# Astronomy Exam 3 - Sun and Stars

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Astronomy Exam 3 - Sun and Stars Study online at quizlet.com/_4zgp6 1. `what are the smallest group of stars in the H-R diagram 2. A star has a parallax of 0.05". what is the distance from the earth? white dwarfs 20 pc 18. convection currents materials raise from core to surface, its hydrogen gas that burns and gas doesn't go out because you need high speed 19. convection zone near the surface and energy is transferred by moving gasses 3. A star has a parallax of 0.25, then its distance is... 4 pc 4. absolute brightness how bright a star appears if you place it at 10 pc from the earth. It depends on the amount of light emitted by the star (luminosity) 5. Absolute magnitude (M) is its apparent magnitude when viewed from a distance of 10 parsec 6. absolute magnitude or luminosity depends on size and temperature 7. anti-particles if you bring protons and antiproton you have annihilation and turns into radiation 8. apparent brightness how bright a star appears. It depends on the total amount of light energy emitted and distance to the star 9. apparent magnitude depends on 10. as distance from a light source increase As distance to a light source increases, amount of light energy on a certain area (increases, decreases, remains the same) luminosity and distance it appears less bright decreases 12. bigger the # the... less bright the object 13. blue stars are hotter, 12000t 14. chromosphere layer of the just above the photosphere, it emits very little visible light and can be seen when photosphere is block by solar eclipse 15. chromosphere layer of the just above the photosphere 16. conduction movement of heat from hot region to cool region through a medium 17. convection movement of material from one place to another 20. Distance uses light years which is the distance light travels in one year 21. electrons negative charge 22. For a star, m=2 and M= -4. then its distance is a) more than 10 pc b) less than 10 pc c) equal to 10 pc 23. For a star, m=2 and M= 2 Then its distance is a)more than 10pc b) less than 10pc c) equal to 10 pc 24. For a star, m=2 and M=4. Then its distance is a)more than 10 pc b) less than 10pc c) equal to 10 pc 25. Granules are the tops of what 26. higher the number the...the star appears 27. horizontal position on H-R diagram represents more than 10 pc equal to 10 pc less than 10 pc deep gas columns where energy is transported by convection fainter temperature 28. how big are granules? 1000km across 29. how does the produces its energy? 30. how far is the from earth nuclear fusion in which it fuses hydrogen into helium at the core 150 million km or 1 AU or 8 light minutes 31. how fast are solar winds 1 million MpH 32. how long does solar flames usually last 33. how long of a cycle does spots follow 34. How much hydrogen is fuse together to make Helium? 35. how much layers does the have 36. how much light does the produce? a few minutes 11 year cycle 4 6 4x10 to the 26th watts 37. how old is the? 4.6 billion years old

2 38. If a star is 30 parsec away, how long does it takes light from that star to reach earth? 39. If parallax angle is measured from two positions 2 au away from eachother (six month time interval) distance to a star related to parallax angle by 40. if Star A is 2 and Star B is 3 which is brighter 41. If they repel each other then what brings them together? 42. if two stars, A and B, produce the same amount of light. Parallax angle of Star A is one half the parallax angle of star B then which star is closer and why? 43. If you measure the parallax of a star to be 0.1 arc second on Earth, how far away is it from the earth? 44. If you measure the parallax of a star to be 0.1 arc second on earth, how far away is it from the earth. 45. if you move something closer to us its if you move something further away its In ancient scale 1 is the...and 6 is the lightyear d=1/p Star A strong nuclear force Star B because B has greater parallax angle so that makes it closer and appear brighter 10pc 10 pc more bright less bright brightest star, dimmest star 48. In d=1/p...p is in units of arc seconds (") 49. in d=1/p...then d we get in parsec 50. Luminosity or amount of light energy given off by a star depends on its size and temperature 51. luminosity how much light is coming out and is measure in terms of Sun's luminosity 52. luminosity and brightness is related to... distance 53. M absolute brightness, brightness of a star if we place it at 10 pc 54. M appear at 10 pc 55. m appear at actual place 56. m=4, M=2 which is brighter M 57. Modern scale -1.5(sirius) is...and 6 is... brightest star value, eye limit 58. more mass of stars = hotter, more luminous and bigger stars 59. Name the major star groups in the HR diagram main sequence, super giants, red giants, white dwarf 60. neutrino tiny particles, don't interact with anything and comes directly from the core 61. neutrons have no charge 62. Oh Be A Fine Guy, Kiss Me O B A F G K M 63. opposite signs of charge attract 64. Photosphere visible part of the 65. proton and proton... repel each other 66. protons positive charge 67. protons attracts... electrons 68. Radiation electro-magnetic waves 69. Radiation zone core energy travels to the surface by electromagnetic radiation 70. red stars are cooler, 3000t 71. Rigel has apparent magnitude 0.2 and Betelgeuse has an apparent magnitude of Which star appears brighter in the sky? 72. same signs charges repel 73. smaller the number the...the star appear Rigel because the smaller the number the more bright it is. brighter 74. solar wind stream of energetic charged particles ejected from the surface of the. 75. Solar winds are attracted to what on earth its magnetic field especially north and south pole

3 76. Star 1 belongs to spectral class F and Star 2 belongs to spectral class K. Which star has higher temperature? 77. Star A has m value 6 and star B has m value of 2. Which star appears brighter in the sky? 78. star that appear brighter at 10 pc is star that are further away makes Stars A and B has same absolute brightness. But A is closer to the earth than B. Which star appears brighter in the sky? 81. Stars A and B has the same luminosity. Star A has apparent magnitude of 1 and star B has apparent magnitude of 6. Which star is closer 82. Stars A and B have the same luminosity. Star A has apparent magnitude 1 and star B has apparent magnitude 6. which star appears brighter? which star is closer? 83. stars can be classified by their surface temperatures as determined by stars that are closest makes... star 1 Star B more luminous (giving out more light) smaller angle Star A star A Star A is brighter and closer Wien's law bigger angle 85. Stellar distances trigonometric parallax. the object appears to shift positions compared to the far off background where you look at it from two different points and the angular shift is called the parallax 86. Sun is loosing its mass at a rate of the higher the parallax angle The inward gravity of the is balanced by... 5 million metric tons every second? the closer you are to the star the outward radiation force 89. the larger the parallax the... smaller the distance 90. the smaller the # the... brighter it appears 91. the smaller the apparent magnitude the... brighter the star appear in the sky 92. the smaller the parallax the... larger the distance 93. The has enough Hydrogen at the core to burn for another The has the same density as what planet? 5 billion year Jupiter 95. the rotates once in days 96. To determine distance to a star using parallax method, what measurements need to be done? 97. Two stars have same apparent brightness and parallax angle. But one appears red and the other appears yellow. Which star is larger? 98. vertical position on H-R diagram represents 99. we can see granules everywhere in the photosphere except what and why 100. what are electrons anti-particles called 101. What are exciting visual features of the? you need baseline and parallax angle Red because its cooler so its larger luminosity spots cause those areas are cooler positron flares, prominences, and spots 102. what are granules? grain-like features, it's how the photosphere really looks like, not smooth 103. what are Prominences loop like flames, its not constant 104. what are prominences due to? magnetic fields in the 105. what are solar flares? flames that come out of the 106. what are some surface phenomena of the that we see? spots, prominences, flares, and granules 107. what are spots dark patches on the surface of the (photosphere) 108. what are the 4 fundamental forces? 109. what are the largest group of stars in the H-R diagram gravitational force, electromagnetic forces, strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force super giants

4 110. what are the letters of the spectral class? 111. what are the outer layer 112. what are the properties of stars? 113. what are the solar wind responsible at the Earth's poles? 114. What are the standard classes of stars from hottest to coldest 115. what are the three interior layer of the 116. what are the two main gases of the 117. what are two ways to make nuclear energy? 118. what burns at the core? 119. what do granules cover? 120. what does E=MC 2 stand for 121. what does E=MC square mean? 122. what does parallax angle depends on what does the core do? 124. what does the H-R diagram include 125. what does the interior layer of the doe? 126. what factors determine the absolute brightness of a star? 127. what factors determine the apparent brightness of a star? O B A F G K M chromosphere, corona, photosphere distance, brightness and luminosity bright aurora O, B, A, F, G, K, M core, radiation zone and convection hydrogen and helium Fission and Nuclear fusion hydrogen entire surface of the E is energy, M is lost mass and C is speed of light when light elements fuse to make larger element, it looses some mass and that lost mass is converted into energy distance it makes energy then it comes off waves to the convection zone absolute magnitude, luminosity and temperature of stars transfer energy from core to surface size and temperature size, temperature and distance 128. what factors determine the luminosity of a star? 129. What factors determines the spectral class of a star? 130. what force is responsible for nuclear fusion? 131. what force is responsible for radioactive decay? 132. what happen at the photosphere 133. what happens at the radiation zone 134. what happens during a solar flame? 135. what happens in the convection zone 136. what happens on earth when the particles from solar wind are trap in the earth's magnetic field? size and temperature temperature strong nuclear force weak nuclear force light emitted from hot outer surface, there's no light from interior because its too dense core energy travels to surface by electromagnetic radiation high energy particles are ejected into the corona, heating temperatures in excess of 5 million K energy transferred by moving gasses it causes disruption in radio communications 137. What is a parsec? unit we use to measure distance 138. what is an example of nuclear fusion? 139. what is energy conservation law 140. what is equivalent to the amount of energy a flare may release? Nuclear (hydrogen) bomb energy is conserved, it cannot appear or disappear. It cannot be created out of anywhere and it comes from something and when it goes away it doesn't disappear but goes into something else 100 million hydrogen bombs 141. what is luminosity amount of light energy emitted by a light source 142. what is nuclear fission? large radioactive atom breaks into small atoms. During this process huge amount of energy releases

5 143. what is nuclear fusion? 144. what is plotted on the horizontal axis of an H-R diagram 145. what is plotted on the vertical axis of an H-R diagram? 146. what is responsible for stable atoms 147. what is the closest star to the? 148. what is the density of the 149. what is the difference between apparent brightness and absolute brightness? 150. what is the gravity of the? 151. what is the importance of the baseline in parallax method? 152. what is the largest baseline on earth 153. what is the mass of the 154. what is the most stable atom two small nuclei join (fuse) together to form larger nuclei. During this process mass decreases and that mass is converted to energy temperature or spectral class luminosity strong nuclear force Alpha or Proxima Centauri 1.4 density of water Apparent brightness is at the actual place and its how bright a star appears and it depends of the total amount of light energy emitted and distance to the star. Absolute brightness is how bright a star appears if it can be place at 10 parsec from the earth and it depends only on the amount of light energy emitted by the star 30 x earth's gravity use of large baseline makes angle greater 2 au 333,000 earth masses 3 proton 3 neutrons 155. what is the nucleus made up of? 156. what is the radius of the 157. What is the relationship between parallax angle of a star and its distance? 158. what is the composed of entirely? 159. what is the created from? 160. what is the powered by 161. what is the temperature at its core? protons and neutrons 108 earths When distance increase parallax angle decreases, its inversely related gasses a solar nebula nuclear fusion 15 million K 162. what is the? a gigantic ball of hydrogen and helium in which nuclear energy provides the heat and light on which the solar system depends on 163. what is the temperature of the part of the we see 164. what is the visible region of the 165. what kind of galaxy is the milky way? 166. what process does most stars come from 167. what takes place at the core and why 168. when can nuclear fusion happen? 169. where does all energy of the comes from? 170. where does strong nuclear force takes place? 171. where does the solar wind escape from? 172. where would you find super giants on an H-R diagram? 5780K photosphere spiral three-step fusion process nuclear fusion and because of the extreme heat only if the temperature is extremely high, over 10 million K the core inside of an atom the corona upper right hand corner

6 173. which can be said with certainty about a red star and a blue star? the temperature 174. which does the have, convection, radiation or conduction? convection and radiation 175. which group contain most of the stars main sequence 176. which magnitude changes with distance? apparent magnitude (m) (if luminosity remains the same) 177. which magnitude doesn't change with distance absolute magnitude (M) 178. Which of the following does not depend on the distance to the light source: A) apparent brightness B) Flux C) Apparent Magnitude D) absolute magnitude absolute magnitude 179. Which star has higher m value if Star A and B has same absolute brightness but Star A is closer to the earth than B 180. Which star is most distant: A) A star 1 parsec away B) A star 10 light year away C) A star having parallax of 1" D) A star having parallax of 0.1 Star B because the further away it is the fainter it becomes so it has larger apparent magnitude A star having parallax of why does spots appear because of low temperature compared to other areas of the 182. Why doesn't spots appear as single spots because of magnetic 183. why doesn't the collapse gravitationally? because the is at the state of equilibrium 184. why is it desirable to have a large baseline because parallax angle of stars are very small 185. with m, closer = brighter and have smaller apparent magnitude 186. with m, further = fainter and have larger apparent magnitude 187. yellow stars 6000t

### Hydrogen Lines. What can we learn from light? Spectral Classification. Visible Hydrogen Spectrum Lines: Series. Actual Spectrum from SDSS

What can we learn from light? Hydrogen Lines Temperature Energy Chemical Composition Speed towards or away from us All from the! Lower E, Lower f, λ Visible! Higher E, Higher f, λ Visible Hydrogen Spectrum

### Astronomy Ch 16 The Sun. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Name: Period: Date: Astronomy Ch 16 The Sun MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The light we see from the Sun comes from which layer?

### Convection causes granules. Photosphere isn t actually smooth! Granules Up-Close: like boiling water. Corona or of the Sun. Chromosphere: sphere of

Overview Properties of the Sun Sun s outer layers Photosphere Chromosphere Corona Solar Activity Sunspots & the sunspot cycle Flares, prominences, CMEs, aurora Sun s Interior The Sun as an energy source

### The Sun. The Sun is a star: a shining ball of gas powered by nuclear fusion. Mass of Sun = 2 x g = 330,000 M Earth = 1 M Sun

The Sun The Sun is a star: a shining ball of gas powered by nuclear fusion. Mass of Sun = 2 x 10 33 g = 330,000 M Earth = 1 M Sun Radius of Sun = 7 x 10 5 km = 109 R Earth = 1 R Sun Luminosity of Sun =

### CHAPTER 29: STARS BELL RINGER:

CHAPTER 29: STARS BELL RINGER: Where does the energy of the Sun come from? Compare the size of the Sun to the size of Earth. 1 CHAPTER 29.1: THE SUN What are the properties of the Sun? What are the layers

### Chapter 14 Lecture. Chapter 14: Our Star Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 14 Lecture Chapter 14: Our Star 14.1 A Closer Look at the Sun Our goals for learning: Why does the Sun shine? What is the Sun's structure? Why does the Sun shine? Is it on FIRE? Is it on FIRE?

### The Sun. the main show in the solar system. 99.8% of the mass % of the energy. Homework due next time - will count best 5 of 6

The Sun the main show in the solar system 99.8% of the mass 99.9999...% of the energy 2007 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Homework due next time - will count best 5 of 6 The

### Galaxies and Stars. 3. Base your answer to the following question on The reaction below represents an energy-producing process.

Galaxies and Stars 1. To an observer on Earth, the Sun appears brighter than the star Rigel because the Sun is A) hotter than Rigel B) more luminous than Rigel C) closer than Rigel D) larger than Rigel

### CONTENT EXPECTATIONS

THE SUN & THE STARS CONTENT EXPECTATIONS STARS What are stars? Are they all the same? What makes them different? What is our nearest star? THE SUN Why is it important? provides heat and light that we need

### Sun s Properties. Overview: The Sun. Composition of the Sun. Sun s Properties. The outer layers. Photosphere: Surface. Nearest.

Overview: The Sun Properties of the Sun Sun s outer layers Photosphere Chromosphere Corona Solar Activity Sunspots & the sunspot cycle Flares, prominences, CMEs, aurora Sun s Interior The Sun as an energy

### Position 1 Position 2 6 after position 1 Distance between positions 1 and 2 is the Bigger = bigger parallax (Ɵ)

STARS CHAPTER 10.1 the solar neighborhood The distances to the nearest stars can be measured using Parallax => the shift of an object relative to some distant background as the observer s point of view

### Chapter 14 Our Star A Closer Look at the Sun. Why was the Sun s energy source a major mystery?

Chapter 14 Our Star 14.1 A Closer Look at the Sun Our goals for learning Why was the Sun s energy source a major mystery? Why does the Sun shine? What is the Sun s structure? Why was the Sun s energy source

### The General Properties of the Sun

Notes: The General Properties of the Sun The sun is an average star with average brightness. It only looks bright because it s so close. It contains 99% of the mass of the solar system. It is made of entirely

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Homework Ch 7, 8, 9 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Our most detailed knowledge of Uranus and Neptune comes from 1) A) the

### 10/17/ A Closer Look at the Sun. Chapter 11: Our Star. Why does the Sun shine? Lecture Outline

Lecture Outline 11.1 A Closer Look at the Sun Chapter 11: Our Star Our goals for learning: Why does the Sun shine? What is the Sun's structure? Why does the Sun shine? Is it on FIRE? Is it on FIRE? Chemical

### Stars and Galaxies. Content Outline for Teaching

Section 1 Stars A. Patterns of stars - constellations 1. Ancient cultures used mythology or everyday items to name constellations 2. Modern astronomy studies 88 constellations 3. Some constellations are

### The Sun Our Star. Properties Interior Atmosphere Photosphere Chromosphere Corona Magnetism Sunspots Solar Cycles Active Sun

The Sun Our Star Properties Interior Atmosphere Photosphere Chromosphere Corona Magnetism Sunspots Solar Cycles Active Sun General Properties Not a large star, but larger than most Spectral type G2 It

### 10/18/ A Closer Look at the Sun. Chapter 11: Our Star. Why does the Sun shine? Lecture Outline

10/18/17 Lecture Outline 11.1 A Closer Look at the Sun Chapter 11: Our Star Our goals for learning: Why does the Sun shine? What is the Sun's structure? Why does the Sun shine? Is it on FIRE? Is it on

### 18. Which graph best represents the relationship between the number of sunspots and the amount of magnetic activity in the Sun?

1. Which star has a surface temperature most similar to the surface temperature of Alpha Centauri? A) Polaris B) Betelgeuse C) Procyon B D) Sirius 2. Giant stars have greater luminosity than our sun mainly

### Chapter 14 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Our Star Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 14 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Our Star 14.1 A Closer Look at the Sun Our goals for learning: Why does the Sun shine? What is the Sun's structure? Why does the Sun shine? Is

### ASTRONOMY 1 EXAM 3 a Name

ASTRONOMY 1 EXAM 3 a Name Identify Terms - Matching (20 @ 1 point each = 20 pts.) Multiple Choice (25 @ 2 points each = 50 pts.) Essays (choose 3 of 4 @ 10 points each = 30 pt 1.Luminosity D 8.White dwarf

### Chapter 14 Our Star Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 14 Our Star Basic Types of Energy Kinetic (motion) Radiative (light) Potential (stored) Energy can change type, but cannot be created or destroyed. Thermal Energy: the collective kinetic energy

### The Sun sends the Earth:

The Sun sends the Earth: Solar Radiation - peak wavelength.visible light - Travels at the speed of light..takes 8 minutes to reach Earth Solar Wind, Solar flares, and Coronal Mass Ejections of Plasma (ionized

### Chapter 10 Our Star. X-ray. visible

Chapter 10 Our Star X-ray visible Radius: 6.9 10 8 m (109 times Earth) Mass: 2 10 30 kg (300,000 Earths) Luminosity: 3.8 10 26 watts (more than our entire world uses in 1 year!) Why does the Sun shine?

### Today The Sun. Events

Today The Sun Events Last class! Homework due now - will count best 5 of 6 Final exam Dec. 20 @ 12:00 noon here Review this Course! www.case.edu/utech/course-evaluations/ The Sun the main show in the solar

### How the Sun Works. Presented by the

How the Sun Works Presented by the The Sun warms our planet every day, provides the light by which we see and is absolutely necessary for life on Earth. In this presentation, we will examine the fascinating

### Explain how the sun converts matter into energy in its core. Describe the three layers of the sun s atmosphere.

Chapter 29 and 30 Explain how the sun converts matter into energy in its core. Describe the three layers of the sun s atmosphere. Explain how sunspots are related to powerful magnetic fields on the sun.

### Announcements. - Homework #5 due today - Review on Monday 3:30 4:15pm in RH103 - Test #2 next Tuesday, Oct 11

Announcements - Homework #5 due today - Review on Monday 3:30 4:15pm in RH103 - Test #2 next Tuesday, Oct 11 Review for Test #2 Oct 11 Topics: The Solar System and its Formation The Earth and our Moon

### How does the Sun shine? What is the Sun s structure? Lifetime of the Sun. Luminosity of the Sun. Radiation Zone. Core 3/30/17

What is the Sun s structure? From inside out, the layers are: Core Radiation Zone Convection Zone Photosphere Chromosphere Corona How does the Sun shine? The Sun has its own energy source Main difference

### 10/20/2009. Giants, Dwarfs, and the Main Sequences. My Office Hours: Tuesday 3:30 PM - 4:30 PM 206 Keen Building. The Sun and the Stars

the The Sun and the Giants, Dwarfs, and the Main Sequences 10/20/2009 My Office Hours: Tuesday 3:30 PM - 4:30 PM 206 Keen Building the Outline 1 2 3 the Outline 1 2 3 the Solar Structure Interior structure

### A Closer Look at the Sun

Our Star A Closer Look at the Sun Our goals for learning Why was the Sun s energy source a major mystery? Why does the Sun shine? What is the Sun s structure? Why was the Sun s energy source a major mystery?

### ASTR Midterm 1 Phil Armitage, Bruce Ferguson

ASTR 1120-001 Midterm 1 Phil Armitage, Bruce Ferguson FIRST MID-TERM EXAM FEBRUARY 16 th 2006: Closed books and notes, 1 hour. Please PRINT your name and student ID on the places provided on the scan sheet.

### Types of Stars 1/31/14 O B A F G K M. 8-6 Luminosity. 8-7 Stellar Temperatures

Astronomy 113 Dr. Joseph E. Pesce, Ph.D. The Nature of Stars For nearby stars - measure distances with parallax 1 AU d p 8-2 Parallax A January ³ d = 1/p (arcsec) [pc] ³ 1pc when p=1arcsec; 1pc=206,265AU=3

### The Sun. How are these quantities measured? Properties of the Sun. Chapter 14

The Sun Chapter 14 The Role of the Sun in the Solar System > 99.9% of the mass Its mass is responsible for the orderly orbits of the planets Its heat is responsible for warming the planets It is the source

### Our sun is the star in our solar system, which lies within a galaxy (Milky Way) within the universe. A star is a large glowing ball of gas that

Our sun is the star in our solar system, which lies within a galaxy (Milky Way) within the universe. A star is a large glowing ball of gas that generates energy through nuclear fusion in its core. The

### Summer 2013 Astronomy - Test 3 Test form A. Name

Summer 2013 Astronomy - Test 3 Test form A Name Do not forget to write your name and fill in the bubbles with your student number, and fill in test form A on the answer sheet. Write your name above as

### Chapter 8 The Sun Our Star

Note that the following lectures include animations and PowerPoint effects such as fly ins and transitions that require you to be in PowerPoint's Slide Show mode (presentation mode). Chapter 8 The Sun

### Stars and Galaxies. The Sun and Other Stars

CHAPTER 22 Stars and Galaxies LESSON 2 The Sun and Other Stars What do you think? Read the two statements below and decide whether you agree or disagree with them. Place an A in the Before column if you

### Stellar Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 3

Stellar Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 3 Chapter 7 1. A protostar is formed by a) the rapid expansion of gas from an exploding star. b) the gravitational collapse of a rotating interstellar cloud.

### CHAPTER 9: STARS AND GALAXIES

CHAPTER 9: STARS AND GALAXIES Characteristics of the Sun 1. The Sun is located about 150 million kilometres from the Earth. 2. The Sun is made up of hot gases, mostly hydrogen and helium. 3. The size of

### Astronomy 122 Outline

Astronomy 122 Outline This Class (Lecture 12): Stars Next Class: The Nature of Stars Homework #5 is posted. Nightlabs have started! Stellar properties Parallax (distance) Colors Spectral Classes Music:

### Properties of Stars. Characteristics of Stars

Properties of Stars Characteristics of Stars A constellation is an apparent group of stars originally named for mythical characters. The sky contains 88 constellations. Star Color and Temperature Color

### λ = 650 nm = c = m s 1 f =? c = fλ f = c λ = ( m s 1 ) ( m) = = Hz T = 1 f 4.

Chapter 13 Stars Section 13.1 Astronomical measurements Worked example: Try yourself 13.1.1 CALCULATING THE FREQUENCY AND PERIOD OF LIGHT The speed of light in a vacuum is approximately 3.0 10 8 m s 1.

### Stars and Galaxies 1

Stars and Galaxies 1 Characteristics of Stars 2 Star - body of gases that gives off great amounts of radiant energy as light and heat 3 Most stars look white but are actually different colors Antares -

### Radiation Zone. AST 100 General Astronomy: Stars & Galaxies. 5. What s inside the Sun? From the Center Outwards. Meanderings of outbound photons

AST 100 General Astronomy: Stars & Galaxies 5. What s inside the Sun? From the Center Outwards Core: Hydrogen ANNOUNCEMENTS Midterm I on Tue, Sept. 29 it will cover class material up to today (included)

### Our sole source of light and heat in the solar system. A very common star: a glowing g ball of gas held together by its own gravity and powered

The Sun Visible Image of the Sun Our sole source of light and heat in the solar system A very common star: a glowing g ball of gas held together by its own gravity and powered by nuclear fusion at its

### Exam #2 Review Sheet. Part #1 Clicker Questions

Exam #2 Review Sheet Part #1 Clicker Questions 1) The energy of a photon emitted by thermonuclear processes in the core of the Sun takes thousands or even millions of years to emerge from the surface because

### GALAXIES AND STARS. 2. Which star has a higher luminosity and a lower temperature than the Sun? A Rigel B Barnard s Star C Alpha Centauri D Aldebaran

GALAXIES AND STARS 1. Compared with our Sun, the star Betelgeuse is A smaller, hotter, and less luminous B smaller, cooler, and more luminous C larger, hotter, and less luminous D larger, cooler, and more

### Helios in Greek and Sol in Roman

Helios in Greek and Sol in Roman Drove his chariot across the sky to provide daylight Returned each night in a huge golden cup on the river Oceanus His son Phaeton drove the chariot one day but lost control

### Review Chapter 10. 2) A parsec is slightly more than 200,000 AU. 2)

Review Chapter 10 TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 1) A parsec is about 3.3 light-years. 1) 2) A parsec is slightly more than 200,000 AU. 2) 3) The nearest

### NSCI 314 LIFE IN THE COSMOS

NSCI 314 LIFE IN THE COSMOS 2 BASIC ASTRONOMY, AND STARS AND THEIR EVOLUTION Dr. Karen Kolehmainen Department of Physics CSUSB COURSE WEBPAGE: http://physics.csusb.edu/~karen MOTIONS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM

### L = 4 d 2 B p. 4. Which of the letters at right corresponds roughly to where one would find a red giant star on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram?

Fall 2016 Astronomy - Test 3 Test form B Name Do not forget to write your name and fill in the bubbles with your student number, and fill in test form B on the answer sheet. Write your name above as well.

### L = 4 d 2 B p. 1. Which outer layer of the Sun has the highest temperature? A) Photosphere B) Corona C) Chromosphere D) Exosphere E) Thermosphere

Fall 2016 Astronomy - Test 3 Test form A Name Do not forget to write your name and fill in the bubbles with your student number, and fill in test form A on the answer sheet. Write your name above as well.

### The Sun. 1a. The Photosphere. A. The Solar Atmosphere. 1b. Limb Darkening. A. Solar Atmosphere. B. Phenomena (Sunspots) C.

The Sun 1 The Sun A. Solar Atmosphere 2 B. Phenomena (Sunspots) Dr. Bill Pezzaglia C. Interior Updated 2006Sep18 A. The Solar Atmosphere 1. Photosphere 2. Chromosphere 3. Corona 4. Solar Wind 3 1a. The

### days to rotate in its own axis km in diameter ( 109 diameter of the Earth ) and kg in mass ( mass of the Earth)

The Sun - It is located at the centre of our solar system with all planets and objects (comets and asteroids) revolving around it Page 1 of 6 - It s gravitational pull keeps the planets and other objects

### Astronomy 1504 Section 002 Astronomy 1514 Section 10 Midterm 2, Version 1 October 19, 2012

Astronomy 1504 Section 002 Astronomy 1514 Section 10 Midterm 2, Version 1 October 19, 2012 Choose the answer that best completes the question. Read each problem carefully and read through all the answers.

### Life Cycle of a Star - Activities

Name: Class Period: Life Cycle of a Star - Activities A STAR IS BORN STAGES COMMON TO ALL STARS All stars start as a nebula. A nebula is a large cloud of gas and dust. Gravity can pull some of the gas

### Correction to Homework

Today: Chapter 10 Reading Next Week: Homework Due March 12 Midterm Exam: March 19 Correction to Homework #1: Diameter of eye: 2.5 cm #10: See Ch. 11 Office Hours Monday. 11AM -2 PM Help Sessions Available:

### Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 The View from Earth Lesson 2 The Sun and Other Stars Lesson 3 Evolution of Stars Lesson 4 Galaxies and the Universe

Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 The View from Earth Lesson 2 The Sun and Other Stars Lesson 3 Evolution of Stars Lesson 4 Galaxies and the Universe Chapter Wrap-Up What makes up the universe and how does

### 1. Star: A object made of gas found in outer space that radiates.

1. Star: A object made of gas found in outer space that radiates. 2. Stars produce extremely great quantities of energy through the process of. The chemical formula for nuclear fusion looks like this:

### 14.1 A Closer Look at the Sun

14.1 A Closer Look at the Sun Our goals for learning: Why does the Sun shine? What is the Sun's structure? Why does the Sun shine? Is it on FIRE? Is it on FIRE? NO! Chemical energy content Luminosity ~

### The Night Sky. The Universe. The Celestial Sphere. Stars. Chapter 14

The Night Sky The Universe Chapter 14 Homework: All the multiple choice questions in Applying the Concepts and Group A questions in Parallel Exercises. Celestial observation dates to ancient civilizations

### PHYS 160 Astronomy Take-home Test #4 Fall 2017

PHYS 160 Astronomy Take-home Test #4 Fall 2017 Instructions: This is a take-home test. The test period starts Monday 11/27/2017 at 2:10pm and ends at Wednesday 11/29/2017 at 1:10pm. The test must represent

### 9-1 The Sun s energy is generated by thermonuclear reactions in its core The Sun s luminosity is the amount of energy emitted each second and is

1 9-1 The Sun s energy is generated by thermonuclear reactions in its core The Sun s luminosity is the amount of energy emitted each second and is produced by the proton-proton chain in which four hydrogen

### Lec 7: Classification of Stars, the Sun. What prevents stars from collapsing under the weight of their own gravity? Text

1 Astr 102 Lec 7: Classification of Stars, the Sun What prevents stars from collapsing under the weight of their own gravity? Text Why is the center of the Sun hot? What is the source of the Sun s energy?

### Astronomy Part 1 Regents Questions

Regents Questions 1. The Sun revolves around the center of A) Polaris B) Aldebaran C) Earth D) the Milky Way Galaxy 4. In which sequence are the items listed from least total mass to greatest total mass?

### Welcome to Environmental Science!!!

Welcome to Environmental Science!!! The Sun Physical Data Mass = 2x10 30 kg (333,000 time more massive than the Earth) Diameter: 7x10 5 km (about 100 Earth radii) Volume: you can fit about 1.3 million

### NSB ideas on Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

Contents Big ideas Not so big ideas about the sun Not so big ideas about Hertzsprung-Russell diagram Not so big ideas about white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes Questions on chapter 10, 11, 12,

### Test Natural Sciences 102 Section 8 noon --- VERSION A February 28, 2007

Correct responses indicated in boldface. 1. An astronomer is designing a new telescope to use in space. The Hubble Space Telescope operates at wavelengths close to 500nm ( 1nm = 10-9 meter). The new telescope

### The Sun. Chapter 12. Properties of the Sun. Properties of the Sun. The Structure of the Sun. Properties of the Sun.

Chapter 12 The Sun, Our Star 1 With a radius 100 and a mass of 300,000 that of Earth, the Sun must expend a large amount of energy to withstand its own gravitational desire to collapse To understand this

### Proton-proton cycle 3 steps PHYS 162 1

Proton-proton cycle 3 steps PHYS 162 1 4 Layers of the Sun CORE : center, where fusion occurs RADIATION: energy transfer by radiation CONVECTION: energy transfer by convection PHOTOSPHERE: what we see

### The Electromagnetic Spectrum

The Electromagnetic Spectrum Three Kinds of Spectra Sun: The Nearest Star Radius 696,000 km 109 Re Mass 2 x 10^30 kg 300,000 Me Density 1400 kg/m^3 Luminosity 3.8x10^26 Watts (board calc.) Comp. 70% H,

### The Sun: Our Star. The Sun is an ordinary star and shines the same way other stars do.

The Sun: Our Star The Sun is an ordinary star and shines the same way other stars do. Announcements q Homework # 4 is due today! q Units 49 and 51 Assigned Reading Today s Goals q Today we start section

### 8/30/2010. Classifying Stars. Classifying Stars. Classifying Stars

Classifying Stars In the early 1900s, Ejnar Hertzsprung and Henry Russell made some important observations. They noticed that, in general, stars with higher temperatures also have brighter absolute magnitudes.

### Guidepost. Chapter 08 The Sun 10/12/2015. General Properties. The Photosphere. Granulation. Energy Transport in the Photosphere.

Guidepost The Sun is the source of light an warmth in our solar system, so it is a natural object to human curiosity. It is also the star most easily visible from Earth, and therefore the most studied.

### Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 24

Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 24 PROPERTIES OF STARS Distance Measuring a star's distance can be very difficult Stellar parallax Used for measuring distance to a star Apparent shift in a star's position

### Today. Homework Due. Stars. Properties (Recap) Nuclear Reactions. proton-proton chain. CNO cycle. Stellar Lifetimes

Today Stars Properties (Recap) Nuclear Reactions proton-proton chain CNO cycle Stellar Lifetimes Homework Due Stellar Properties Luminosity Surface Temperature Size Mass Composition Stellar Properties

### Stars & Galaxies. Chapter 27 Modern Earth Science

Stars & Galaxies Chapter 27 Modern Earth Science Chapter 27, Section 1 27.1 Characteristics of Stars How do astronomers determine the composition and surface temperature of a star? Composition & Temperature

### Chapter 15: Surveying the Stars

Chapter 15 Lecture Chapter 15: Surveying the Stars Surveying the Stars 15.1 Properties of Stars Our goals for learning: How do we measure stellar luminosities? How do we measure stellar temperatures? How

### The Sun: Our Star. A glowing ball of gas held together by its own gravity and powered by nuclear fusion

Our Star, the Sun The Sun: Our Star A glowing ball of gas held together by its own gravity and powered by nuclear fusion Radius: 700,000 km (435,000 miles) Diameter: 1.392 million km (865,000 miles) Circumference:

### Astronomy Chapter 12 Review

Astronomy Chapter 12 Review Approximately how massive is the Sun as compared to the Earth? A. 100 times B. 300 times C. 3000 times D. 300,000 times E. One million times Approximately how massive is the

### the nature of the universe, galaxies, and stars can be determined by observations over time by using telescopes

the nature of the universe, galaxies, and stars can be determined by observations over time by using telescopes The spectral lines of stars tell us their approximate composition Remember last year in Physics?

### UNIT 3: Astronomy Chapter 26: Stars and Galaxies (pages )

CORNELL NOTES Directions: You must create a minimum of 5 questions in this column per page (average). Use these to study your notes and prepare for tests and quizzes. Notes will be turned in to your teacher

### Our Star: The Sun. Layers that make up the Sun. Understand the Solar cycle. Understand the process by which energy is generated by the Sun.

Goals: Our Star: The Sun Layers that make up the Sun. Understand the Solar cycle. Understand the process by which energy is generated by the Sun. Components of the Sun Solar Interior: Core: where energy

### Unit 1: Space. Section 2- Stars

Unit 1: Space Section 2- Stars Stars Recall: stars are celestial bodies of hot gas that give off heat and light Stars The milky way contains hundreds of billions of stars and is only one of hundreds of

### Coriolis Effect - the apparent curved paths of projectiles, winds, and ocean currents

Regents Earth Science Unit 5: Astronomy Models of the Universe Earliest models of the universe were based on the idea that the Sun, Moon, and planets all orbit the Earth models needed to explain how the

### Midterm Exam: March 19 Review Sheet handed out & on class website: Lecture notes & HW solutions also! Office Hours: Monday 11-2 and 3-4 PM

Today: Chapter. 12-Stars Midterm Exam: March 19 Review Sheet handed out & on class website: http://www.physics.sfsu.edu/~chris/astro115/ Lecture notes & HW solutions also! Office Hours: Monday 11-2 and

### The Sun. The Chromosphere of the Sun. The Surface of the Sun

Key Concepts: Lecture 22: The Sun Basic properties of the Sun The outer layers of the Sun: Chromosphere, Corona Sun spots and solar activity: impact on the Earth Nuclear Fusion: the source of the Sun s

### Chapter 10 Measuring the Stars

Chapter 10 Measuring the Stars Some of the topics included in this chapter Stellar parallax Distance to the stars Stellar motion Luminosity and apparent brightness of stars The magnitude scale Stellar

### The Stars. Chapter 14

The Stars Chapter 14 Great Idea: The Sun and other stars use nuclear fusion reactions to convert mass into energy. Eventually, when a star s nuclear fuel is depleted, the star must burn out. Chapter Outline

### AST-1002 Section 0459 Review for Final Exam Please do not forget about doing the evaluation!

AST-1002 Section 0459 Review for Final Exam Please do not forget about doing the evaluation! Bring pencil #2 with eraser No use of calculator or any electronic device during the exam We provide the scantrons

### Physical Data Mass = 2x10 30 kg (333,000 time more massive than the Earth) Diameter: 7x10 5 km (about 100 Earth radii) Volume: you can fit about 1.3 m

The Sun Physical Data Mass = 2x10 30 kg (333,000 time more massive than the Earth) Diameter: 7x10 5 km (about 100 Earth radii) Volume: you can fit about 1.3 million earths inside the sun! 70% Hydrogen,

### Modern Astronomy Review #1

Modern Astronomy Review #1 1. The red-shift of light from distant galaxies provides evidence that the universe is (1) shrinking, only (3) shrinking and expanding in a cyclic pattern (2) expanding, only

### Selected Questions from Minute Papers. Outline - March 2, Stellar Properties. Stellar Properties Recap. Stellar properties recap

Black Holes: Selected Questions from Minute Papers Will all the material in the Milky Way eventually be sucked into the BH at the center? Does the star that gives up mass to a BH eventually get pulled

### The Sun as Our Star. Properties of the Sun. Solar Composition. Last class we talked about how the Sun compares to other stars in the sky

The Sun as Our Star Last class we talked about how the Sun compares to other stars in the sky Today's lecture will concentrate on the different layers of the Sun's interior and its atmosphere We will also

### The Sun. 1a. The Photosphere. A. The Solar Atmosphere. 1b. Limb Darkening. A. Solar Atmosphere. B. Phenomena (Sunspots) C.

The Sun 1 The Sun A. Solar Atmosphere 2 B. Phenomena (Sunspots) Dr. Bill Pezzaglia C. Interior Updated 2014Feb08 A. The Solar Atmosphere 1. Photosphere 2. Chromosphere 3. Corona 4. Solar Wind & earthly

### The Cosmic Perspective. Surveying the Properties of Stars. Surveying the Stars. How do we measure stellar luminosities?

Surveying the Stars Chapter 15 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective 15.1 Properties of Stars Our goals for learning: How do we measure stellar luminosities? How do we measure stellar temperatures? How do we

### Phys 100 Astronomy (Dr. Ilias Fernini) Review Questions for Chapter 8

Phys 100 Astronomy (Dr. Ilias Fernini) Review Questions for Chapter 8 MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Granulation is caused by a. sunspots. * b. rising gas below the photosphere. c. shock waves in the corona. d. the