What s in our solar system?

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1 What s in our solar system? *Sun *Planets Terrestrial Jovian Dwarf Smaller objects *Meteoroids *Comets Dust

2 *Sun a. Most of mass (>99%) of solar system b. Star produces own energy by fusion c. Hot

3 What s in our solar system? *Sun *Planets Terrestrial Jovian

4 Other Objects in solar system *Meteoroids Small, rocky, oblong Mostly between Mars and Jupiter (Asteroid belt) *Comets Icy Way out beyond Neptune - Kuiper Belt Objects Farther out (1/4 way to next star) - Oort Cloud

5 Most meteoroids between Mars and Jupiter Many cometlike objects beyond Neptune Many comets way out here Orbit.svg/644px-Eris_Orbit.svg.png

6 Pluto- Hard to classify

7 Keberus Styx

8 Pluto: Planet or? Round Moons Orbit tilted to plane of solar system Orbit more elliptical than other planets Sometimes Pluto is closer to sun than Neptune Denser than Jovians, less dense than Terrestrials One of many objects orbiting sun beyond Neptune

9 Eris 44 o orbit inclination July 2005 at 97 AU Sep 2005 It has a moon.

10 Other problem objects Large meteoroids (asteroids) Orbit.svg/644px-Eris_Orbit.svg.png

11 Ceres (largest object in asteroid belt) ~600 mi Orbits sun Round Part of neighborhood of other objects =Dwarf Planet Credit: NASA JPL

12 Planet Current definition of planet a. Orbits a star b. Round by own gravity c. Cleared smaller objects from its neighborhood Note: Many astronomers don t like this definition.

13 Planet Terrestrial (small, dense ) Jovian (large, gaseous ) Dwarf Current definition of dwarf planet a. Orbits a star b. Round by own gravity c. Has not cleared its neighborhood Dwarf planets Pluto (one of largest objects beyond Neptune) Eris Ceres Others?

14 Dwarf Planets Dwarf Planet Candidates All but Ceres also called Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) Image: NASA

15

16 Asteroid Belt Haumea Image: NASA Show solar system simulator

17 What s in our solar system? Sun Planets (Terr., Jov., Dwarf) Small objects *Meteoroids *Comets Dust

18 Meteoroids/Asteroids *Orbit the sun *Mostly between Mars and Jupiter (Some throughout the solar system) *Rocky, icy? *Most are oblong *Larger ones often called asteroids Gaspra

19 *Meteoroids Small (grain size) to Minnesota size Largest asteroid is Ceres at ~580 mi. now a dwarf planet Next largest is Vesta at ~310 mi.

20 Vesta Second largest object in Asteroid Belt Planet or Dwarf planet or Asteroid?

21

22 Lutetia from Rosetta/ESA ~100 km diameter

23 Examples of Asteroids/meteoroids Gaspra 12 mi X 7 mi

24 Black box Mathilde Gaspra ~12mi X 7 mi Ida

25 Gaspra (asterioid) Phobos (moon) Deimos (moon)

26 Deimos

27 36mi X 14 mi Ida and Dactyl

28

29 Eros 21 mi NEAR Shoemaker

30 Mathilde 37 mi x 29 mi Crater 20 mi wide X 6 mi deep Detail 1200 ft

31 Asteroid Itokawa Mission Hayabusa

32

33

34 Orbiting in space *Meteorite- *Meteoroid- *Meteor- Glowing in Earth s atmosphere In hand *Asteroid Larger meteoroids

35 *Meteor (Shooting star, falling star) Small (grain to pea size) Fast (~50 mi/s) Nearby (40 to 80 miles) Collide with Earth s atmosphere, glow Most do not reach ground in tact Add thousands of tons to Earth each year

36 Fireball Larger (marble size+) Basketball size+ can reach ground

37

38 Still from a video of the Chelyabinsk meteor streaking across the sky. The video is available at

39 Why study meteorites? Composition and origin of Moon and Mars

40 Why study meteorites? Origin and age of our solar system (4.6 billion yrs)

41 Why study meteorites? Origin of life Murchison meteorite (1969)

42 Why study meteorites? Possible catastrophes for us?

43 Meteor Crater in Winslow, AZ Crater: 4/5 mile across, ~500 feet deep Occurred ~ years ago Energy ~ 3 Megatons Original meteor ~ house size

44 Meteor Crater in Winslow, AZ Crater: 4/5 mile across, ~500 feet deep Occurred ~ years ago Energy ~ 20 Megatons of TNT Original meteor ~ house size, tons Speed mi/h

45 Types of meteorites Iron-Nickel Samples Stony-Iron Stony

46 *Comets *Icy, fuzzy appearance Bayeux Tapestry

47 *Hang in sky for days/weeks

48 Comet McNaught Credit & Copyright: Minoru Yoneto

49 Comets Borrely and Catalina with Arcturus

50 Comet orbit *Most have elliptical orbits *Some in plane of solar system but some not

51 *Comet why seen Nears Sun, melts Sunlight reflects from debris Sunlight blows debris away Interactive comet orbit at

52 *Comet Parts Nucleus = Dense center Tail = gas/ice/dust blown back by sun Head = Nucleus + surrounding gas/ice/dust (Head and tail look dense but are not)

53 Comet Nucleus Old Description *Frozen, dirty iceberg Borrelly faculty/jewitt/nucleus.html

54 Comet Nucleus New Description *Many are frozen, dirty icebergs Others are loose collections of ice, gas, dust (Shoemaker- Levy )

55 APOD Wild 2

56 Comet Tempel 1 Size ~ 1/2 Manhattan (14kmX4km) Size: ~1/3 Manhattan ~8kmX5km

57 Comet Parts Tail: Ions, gas, dust blown away by sun Gas tail (ions and gas, blown straight back) Dust tail (lags behind so looks curved)

58

59

60 Period of Comet *Long Period comets Out of plane Hale-Bopp (~4000 yr) *Short Period comets In plane of solar system Halley (76 yr), Temple-Tuttle (33 yr)

61 Comet Orbit Most have very elliptical orbits Short period comets generally orbit in the plane of the SS Long period comets orbit from all directions Suggests two hideouts

62 *Comet Hideouts Oort Cloud ~ AU (~1 LY) Kuiper Belt ~100 AU Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs)

63 Homes Oort Cloud at ~ AU (~1 LY) Kuiper Belt at ~ AU (These often called Kuiper Belt Objects or KBOs) Starry Night for these From minor planet center

64

65 Dwarf Planets Dwarf Planet Candidates Also called Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) Image: NASA

66

67 Reminder: Meteors and comets seen for different reasons In Earth s atmosphere Not in Earth s atmosphere

68 Why study comets? Water carriers? Original material of solar system Life?

69 *Meteor Shower Comet leaves trail of ice and dust Earth sweeps through the comet dust See 10s to 100s of meteors per hour

70 Meteor showers Best ones Perseids Aug Leonids Nov Geminids Dec Wrey0

71 What s in our solar system? Sun Planets Dwarf Planets Small objects Dust - Term for miscellaneous tiny fluff in the cosmos End

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