Astronomy Exam 3 - Sun and Stars

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1 Astronomy Exam 3 - Sun and Stars Study online at quizlet.com/_4zgp6 1. `what are the smallest group of stars in the H-R diagram 2. A star has a parallax of 0.05". what is the distance from the earth? white dwarfs 20 pc 18. convection currents materials raise from core to surface, its hydrogen gas that burns and gas doesn't go out because you need high speed 19. convection zone near the surface and energy is transferred by moving gasses 3. A star has a parallax of 0.25, then its distance is... 4 pc 4. absolute brightness how bright a star appears if you place it at 10 pc from the earth. It depends on the amount of light emitted by the star (luminosity) 5. Absolute magnitude (M) is its apparent magnitude when viewed from a distance of 10 parsec 6. absolute magnitude or luminosity depends on size and temperature 7. anti-particles if you bring protons and antiproton you have annihilation and turns into radiation 8. apparent brightness how bright a star appears. It depends on the total amount of light energy emitted and distance to the star 9. apparent magnitude depends on 10. as distance from a light source increase As distance to a light source increases, amount of light energy on a certain area (increases, decreases, remains the same) luminosity and distance it appears less bright decreases 12. bigger the # the... less bright the object 13. blue stars are hotter, 12000t 14. chromosphere layer of the just above the photosphere, it emits very little visible light and can be seen when photosphere is block by solar eclipse 15. chromosphere layer of the just above the photosphere 16. conduction movement of heat from hot region to cool region through a medium 17. convection movement of material from one place to another 20. Distance uses light years which is the distance light travels in one year 21. electrons negative charge 22. For a star, m=2 and M= -4. then its distance is a) more than 10 pc b) less than 10 pc c) equal to 10 pc 23. For a star, m=2 and M= 2 Then its distance is a)more than 10pc b) less than 10pc c) equal to 10 pc 24. For a star, m=2 and M=4. Then its distance is a)more than 10 pc b) less than 10pc c) equal to 10 pc 25. Granules are the tops of what 26. higher the number the...the star appears 27. horizontal position on H-R diagram represents more than 10 pc equal to 10 pc less than 10 pc deep gas columns where energy is transported by convection fainter temperature 28. how big are granules? 1000km across 29. how does the produces its energy? 30. how far is the from earth nuclear fusion in which it fuses hydrogen into helium at the core 150 million km or 1 AU or 8 light minutes 31. how fast are solar winds 1 million MpH 32. how long does solar flames usually last 33. how long of a cycle does spots follow 34. How much hydrogen is fuse together to make Helium? 35. how much layers does the have 36. how much light does the produce? a few minutes 11 year cycle 4 6 4x10 to the 26th watts 37. how old is the? 4.6 billion years old

2 38. If a star is 30 parsec away, how long does it takes light from that star to reach earth? 39. If parallax angle is measured from two positions 2 au away from eachother (six month time interval) distance to a star related to parallax angle by 40. if Star A is 2 and Star B is 3 which is brighter 41. If they repel each other then what brings them together? 42. if two stars, A and B, produce the same amount of light. Parallax angle of Star A is one half the parallax angle of star B then which star is closer and why? 43. If you measure the parallax of a star to be 0.1 arc second on Earth, how far away is it from the earth? 44. If you measure the parallax of a star to be 0.1 arc second on earth, how far away is it from the earth. 45. if you move something closer to us its if you move something further away its In ancient scale 1 is the...and 6 is the lightyear d=1/p Star A strong nuclear force Star B because B has greater parallax angle so that makes it closer and appear brighter 10pc 10 pc more bright less bright brightest star, dimmest star 48. In d=1/p...p is in units of arc seconds (") 49. in d=1/p...then d we get in parsec 50. Luminosity or amount of light energy given off by a star depends on its size and temperature 51. luminosity how much light is coming out and is measure in terms of Sun's luminosity 52. luminosity and brightness is related to... distance 53. M absolute brightness, brightness of a star if we place it at 10 pc 54. M appear at 10 pc 55. m appear at actual place 56. m=4, M=2 which is brighter M 57. Modern scale -1.5(sirius) is...and 6 is... brightest star value, eye limit 58. more mass of stars = hotter, more luminous and bigger stars 59. Name the major star groups in the HR diagram main sequence, super giants, red giants, white dwarf 60. neutrino tiny particles, don't interact with anything and comes directly from the core 61. neutrons have no charge 62. Oh Be A Fine Guy, Kiss Me O B A F G K M 63. opposite signs of charge attract 64. Photosphere visible part of the 65. proton and proton... repel each other 66. protons positive charge 67. protons attracts... electrons 68. Radiation electro-magnetic waves 69. Radiation zone core energy travels to the surface by electromagnetic radiation 70. red stars are cooler, 3000t 71. Rigel has apparent magnitude 0.2 and Betelgeuse has an apparent magnitude of Which star appears brighter in the sky? 72. same signs charges repel 73. smaller the number the...the star appear Rigel because the smaller the number the more bright it is. brighter 74. solar wind stream of energetic charged particles ejected from the surface of the. 75. Solar winds are attracted to what on earth its magnetic field especially north and south pole

3 76. Star 1 belongs to spectral class F and Star 2 belongs to spectral class K. Which star has higher temperature? 77. Star A has m value 6 and star B has m value of 2. Which star appears brighter in the sky? 78. star that appear brighter at 10 pc is star that are further away makes Stars A and B has same absolute brightness. But A is closer to the earth than B. Which star appears brighter in the sky? 81. Stars A and B has the same luminosity. Star A has apparent magnitude of 1 and star B has apparent magnitude of 6. Which star is closer 82. Stars A and B have the same luminosity. Star A has apparent magnitude 1 and star B has apparent magnitude 6. which star appears brighter? which star is closer? 83. stars can be classified by their surface temperatures as determined by stars that are closest makes... star 1 Star B more luminous (giving out more light) smaller angle Star A star A Star A is brighter and closer Wien's law bigger angle 85. Stellar distances trigonometric parallax. the object appears to shift positions compared to the far off background where you look at it from two different points and the angular shift is called the parallax 86. Sun is loosing its mass at a rate of the higher the parallax angle The inward gravity of the is balanced by... 5 million metric tons every second? the closer you are to the star the outward radiation force 89. the larger the parallax the... smaller the distance 90. the smaller the # the... brighter it appears 91. the smaller the apparent magnitude the... brighter the star appear in the sky 92. the smaller the parallax the... larger the distance 93. The has enough Hydrogen at the core to burn for another The has the same density as what planet? 5 billion year Jupiter 95. the rotates once in days 96. To determine distance to a star using parallax method, what measurements need to be done? 97. Two stars have same apparent brightness and parallax angle. But one appears red and the other appears yellow. Which star is larger? 98. vertical position on H-R diagram represents 99. we can see granules everywhere in the photosphere except what and why 100. what are electrons anti-particles called 101. What are exciting visual features of the? you need baseline and parallax angle Red because its cooler so its larger luminosity spots cause those areas are cooler positron flares, prominences, and spots 102. what are granules? grain-like features, it's how the photosphere really looks like, not smooth 103. what are Prominences loop like flames, its not constant 104. what are prominences due to? magnetic fields in the 105. what are solar flares? flames that come out of the 106. what are some surface phenomena of the that we see? spots, prominences, flares, and granules 107. what are spots dark patches on the surface of the (photosphere) 108. what are the 4 fundamental forces? 109. what are the largest group of stars in the H-R diagram gravitational force, electromagnetic forces, strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force super giants

4 110. what are the letters of the spectral class? 111. what are the outer layer 112. what are the properties of stars? 113. what are the solar wind responsible at the Earth's poles? 114. What are the standard classes of stars from hottest to coldest 115. what are the three interior layer of the 116. what are the two main gases of the 117. what are two ways to make nuclear energy? 118. what burns at the core? 119. what do granules cover? 120. what does E=MC 2 stand for 121. what does E=MC square mean? 122. what does parallax angle depends on what does the core do? 124. what does the H-R diagram include 125. what does the interior layer of the doe? 126. what factors determine the absolute brightness of a star? 127. what factors determine the apparent brightness of a star? O B A F G K M chromosphere, corona, photosphere distance, brightness and luminosity bright aurora O, B, A, F, G, K, M core, radiation zone and convection hydrogen and helium Fission and Nuclear fusion hydrogen entire surface of the E is energy, M is lost mass and C is speed of light when light elements fuse to make larger element, it looses some mass and that lost mass is converted into energy distance it makes energy then it comes off waves to the convection zone absolute magnitude, luminosity and temperature of stars transfer energy from core to surface size and temperature size, temperature and distance 128. what factors determine the luminosity of a star? 129. What factors determines the spectral class of a star? 130. what force is responsible for nuclear fusion? 131. what force is responsible for radioactive decay? 132. what happen at the photosphere 133. what happens at the radiation zone 134. what happens during a solar flame? 135. what happens in the convection zone 136. what happens on earth when the particles from solar wind are trap in the earth's magnetic field? size and temperature temperature strong nuclear force weak nuclear force light emitted from hot outer surface, there's no light from interior because its too dense core energy travels to surface by electromagnetic radiation high energy particles are ejected into the corona, heating temperatures in excess of 5 million K energy transferred by moving gasses it causes disruption in radio communications 137. What is a parsec? unit we use to measure distance 138. what is an example of nuclear fusion? 139. what is energy conservation law 140. what is equivalent to the amount of energy a flare may release? Nuclear (hydrogen) bomb energy is conserved, it cannot appear or disappear. It cannot be created out of anywhere and it comes from something and when it goes away it doesn't disappear but goes into something else 100 million hydrogen bombs 141. what is luminosity amount of light energy emitted by a light source 142. what is nuclear fission? large radioactive atom breaks into small atoms. During this process huge amount of energy releases

5 143. what is nuclear fusion? 144. what is plotted on the horizontal axis of an H-R diagram 145. what is plotted on the vertical axis of an H-R diagram? 146. what is responsible for stable atoms 147. what is the closest star to the? 148. what is the density of the 149. what is the difference between apparent brightness and absolute brightness? 150. what is the gravity of the? 151. what is the importance of the baseline in parallax method? 152. what is the largest baseline on earth 153. what is the mass of the 154. what is the most stable atom two small nuclei join (fuse) together to form larger nuclei. During this process mass decreases and that mass is converted to energy temperature or spectral class luminosity strong nuclear force Alpha or Proxima Centauri 1.4 density of water Apparent brightness is at the actual place and its how bright a star appears and it depends of the total amount of light energy emitted and distance to the star. Absolute brightness is how bright a star appears if it can be place at 10 parsec from the earth and it depends only on the amount of light energy emitted by the star 30 x earth's gravity use of large baseline makes angle greater 2 au 333,000 earth masses 3 proton 3 neutrons 155. what is the nucleus made up of? 156. what is the radius of the 157. What is the relationship between parallax angle of a star and its distance? 158. what is the composed of entirely? 159. what is the created from? 160. what is the powered by 161. what is the temperature at its core? protons and neutrons 108 earths When distance increase parallax angle decreases, its inversely related gasses a solar nebula nuclear fusion 15 million K 162. what is the? a gigantic ball of hydrogen and helium in which nuclear energy provides the heat and light on which the solar system depends on 163. what is the temperature of the part of the we see 164. what is the visible region of the 165. what kind of galaxy is the milky way? 166. what process does most stars come from 167. what takes place at the core and why 168. when can nuclear fusion happen? 169. where does all energy of the comes from? 170. where does strong nuclear force takes place? 171. where does the solar wind escape from? 172. where would you find super giants on an H-R diagram? 5780K photosphere spiral three-step fusion process nuclear fusion and because of the extreme heat only if the temperature is extremely high, over 10 million K the core inside of an atom the corona upper right hand corner

6 173. which can be said with certainty about a red star and a blue star? the temperature 174. which does the have, convection, radiation or conduction? convection and radiation 175. which group contain most of the stars main sequence 176. which magnitude changes with distance? apparent magnitude (m) (if luminosity remains the same) 177. which magnitude doesn't change with distance absolute magnitude (M) 178. Which of the following does not depend on the distance to the light source: A) apparent brightness B) Flux C) Apparent Magnitude D) absolute magnitude absolute magnitude 179. Which star has higher m value if Star A and B has same absolute brightness but Star A is closer to the earth than B 180. Which star is most distant: A) A star 1 parsec away B) A star 10 light year away C) A star having parallax of 1" D) A star having parallax of 0.1 Star B because the further away it is the fainter it becomes so it has larger apparent magnitude A star having parallax of why does spots appear because of low temperature compared to other areas of the 182. Why doesn't spots appear as single spots because of magnetic 183. why doesn't the collapse gravitationally? because the is at the state of equilibrium 184. why is it desirable to have a large baseline because parallax angle of stars are very small 185. with m, closer = brighter and have smaller apparent magnitude 186. with m, further = fainter and have larger apparent magnitude 187. yellow stars 6000t

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