronomy Earth Science, 13e Chapter 21 Stanley C. Hatfield Southwestern Illinois College Early history of astronomy Ancient Greeks Used philosophical
Greek Astronomy Aristotelian Cosmology: Evidence that the Earth does not move: 1. Stars do not exhibit parallax: 2-1 At the center of the universe is the Earth: Changeable and imperfect. Above the Earth
A100 Exploring the Universe: The Invention of Science Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy firstname.lastname@example.org September 09, 2014 Read: Chap 3 09/09/14 slide 1 Problem Set #1: due this afternoon
ASTRONOMY 1 EXAM 1 Name Identify Terms - Matching (20 @ 1 point each = 20 pts.) 1 Solar System G 7. aphelion N 14. eccentricity M 2. Planet E 8. apparent visual magnitude R 15. empirical Q 3. Star P 9.
Exam 1 Physics 101 Fall 2014 Chapters 1-3 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Suppose we look at a photograph of many galaxies.
Astronomy 350L (Fall 2006) The History and Philosophy of Astronomy (Lecture 3: Antiquity I) Instructor: Volker Bromm TA: Jarrett Johnson The University of Texas at Austin Astronomy and Cosmology in Antiquity:
Unit 1: Space Section 3- The history and future of space exploration Ancient Astronomer Speed Dating Remember: Speak to your partner, don t copy notes Keep points brief, don t write paragraphs Stick to
BROCK UNIVERSITY Page 1 of 10 Test 1: November 2014 Number of pages: 10 Course: ASTR 1P01, Section 2 Number of students: 30 Examination date: 10 November 2014 Time limit: 50 min Time of Examination: 9:00
Lecture 3: History of Astronomy Astronomy 111 Monday September 4, 2017 Reminders Labs start this week Homework #2 assigned today Astronomy of the ancients Many ancient cultures took note of celestial objects
2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 21 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors
http://radicalart.info/physics/vacuum/index.html The Scientific Revolution In the 1500s and 1600s the Scientific Revolution changed the way Europeans looked at the world. People began to make conclusions
Claudius Ptolemaeus Second Century AD Jan 5 7:37 AM Copernicus: The Foundation Nicholas Copernicus (Polish, 1473 1543): Proposed the first modern heliocentric model, motivated by inaccuracies of the Ptolemaic
Cosmology Cosmology is the study of the universe. What is it s structure? How did it originate? How is it evolving? What is its eventual fate? ANCIENT COSMOLOGIES The Ptolemaic Universe Claudius Ptolemy
Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy 1 3.1 The Ancient Roots of Science Our goals for learning: In what ways do all humans employ scientific thinking? How did astronomical observations benefit ancient societies?
Physics 107 Ideas of Modern Physics (uw.physics.wisc.edu/~rzchowski/phy107) Modern Physics: essentially post-1900 Why 1900? Two radical developments: Relativity & Quantum Mechanics Both changed the way
Physics 107 Ideas of Modern Physics (uw.physics.wisc.edu/~rzchowski/phy107) Main emphasis is Modern Physics: essentially post-1900 Why 1900? Two radical developments: Relativity & Quantum Mechanics Both
ASTR/PHYS 109 Dr. David Toback Lecture 6 & 7 1 Prep For Today (is now due) L7 Reading: Required: BBBHNM Unit 2 (Chapters 5-9) Recommended Reading: See P3 of http://people.physics.tamu.edu/toback/109/syllabus.pdf
A100 Exploring the Universe: The Rise of Science Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy email@example.com September 11, 2012 Read: Chap 3 09/11/12 slide 1 Problem Set #1 due this afternoon at 5pm! Read:
The Scientific Revolution Learning Target Explain how new discoveries in astronomy changed the way people viewed the universe. Understand the new scientific method and how it developed. Analyze the contributions
Objectives Explain how new discoveries in astronomy changed the way people viewed the universe. Understand the new scientific method and how it developed. Analyze the contributions that Newton and other
Reading: OpenStax, Chapter 2, Section 2.2 &2.4, Chapter 3, Sections 3.1-3.3 Chapter 5, Section 5.1 Last time: Scales of the Universe Astro 150 Spring 2018: Lecture 2 page 1 The size of our solar system,
Gravitation Part I. Ptolemy, Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler Celestial motions The stars: Uniform daily motion about the celestial poles (rising and setting). The Sun: Daily motion around the celestial
Philosophical Issues of Computer Science Historical and philosophical analysis of science Instructor: Viola Schiaffonati March, 17 th 2016 Science: what about the history? 2 Scientific Revolution (1550-1700)
Foundations of Astronomy The scientific method-winning or losing? Geodorno Bruno Warned to stop teaching heretical sun-centered solar system of Copernicus. Failed to heed church warnings during inquisition
AST 301: What you will have to learn and get used to 1. Basic types of objects in the universe Planets, stars, galaxies, a few things inbetween--look through your textbook soon! You will have to learn:
The Copernican Revolution ASTR 1010 Spring 2016 Study Notes Dr. Magnani The Copernican Revolution is basically how the West intellectually transitioned from the Ptolemaic geocentric model of the Universe
8.1 notes.notebook Claudius Ptolemaeus Second Century AD Jan 5 7:7 AM Copernicus: The Foundation Nicholas Copernicus (Polish, 147 154): Proposed the first modern heliocentric model, motivated by inaccuracies
Chapter 2 The Rise of Astronomy Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 2.1: Early Ideas of the Heavens: Classical Astronomy As far as we know, the
Leader Discussion Guide for Cosmos: A SpaceTime Odyssey Episode 1: Standing Up in the Milky Way The creators of Cosmos: A SpaceTime Odyssey state that their aim is to promote scientific literacy. We know
Early Models of the Universe How we explained those big shiny lights in the sky The Greek philosopher Aristotle (384 322 BCE) believed that the Earth was the center of our universe, and everything rotated
Announcements Results of clicker questions from Monday are on ICON. First homework is graded on ICON. Next homework due one minute before midnight on Tuesday, September 6. Labs start this week. All lab
Directions: Read each slide and decide what information is needed. Some slides may have red or yellow or orange underlined. This information is a clue for you to read more carefully or copy the information
Lecture #5: Plan The Beginnings of Modern Astronomy Kepler s Laws Galileo Geocentric ( Ptolemaic ) Model Retrograde Motion: Apparent backward (= East-to-West) motion of a planet with respect to stars Ptolemy
Rene Descartes Rene Descartes was a French philosopher who was initially preoccupied with doubt and uncertainty. The one thing he found beyond doubt was his own experience. Emphasizing the importance of
EARTH SCIENCE UNIT 9 -NOTES ASTRONOMY UNIT 9- ASTRONOMY 2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM I. The Solar System:. a. Celestial Body:. i. Examples:. b. MAIN COMPONENTS/MEMBERS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM: i. 1. Planets are objects
SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION VOCABULARY: SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Revolution a sweeping change Geocentric earth-centered universe Astronomer scientist who studies the motion of stars and planets Heliocentric sun-centered
The Science of Life in the Universe (Chap 2 Bennett/Shostak) 26 January 2010 - Lecture 3 HNRS 228 - Astrobiology Prof. Geller Overview of Chapter 2 Ancient Debate about Life Beyond Earth (2.1) Greeks and
The Scientific Revolution In the Middle Ages, the Catholic Church was the authority on science. Some people began to question the Church s authority Francis Bacon stressed the importance of observation
https://www.flocabulary.com/scientific method/ BELLRINGER USE this to fill in the top paragraph of the notes sheet I just gave you! While Europeans were exploring and colonizing the world, other Europeans
PHYS 1411 Introduction to Astronomy History of Astronomy Chapter 4 Renaissance Period Copernicus new (and correct) explanation for retrograde motion of the planets Copernicus new (and correct) explanation
In ancient times phenomena in the sky were not understood! Chapter 2 The Science of Life in the Universe The Ancient Greeks The Scientific Method Our ideas must always be consistent with our observations!
Chapter 4 The Origin Of Modern Astronomy Slide 14 Slide 15 14 15 Is Change Good or Bad? Do you like Homer to look like Homer or with hair? Does it bother you when your schedule is changed? Is it okay to
Models of the Solar System The Development of Understanding from Ancient Greece to Isaac Newton Aristotle (384 BC 322 BC) Third in line of Greek thinkers: Socrates was the teacher of Plato, Plato was the
This Class (Lecture 32): Cultural Evolution Next Class: Lifetime ET: Astronomy 230 HW 7 due today! Outline Will a civilization develop that has the appropriate technology and worldview? The most important
CW10 p374 Vocab What is a Revolution? A Revolution is a complete change, or an overthrow of a government, a social system, etc. The Scientific Revolution In the 1500s and 1600s the Scientific Revolution
The Scientific Revolution What is a Revolution? A Revolution is a complete change, or an overthrow of a government, a social system, etc. The Scientific Revolution In the 1500s and 1600s the Scientific
ASTR 2010 Modern Cosmology Professor: James Green Logistics: Textbook Math Expectations Grading Homeworks Midterm Final Exam Lecture Notes Cosmology The Scientific Study of the Universe What is Science?
The Scientific Method, or How Big is the Sun? Learning Objectives! What is empiricism? What is objectivity?! What are the main principles of the scientific method? What is Occam s Razor?! Why do the principles
Plato (428-348 BC) All natural motion is circular Reason is more important than observation Aristotle (384-322 BC) Physics elements earth water air fire quintessence Eratosthenes (276-195 BC) He measured
1. Evolution of the Solar System Nebular hypothesis, p 10 a. Cloud of atoms, mostly hydrogen and helium b. Gravitational collapse contracted it into rotating disc c. Heat of conversion of gravitational
SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION What IS Science? What IS Science? a branch of knowledge or study dealing with a body of facts or truths systematically arranged and showing the operation of general laws: the mathematical
Gravitation and the Motion of the Planets 1 Guiding Questions 1. How did ancient astronomers explain the motions of the planets? 2. Why did Copernicus think that the Earth and the other planets go around