Brief Introduction to Cosmology

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1 Brief Introduction to Cosmology Matias Zaldarriaga Harvard University August 2006

2 Basic Questions in Cosmology: How does the Universe evolve? What is the universe made off? How is matter distributed? How did structure form? Connection to physics Dark matter Dark energy Gravity Initial conditions Inflation Of course many interesting astrophysics/astronomy issues. Piecing together the history of the Universe. Finding out what phenomena occur in it. Difference with physics: observations vs experiments

3 Matter content of the Universe Dark Matter 25% Baryons 5% Radiation 0.005% Dark Energy 70% Dark Energy Dark Matter Baryons Radiation

4 Square of the Hubble constant

5 Density vs a Different species dominate at different times Matter equal radiation when Acceleration if

6 Evolution of the density Matter DE Radiation domination Matter domination

7 Consequences of the Expansion The Universe is not always the same. The Universe was denser and hotter in the past. The changing conditions allow us to explore physics in different energy regimes at different epochs.

8 ... Expansion... Expansion Primordial soup : protons, neutrons, electrons, photons. Temperature too high to form nuclei Nucleosynthesis First minutes after the Big Bang: formation of Helium, Deuterium and Lithium. Recombination 300,000 after the Big Bang. Universe cools enough to form neutral hydrogen. The universe becomes transparent to photons.

9 Thermal History Nucleosynthesis Recombination Equality

10 What is the Universe made off?

11 Photons: The Cosmic Microwave Background Penzias & Wilson 1965

12 The Spectrum of the CMB n γ 422 cm -3 Ω γ T γ 2.7 K There is also a background of neutrinos with T ν 2 K and n ν 115 cm -3. They are detected indirectly through their effect in the expansion at BBN. Smoot & Scott 98

13 Thermal Equilibrium Equilibrium thermodynamics Is this assumption valid?

14 Thermal Equilibrium

15 Number of degrees of freedom

16 Equilibrium cannot be maintained forever Neutrino decoupling Photon Decoupling BBN Dark matter relic

17 Baryons: Dark Matter 25% Baryons 5% Radiation 0.005% Dark Energy 70% Dark Energy Dark Matter Baryons Radiation Stars, gas, etc. Seen by their emission and absorption of light The best ways to count baryons are BBN and the CMB anisotropies. There are approximately 2 x 10 9 CMB photons for every baryon.

18

19 BBN Calculation Equilibrium abundances

20 Nucleosynthesis Light elements were created when the temperature of the CMB was in the MeV range, roughly a minute after the Big Bang. CMB PDG review

21 Baryogenesis Why is our Universe made of matter and not antimatter? Do we know that this is the case?

22 Dark matter: Dark Matter 25% Baryons 5% Radiation 0.005% Dark Energy 70% Dark Energy Dark Matter Baryons Radiation Only indirectly detected through its gravitational effect on galaxies, cluster of galaxies. The best ways to estimate the mean density of dark matter are the CMB anisotropies. The density of DM is roughly 5 times larger than the baryon density. Good Particle physics candidates: LSP produced thermally

23 Dark Matter in Galaxies

24

25

26 There are other ways to infer the presence of dark matter Gravitational Lensing Effect on the CMB Gravitational effect in clusters of galaxies

27 Failure to maintain equilibrium: Cold relic

28 Dark Energy: Only indirectly detected through its gravitational effect on the expansion of the universe Dark Matter 25% Baryons 5% Radiation 0.005% Dark Energy 70% Dark Energy Dark Matter Baryons Radiation The best ways to estimate the current energy density are type Ia SN and large scale structure studies (CMB, galaxy surveys, etc) The present energy density in DE is roughly 70% of the total. NO Particle physics understanding

29 The Friedman equation: The rate of expansion is related to the energy density

30 The time it takes the universe to expand by a certain factor depends on its matter content. The distance light can travel while the universe expands from a 1 to a 2 depends on the matter content (a 2 /a 1 is measured by the redshift). The apparent brightness of an object depends on the matter content.

31 SN 1994D

32

33 Astier et al. Supernovae results Riesset al.

34 Could GR be wrong?

35 How is matter distributed?

36 Matter is not distributed uniformly It forms structure on many scales The level of structure evolves with time

37

38

39 Probes of Large Scale Structure The cosmic microwave background The distribution of Galaxies Weak gravitational lensing The Lyman alpha forest

40 The Era of Precision Cosmology "Cosmologists are often in error, though never in doubt." -- Lev Landau

41 Anisotropies in the CMB temperature

42 COBE 1992

43 MAP Launch 06/2001

44 WMAP vs COBE

45 WMAP Spectra Includes errorbars!!!! Temperature and polarization patterns are correlated

46 What creates the anisotropies?

47 Recombination T = 0.3 ev << m e c 2 Hydrogen is ionized Hydrogen is neutral Thomson Scattering

48 The basics of CMB Anisotropies All 3 effects have the same origin 14 Gpc

49 WMAP: level of structure at recombination

50

51 Observable Initial conditions Greens function: depends on both time and the observable In fourier space the observable is the product of the Fourier transforms of the initial conditions and the Green s function. The features of the power spectrum come from the shape of the Green s function.

52

53 Daniel Eisenstein

54 The distribution of matter as traced by galaxies Filamentary structure

55

56

57 LRGs SDSS

58 Eisenstein et al (SDSS)

59 Results Eisenstein et al (SDSS)

60

61 Gravitational instability amplifies fluctuations but it does not create them. We need some seeds Inflation

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