# Lecture 25: Cosmology: The end of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy. Astronomy 111 Wednesday November 29, 2017

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1 Lecture 25: Cosmology: The end of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy Astronomy 111 Wednesday November 29, 2017

2 Reminders Online homework #11 due Monday at 3pm One more lecture after today Monday Dec. 4 is a redefined day Wednesday Dec. 6 we will have a review Final exam is on Monday Dec. 11, 3:30-5:30pm

3 The end of the Universe What is the ultimate fate of our Universe? Depends on how gravity affects matter in the Universe Shape of the Universe (density) Content of the Universe (dark matter) Nature of the Universe (dark energy)

4 Critical density All galaxies attract each other via gravity. Gravitational attraction slows the expansion. How it behaves depends on the density: High Density: Expansion slows, stops, & reverses. Low Density: Keeps expanding forever. Dividing Line = Critical Density

5 Density parameter: W W average density of Universe critical density W>1: High Density Closed Universe W=1: Critical Density Flat Universe W<1: Low Density Open Universe

6 2-D examples of curved spaces Closed Open Flat

7 What is the value of W? Observers: Best estimate: W=1±0.01 (measured by WMAP) Hard to measure slowing of expansion rate Galaxies evolve in an (as yet) unknown way Problem of accounting for Dark Matter Theorists: (Some) would like W=1 to best describe the Universe, so (re-)introduce a positive cosmological constant 0

8 Closed Universe: W>1 Gravity of all matter is enough to eventually overcome the expansion of the Universe: Expansion slows to a maximum size & stops. Universe re-collapses: Galaxies get closer together Get a cosmological blueshift Universe grows hotter & denser Collapses in the Big Crunch

9 Another Universe? After the Big Crunch, what then? Nothing. Or, Another Big Bang creates a new Universe. Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy increases in a closed system. Next Big Bang starts with greater entropy. Will expand for longer than previous one.

10 Distance Between Galaxies ASTR111 Lecture 25 Fate of a closed Universe Closed W>1 Oscillating? ~100 Billion Years Time

11 Open (and flat) universes: W<1 or W=1 Universe keeps expanding forever. Gravity slows the expansion a little: The lower the density, the less the expansion slows. A Critical Density Universe slows to a stop at infinite time. A Sub-critical Density Universe approaches a constant speed at infinite time.

12 Evolution of an open Universe As the Universe expands: Space between galaxy clusters widens. Universe steadily cools down. Expansion continues forever. Details depend on: Stellar evolution Quantum mechanics

13 Star formation Present time (t yrs): Most stars are metal rich, and make more metals ejected in supernova explosions. Next generation starts with a little less Hydrogen and more metals. Some fraction of the star s matter is locked up in stellar remnants: white dwarfs, neutron stars & black holes.

14 End of star formation t=10 14 years: Successively more matter is locked up in stellar remnants, depleting the free gas reserves. Cycle of star birth and death is broken. Nuclear fuel is exhausted. Red dwarfs burn out as low-mass white dwarfs Remaining matter is locked up in black dwarfs, cold neutron stars, and black holes.

15 Solar system evaporation t=10 17 years: Weak gravitational encounters between stars are rare, but slowly disrupt orbiting systems: Planetary systems get disrupted by stellar encounters and their planets scattered. Wide binary systems are broken apart. Close binary stars coalesce into single remnants.

16 Dissolution of galaxies t=10 19 years: Stellar remnants within galaxies interact over many many orbits. Some stars gain energy from the interaction and ~90% get ejected from the galaxy. Others lose energy and sink towards the center. These coalesce into a Supermassive Black Hole.

17 Dissolution of matter? t=10 32 years: Some GUTs theories predict that protons are unstable. Protons decay into electrons, positrons, to neutrinos. All matter not in Black Holes comes apart. Current experimental limits on the proton decay time may be much larger than years.

18 Evaporation of black holes t= years: Black Holes slowly evaporate by emitting particles and photons via Hawking Radiation. Supermassive Black Holes evaporate completely one-by-one in a last final weak flash of gamma rays in ~ years. The end of the epoch of organized matter

19 The Big Chill After black holes all evaporate: Increasingly redshifted photons. Universe continues to cool off towards a radiation temperature of absolute zero. Only matter is a thin, formless gas of electrons, positrons, neutrinos. The end is cold, dark, and disordered...

20 Distance Between Galaxies ASTR111 Lecture 25 Fate of an open Universe Very Open W<<1 Critical/Open W=1 ~100 Billion Years Time

21 Distance Between Galaxies ASTR111 Lecture 25 Possible fates of the Universe Very Open W<<1 Critical/Open W=1 Closed W>1 Oscillating? ~100 Billion Years Time

22 The new Big Bang model The Universe is (nearly) flat No spacetime curvature The Universe is accelerating The expansion rate in the of the Universe is increasing The Universe is made largely of Dark Matter and Dark Energy

23 Dark Matter and Dark Energy Dark Matter and Dark Energy are not yet well understood, but are major constituents of the Universe. We know they exist (we can see their effects), but some important questions remain

24 Effects of Dark Matter and Dark Energy Both can alter the fate of the Universe: Dark Matter increases the gravitational attraction in the Universe by adding mass But Dark Energy counteracts gravity, increasing the expansion

25 The role of Dark Matter How much matter exists in the Universe affects the density Both light and dark matter! We now think that 85% of matter in the Universe is dark We still don t know exactly what it is made of ongoing research in particle physics and astronomy

26 Solving the mystery of Dark Matter Vera Rubin discovered the existence of Dark Matter over 40 years ago by measuring galactic rotation curves:

27 Solving the mystery of Dark Matter Today we still haven t directly detected Dark Matter, although we are searching for it in many experiments Underground labs New technology particle detectors Astronomical observations

28 The role of Dark Energy Recent experiments have shown that 74% of the Universe is composed of Dark Energy What is it? How do we measure it? What are its effects on the Universe? Another subject of modern research

29 Solving the mystery of Dark Energy In the past 20 years, observations of distant supernovae show that the Universe is expanding at an increasing rate Completely unexpected! 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics awarded for this work Changes our understanding of how the Universe is evolving

30 Solving the mystery of Dark Energy What is Dark Energy, and how does it affect us? Are there mysterious particles permeating space? Can they be useful to us in some way? What is the connection between Dark Energy, gravity and the fate of the universe? Ongoing experiments are now trying hard to answer these questions Basic plan: map out the matter distribution of the Universe very precisely, see how it changes with time

31 Dark Energy Survey (DES) One of the largest digital cameras ever built, now installed on a 4 meter telescope in Chile Large area imaging survey of the sky to search for supernovae, study weak lensing, measure size of Universe, count galaxy clusters Currently in Year 4 of the five-year survey

32 HETDEX Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment at McDonald Observatory Maps large area of the sky spectroscopically Look for distant galaxies and measure size of Universe in the past Current status: commissioning the new VIRUS instrument

33 LSST Large Synoptic Survey Telescope 8.4m telescope to image entire sky every three nights! Look for supernovae, study weak lensing, measure size of Universe, study galaxy clusters Even earth-killer asteroids!

34 Summary The Fate of the Universe depends on the density of matter. Closed Universe: Enough matter to stop the expansion Collapses in a Big Crunch Open Universe: Expands forever Ends in a cold, disordered state.

35 Summary The Universe is composed of mainly Dark Matter and Dark Energy We most likely live in a flat Universe that will expand forever

36

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